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In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) using [C11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C11]PiB) has previously been shown to detect amyloid-β (Aβ) in late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) brain; however, the sensitivity of this technique for detecting β-amyloidosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) has not been systematically investigated. To validate [C11]PiB PET as a useful biomarker of β-amyloidosis, we measured the cortical and regional standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) in 16 ADAD and 15 LOAD cases and compared them with histopathologic measures of β-amyloidosis in postmortem brain. The PiB-PET data were obtained between 40–70 min after bolus injection of ∼15 mCi of [11C]PiB. MRI and PiB-PET images were co-registered and SUVRs were generated for several brain regions. Using Aβ immunohistochemistry (10D5, Eli Lilly), the burden of Aβ plaques was quantified in 16 regions of interest using an area fraction fractionator probe (Stereo Investigator, MicroBrightfield, VT). There were regional variations in Aβ plaque burden with highest densities observed in the neocortical areas and the striatum. On spearman correlations, in vivo PiB-PET correlated with postmortem Aβ plaque burden in both LOAD and ADAD, with strongest correlations seen in neocortical areas. In summary, [C11]PiB-PET has utility as a biomarker in both ADAD and LOAD.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Discuss how PET-PiB beta-amyloid imaging is used as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD)
2.Correlate postmortem neuropathologic evidence of beta-amyloidosis with PET-PiB data, and learn that PET-PiB is a potentially useful tool to detect beta-amyloidosis in presymptomatic and symptomatic individuals
The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820–851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.
Affective and emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety, euphoria, and irritability are common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in pre-dementia and cognitively normal older adults. They comprise a domain of Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI), which describes their emergence in later life as an at-risk state for cognitive decline and dementia, and as a potential manifestation of prodromal dementia. This selective scoping review explores the epidemiology and neurobiological links between affective and emotional symptoms, and incident cognitive decline, focusing on recent literature in this expanding field of research.
Existing literature in prodromal and dementia states was reviewed, focusing on epidemiology, and neurobiology. Search terms included: “mild cognitive impairment,” “dementia,” “prodromal dementia,” “preclinical dementia,” “Alzheimer's,” “depression,” “dysphoria,” “mania,” “euphoria,” “bipolar disorder,” and “irritability.”
Affective and emotional dysregulation are common in preclinical and prodromal dementia syndromes, often being harbingers of neurodegenerative change and progressive cognitive decline. Nosological constraints in distinguishing between pre-existing psychiatric symptomatology and later life acquired NPS limit historical data utility, but emerging research emphasizes the importance of addressing time frames between symptom onset and cognitive decline, and age of symptom onset.
Affective symptoms are of prognostic utility, but interventions to prevent dementia syndromes are limited. Trials need to assess interventions targeting known dementia pathology, toward novel pathology, as well as using psychiatric medications. Research focusing explicitly on later life onset symptomatology will improve our understanding of the neurobiology of NPS and neurodegeneration, enrich the study sample, and inform observational and clinical trial design for prevention and treatment strategies.
The class of radio transients called Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) encompasses enigmatic single pulses, each unique in its own way, hindering a consensus for their origin. The key to demystifying FRBs lies in discovering many of them in order to identity commonalities – and in real time, in order to find potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The recently upgraded UTMOST in Australia, is undergoing a backend transformation to rise as a fast transient detection machine. The first interferometric detections of FRBs with UTMOST, place their origin beyond the near-field region of the telescope thus ruling out local sources of interference as a possible origin. We have localised these bursts to much better than the ones discovered at the Parkes radio telescope and have plans to upgrade UTMOST to be capable of much better localisation still.
