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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
Historical records are valuable for assessing glacier change in the Canadian High Arctic. Ommanney’s (1969) detailed inventory of Axel Heiberg Island glaciers, based on photography from 1958–59, has been revisited, converted into digital format and compared to glacier extents mapped from 1999–2000 satellite imagery. Our results show that the island-wide ice coverage decreased by 15.92 km2 in the 42 year period, a loss of <1%. However, two trends are apparent: one of advance or minor retreat from basins hosting outlet glaciers from Müller and Steacie Ice Caps, and one of significant retreat, on the order of 50–80%, for independent ice masses, which include valley glaciers, mountain glaciers, glacierets, and ice caps smaller than 25 km2. If the contributions to ice advance of only three surging glaciers are removed, then the island-wide ice loss approaches 60 km2. Furthermore, it is notable that 90% of ice masses smaller than 0.2 km2 disappeared entirely during the 42 year study period, an observation confirmed by field studies. Successful predictions from the original inventory are highlighted and the likely mechanisms driving the observed advances and retreats are discussed.
We present broad band photometry (B and R) of the classic shell galaxy NGC 474. Preliminary results indicate that the shells have a similar colour to and follow the same trend of colour with radius as the underlying galaxy.
We question Newton’s inverse square law of universal gravitation in the light of recent, alternative formulations. In addition, we present numerical simulations of galaxy interactions which were used in an attempt to distinguish between an inverse square law and an inverse linear law. We conclude that an inverse linear relation is as compatible with the observational data on interacting galaxy systems as the inverse square law.
We discuss new evidence which supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/S0 galaxies. Numerical simulations of weak interactions with thick disk systems produce shell structures very similar in appearance to those observed in many shell galaxies. We think this model presents a more plausible explanation for the formation of shell structures in elliptical/S0 galaxies than does the merger model and, if correct, supports the existence of thick disks in elliptical/S0 galaxies.
Pollack et al. [Icarus 19, 372 (1973)] have reported the optical constants for obsidian, basalt, andesite and basaltic glass over the wavelength range 0.2 to 50 μm, and Lamy [Icarus 34, 68 (1978)] reported the optical constants from 0.10 to 0.44 μ for obsidian, basalt, and basaltic glass. We have revised the former measurements for basaltic glass and extended them into the extreme UV to 0.0173 μ.
Despite documented associations between stunting and cognitive development, few population-level studies have measured both indicators in individual children or assessed stunting’s associations with other developmental domains.
Meta-analysis using publicly available data from fifteen Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS-4) to assess the association between stunting and development, controlling for maternal education, family wealth, books in the home, developmentally supportive parenting and sex of the child, stratified by country prevalence of breast-feeding (‘low BF’<90 %, ‘high BF’ ≥90 %). Ten-item Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) scores assessed physical, learning, literacy/numeracy and socio-emotional developmental domains. Children on track in three or four domains were considered ‘on-track’ overall.
Fifteen low- and middle-income countries.
Publically available data from 58 513 children aged 36–59 months.
Severe stunting (height-for-age Z-score <−3) was negatively associated with on-track development (OR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·83). Any stunting (Z-score <−2) was negatively associated with on-track development in countries with high BF prevalence (OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89). Severe and any stunting were negatively associated with physical development (OR=0·77; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·89 and OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·91, respectively) and literacy/numeracy development in high BF countries (OR=0·45; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·53 and OR=0·59, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·68, respectively), but not low BF countries (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·23 and OR=0·95, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·12, respectively). Any stunting was negatively associated with learning (OR=0·79; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88). There was no clear association between stunting and socio-emotional development.
Stunting is associated with many but not all developmental domains across a diversity of countries and cultures. However, associations varied by country breast-feeding prevalence and developmental domain.
The temperature, surface gravity, and abundances derived for this halo B star by Danziger and Jura (1970, Ap.J., 161, 997) show that it is a field suprahorizontal branch star very similar to B29 in M13. The only difference is that HD137569 has a higher (solar) C abundance. We find that HD137569 is a spectroscopic binary with P=529.8(2) days, Vo=45.0(2) km/s, K=16.2(3) km/s, e=0.12(2), ω=233°(10), and T=JD2441922(14). The parenthesized quantities are the uncertainties (probable errors) of the last digits of the elements.
1.1.1 The Faculty of Actuaries' Marketing Research Group was set up in May 1988 to research areas of interest to that new breed of Fellow, the “Marketing Actuary”.
In the initial meetings two general areas of interest were identified—namely the marketing of the actuarial profession, and the marketing of financial services products.
Whilst the group has spent time on both subjects this first paper is concerned with the marketing of the actuarial profession.
1.1.2 We felt that the starting point for a marketing audit of the profession was to conduct research amongst the members. In addition we have investigated the coverage achieved by the profession in the media, and looked into developments in North America, including a survey which ranked the actuarial profession against other forms of employment.
The paper is an investigation into the withdrawal rates of seven Scottish Offices and covers the years 1972-76 with an appendix giving the results for 1977.
The rates were basically analysed by class and duration with further investigations mainly on the 1976 data by age at entry, sex, size of sum assured, premium paying term, premium payment frequency and by type of agent introducing the business. Comparisons were made of the level of withdrawal rates among the various Offices and also the variations from year to year separately. A graduation of the combined data for 1975 and 1976 for each of the five main classes was carried out.
