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We developed a tilt sensor for studying ice deformation and installed our tilt sensor systems in two boreholes drilled close to the shear margin of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska to obtain kinematic measurements of streaming ice. We used the collected tilt data to calculate borehole deformation by tracking the orientation of the sensors over time. The sensors' tilts generally trended down-glacier, with an element of cross-glacier flow in the borehole closer to the shear margin. We also evaluated our results against flow dynamic parameters derived from Glen's exponential flow law and explored the parameter space of the stress exponent n and enhancement factor E. Comparison with values from ice deformation experiments shows that the ice on Jarvis is characterized by higher n values than that is expected in regions of low stress, particularly at the shear margin (~3.4). The higher n values could be attributed to the observed high total strains coupled with potential dynamic recrystallization, causing anisotropic development and consequently sped up ice flow. Jarvis' n values place the creep regime of the ice between basal slip and dislocation creep. Tuning E towards a theoretical upper limit of 10 for anisotropic ice with single-maximum fabric reduces the n values by 0.2.
Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) is a national initiative designed to encourage patient-clinician discussions about the appropriate, evidence-based use of medical tests, procedures and treatments. The Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians’ (CAEP) Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) working group developed and released ten recommendations relevant to Emergency Medicine in June 2015 (items 1–5) and October 2016 (items 6–10). In November 2016, the CAEP CWC working group developed a process for updating the recommendations. This process involves: 1) Using GRADE to evaluate the quality of evidence, 2) reviewing relevant recommendations on an ad hoc basis as new evidence emerges, and 3) reviewing all recommendations every five years. While the full review of the CWC recommendations will be performed in 2020, a number of high-impact studies were published after our initial launch that prompted an ad hoc review of the relevant three of our ten recommendations prior to the full review in 2020. This paper describes the results of the CAEP CWC working group's ad hoc review of three of our ten recommendations in light of recent publications.
Temporary excavations during the construction of the Glendoe Hydro Scheme above Loch Ness in the Highlands of Scotland exposed a clay-rich fault gouge in Dalradian Supergroup psammite. The gouge coincides with the mapped trace of the subvertical Sronlairig Fault, a feature related in part to the Great Glen and Ericht–Laidon faults, which had been interpreted to result from brittle deformation during the Caledonian orogeny (c. 420–390 Ma). Exposure of this mica-rich gouge represented an exceptional opportunity to constrain the timing of the gouge-producing movement on the Sronlairig Fault using isotopic analysis to date the growth of authigenic (essentially synkinematic) clay mineralization. A series of fine-size separates was isolated prior to K–Ar analysis. Novel, capillary-encapsulated X-ray diffraction analysis was employed to ensure nearly perfect, random orientation and to facilitate the identification and quantification of mica polytypes. Coarser size fractions are composed of greater proportions of the 2M1 illite polytype. Finer size fractions show increasing proportions of the 1M illite polytype, with no evidence of 2M1 illite in the finest fractions. A series of Illite Age Analysis plots produced excellent R2 values with calculated mean ages of 296 ± 7 Ma (Late Carboniferous–Early Permian) for the oldest (2M1) illite and 145 ± 7 Ma (Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous) for the youngest (1M) illite. The Late Carboniferous–Early Permian (Faulting event 1) age may represent resetting of earlier-formed micas or authigenesis during dextral displacement of the Great Glen Fault Zone (GGFZ). Contemporaneous WNW(NW)–ESE(SE) extension was important for basin development and hydrocarbon migration in the Pentland Firth and Moray Firth regions. The Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous (Faulting event 2) age corresponds with Moray Firth Basin development and indicates that the GGFZ and related structures may have acted to partition the active extension in the Moray Firth region from relative inactivity in the Pentland Firth area at this time. These new age dates demonstrate the long-lived geological activity on the GGFZ, particularly so in post-Caledonian times where other isotopic evidence for younger tectonic overprints is lacking.