A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were used in a 28 day digestibility study to investigate the interaction between dietary calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) on the digestibility of minerals and amino acids. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate except for Ca and nPP. Fifteen mash diets based on corn and soya bean meal with varying concentrations of Ca (6.4 to 12.0 g/kg) and nPP (2.4 to 7.0 g/kg) were used. Diets were clustered around total densities of Ca and nPP of 12, 13.5 or 15.0 (g/kg) and within each density, a range of five Ca : nPP ratios (1.14 : 1, 1.5 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.75 : 1 and 4.0 : 1) were fed. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the study. At day 28, birds were euthanised for the determination of apparent ileal mineral and amino acid digestibility. Data were modelled in R version 2.15 using a linear mixed-effects model and interrogation of the data was performed by fitting a low order polynomial function. At high Ca concentrations, increasing nPP led to an increase in the apparent digestibility of minerals. Apparent ileal digestibility of phosphorus (P) was enhanced with increasing dietary nPP up to 5.5 g/kg beyond which no improvements were found. Maximal Ca digestibility was found in diets with >8.0 g/kg Ca with concomitant low concentrations of nPP. Diets with a broader Ca : nPP ratio improved the digestibility of Ca but were deleterious to the digestibility of P. In this study, apparent digestibility of amino acids was broadly unaffected by dietary Ca and nPP concentrations. However, interactions between Ca and nPP were observed for the digestibility of glutamine, tyrosine and methionine (all P<0.001). Nitrogen digestibility showed discrete optima around 10.0 and 5.0 g/kg nPP and Na digestibility was maximised around 8 to 9.0 g/kg Ca and 4.5 to 5.4 g/kg nPP. These data show that the ratio of Ca : nPP is more influential to mineral digestibility than the absolute dietary concentration of each macro mineral.
The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating diets to a accurately balanced density of Ca : nPP considering the biological importance of both minerals.
M. fortuitum is a rapidly growing mycobacterium associated with community-acquired and nosocomial wound, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections. It has been postulated that water has been the source of infection especially in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to determine if municipal water may be the source of community-acquired or nosocomial infections in the Brisbane area. Between 2007 and 2009, 20 strains of M. fortuitum were recovered from municipal water and 53 patients’ isolates were submitted to the reference laboratory. A wide variation in strain types was identified using repetitive element sequence-based PCR, with 13 clusters of ⩾2 indistinguishable isolates, and 28 patterns consisting of individual isolates. The clusters could be grouped into seven similar groups (>95% similarity). Municipal water and clinical isolates collected during the same time period and from the same geographical area consisted of different strain types, making municipal water an unlikely source of sporadic human infection.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) compared to conventional typing methods in the investigation and control of an outbreak of Shigella sonnei in the Orthodox Jewish (OJ) community in the UK. The genome sequence analysis showed that the strains implicated in the outbreak formed three phylogenetically distinct clusters. One cluster represented cases associated with recent exposure to a single strain, whereas the other two clusters represented related but distinct strains of S. sonnei circulating in the OJ community across the UK. The WGS data challenged the conclusions drawn during the initial outbreak investigation and allowed cases of dysentery to be implicated or ruled out of the outbreak that were previously misclassified. This study showed that the resolution achieved using WGS would have clearly defined the outbreak, thus facilitating the promotion of infection control measures within local schools and the dissemination of a stronger public health message to the community.
This paper presents the results of research into the marketing of the actuarial profession including a SWOT analysis, public awareness and image of the profession amongst target groups (general public, undergraduates, journalists, company directors, pension scheme trustees and insurance intermediaries), and the desire to allocate more resources to the profession's public awareness and image. The paper also contains an analysis of the national press coverage achieved by the profession and reports on developments in North America where a task force on strengthening the actuarial profession has been set up.
The Environment Agency is the environmental regulator for the nuclear industry in England and Wales. We aim to ensure that any future Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) will meet our standards for protecting people and the environment during development, operation and following closure. We shall only grant an environmental permit for such a facility if the GDF developer submits an Environmental Safety Case (ESC) to the Environment Agency demonstrating that the proposed GDF will meet our standards. The ESC should be based on sound science and supported by appropriate research and development. The Environment Agency undertakes its own research programme to inform its regulatory decisions.
Salmon provides long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA and Se, which are well recognised for their health benefits. The n-3 and Se status of the New Zealand population is marginal. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of consuming salmon v. supplementation with salmon oil on LC n-3 and Se status. Healthy volunteers (n 44) were randomly assigned to one of four groups consuming 2 × 120 g servings of salmon/week or 2, 4 or 6 salmon oil capsules/d for 8 weeks. Linear regression analysis predictive models were fitted to the capsule data to predict changes in erythrocyte LC n-3 levels with intakes of LC n-3 from capsules in amounts equivalent to that consumed from salmon. Changes in Se status (plasma Se and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase) were compared between the groups consuming salmon and capsules (three groups combined). Salmon, 2, 4 and 6 capsules provided 0·82, 0·24, 0·47 and 0·69 g/d of LC n-3 fatty acids. Salmon provided 7 μg/d and capsules < 0·02 μg/d of Se. The predictive model (r2 0·31, P = 0·001) showed that increases in erythrocyte LC n-3 levels were similar when intakes of 0·82 g/d LC n-3 from salmon or capsules (1·92 (95 % CI 1·35, 2·49) v. 2·32 (95 % 1·76, 2·88) %) were consumed. Plasma Se increased significantly more with salmon than with capsules (12·2 (95 % CI 6·18, 18·12) v. 1·57 (95 % CI − 2·32, 5·45) μg/l, P = 0·01). LC n-3 status was similarly improved with consumption of salmon and capsules, while consuming salmon had the added benefit of increasing Se status. This is of particular relevance to the New Zealand population that has marginal LC n-3 and Se status.