To describe the use of balloon dilation with non-invasive ventilation in the treatment of pregnant patients with idiopathic subglottic stenosis.
The medical charts of four consecutive patients who underwent jet ventilation or high-flow nasal cannula oxygenation with balloon dilation for the treatment of idiopathic subglottic stenosis during pregnancy were reviewed.
Objective improvement of subglottic stenosis was seen in all four cases, with end-result Myer–Cotton grade 1 lesions down from pre-procedure grade 3 lesions. Patients also reported subjective improvements in symptomatology, with no further airway issues. All patients delivered normally, at term.
Laryngeal dilation with continuous radial expansion pulmonary balloons using non-invasive ventilation for the treatment of idiopathic subglottic stenosis in pregnant patients is safe and efficacious, and should be the first line treatment option for this patient population. The improvement in symptoms, and lack of labour and pregnancy complications, distinguish this method of treatment from others reported in the literature.
Every four years leading researchers gather to survey the latest developments in all aspects of group theory. Initially held in St Andrews, these meetings have become the premier forum for group theory across the whole of the UK. Since 1981, the proceedings of 'Groups St Andrews' have provided a regular snapshot of the state-of-the-art in group theory and helped to shape the direction of research in the field. This volume contains papers from the 2017 meeting held in Birmingham. It includes expository articles from the invited speakers, and further surveys contributed by the participants. Topics include: generation of finite simple groups, block theory, fusion systems, algebraic groups, one-relator groups, geometric group theory, and Beauville groups.
Digital technology is starting to enable new and improved modes of healthcare delivery. The healthcare and disability claims spaces are closely intertwined. Disability claimants certainly have healthcare needs but disability claims management has the added dimension of supporting return to work.
In this paper, we explain what is meant by the term “Digital Health.” We then compare the challenges in the healthcare and disability claims management spaces where digital technology may improve outcomes. We touch briefly on how the efficacy of digital technology may be evaluated. The later parts of the paper focus on Digital Health technology providers who have engaged with the insurance industry and we conclude with some learnings around the challenges of implementing these technology-based opportunities.
This paper focuses on interventions once a policyholder’s health has failed to the extent that they need to claim. There are many opportunities to improve wellness and prevent claim using digital technology, as noted by the IFoA Wearables and Internet of Things Working Party,1 and we do not discuss these further this paper.
X-ray fluorescence induced by charged particles has been employed in trace element analysis of both animal and human blood, tissue and bone samples. Preparation techniques included microtome slicing and wet digestion in nitric acid, internal chemical standards being used in the latter case.
Most of the specimens arose from a study of interactions between the toxic elements lead and zinc in growing foals; this was motivated by reports of sickness and death in foals raised near lead-zinc smelters. The cause of toxicity in animals from environmental pollution is often attributed to Single factors, whereas in reality interactions among many factors, including a variety of toxic and nutrient trace elements, should be considered.
A variety of spectra are presented and elemental concentrations derived. Agreement between the X-ray data and atomic absorption spectrophotometry is encouraging. The results demonstrate the potential of particle-excited X-ray fluorescenee as a broad-range analytical technique for the study of trace element interactions.
The Roman period sees the introduction of many new plants and animals into Britain, with a profound impact on people's experience of their environment. Sweet chestnut is considered to be one such introduction, for which records of sweet chestnut wood and charcoal from archaeological excavations of Romano-British period contexts have been used as evidence. This paper reviews the records for sweet chestnut in Britain pre-a.d. 650, by critically evaluating original excavation reports and examining archived specimens. This review re-assesses the original identifications of sweet chestnut and/or their dating and concludes that most of the evidence that justified sweet chestnut's status as a Roman archaeophyte is untenable. The review emphasises the importance of securely identifying and directly dating plant material and of long-term curation by museums and archives. The Supplementary Material online (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X19000011) contains details of all published records of finds of sweet chesnut.