The Paramyxida, closely related to haplosporidians, paradinids, and mikrocytids, is an obscure order of parasitic protists within the class Ascetosporea. All characterized ascetosporeans are parasites of invertebrate hosts, including molluscs, crustaceans and polychaetes. Representatives of the genus Marteilia are the best studied paramyxids, largely due to their impact on cultured oyster stocks, and their listing in international legislative frameworks. Although several examples of microsporidian hyperparasitism of paramyxids have been reported, phylogenetic data for these taxa are lacking. Recently, a microsporidian parasite was described infecting the paramyxid Marteilia cochillia, a serious pathogen of European cockles. In the current study, we investigated the phylogeny of the microsporidian hyperparasite infecting M. cochillia in cockles and, a further hyperparasite, Unikaryon legeri infecting the digenean Meiogymnophallus minutus, also in cockles. We show that rather than representing basally branching taxa in the increasingly replete Cryptomycota/Rozellomycota outgroup (containing taxa such as Mitosporidium and Paramicrosoridium), these hyperparasites instead group with other known microsporidian parasites infecting aquatic crustaceans. In doing so, we erect a new genus and species (Hyperspora aquatica n. gn., n.sp.) to contain the hyperparasite of M. cochillia and clarify the phylogenetic position of U. legeri. We propose that in both cases, hyperparasitism may provide a strategy for the vectoring of microsporidians between hosts of different trophic status (e.g. molluscs to crustaceans) within aquatic systems. In particular, we propose that the paramyxid hyperparasite H. aquatica may eventually be detected as a parasite of marine crustaceans. The potential route of transmission of the microsporidian between the paramyxid (in its host cockle) to crustaceans, and, the ‘hitch-hiking’ strategy employed by H. aquatica is discussed.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Almost half of all known microsporidian taxa infect aquatic animals. Of these, many cause disease in arthropods. Hepatospora, a recently erected genus, infects epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas of wild and farmed decapod crustaceans. We isolated Hepatospora spp. from three different crustacean hosts, inhabiting different habitats and niches; marine edible crab (Cancer pagurus), estuarine and freshwater Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) and the marine mussel symbiont pea crab (Pinnotheres pisum). Isolates were initially compared using histology and electron microscopy revealing variation in size, polar filament arrangement and nuclear development. However, sequence analysis of the partial SSU rDNA gene could not distinguish between the isolates (~99% similarity). In an attempt to resolve the relationship between Hepatospora isolated from E. sinensis and C. pagurus, six additional gene sequences were mined from on-going unpublished genome projects (RNA polymerase, arginyl tRNA synthetase, prolyl tRNA synthetase, chitin synthase, beta tubulin and heat shock protein 70). Primers were designed based on the above gene sequences to analyse Hepatospora isolated from pea crab. Despite application of gene sequences to concatenated phylogenies, we were unable to discriminate Hepatospora isolates obtained from these hosts and concluded that they likely represent a single species or, at least subspecies thereof. In this instance, concatenated phylogenetic analysis supported the SSU-based phylogeny, and further, demonstrated that microsporidian taxonomies based upon morphology alone are unreliable, even at the level of the species. Our data, together with description of H. eriocheir in Asian crab farms, reveal a preponderance for microvariants of this parasite to infect the gut of a wide array of decapods crustacean hosts and the potential for Hepatospora to exist as a cline across wide geographies and habitats.
In late 2011 the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries reported an increase in confirmed laboratory diagnoses of salmonellosis in dairy herds. To identify risk factors for herd-level outbreaks of salmonellosis we conducted a case-control study of New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012. In a multivariable analysis, use of continuous feed troughs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0–20], use of pelletized magnesium supplements (aOR 10, 95% CI 3·3–33) and use of palm kernel meal as a supplementary feed (aOR 8·7, 95% CI 2·5–30) were positively associated with a herd-level outbreak of salmonellosis between 1 July 2011 and 31 January 2012. We conclude that supplementary feeds used on dairy farms (regardless of type) need to be stored and handled appropriately to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, particularly from birds and rodents. Magnesium supplementation in the pelletized form played a role in triggering outbreaks of acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012.
Late Quaternary reflooding of the Persian Gulf climaxed with the mid-Holocene highstand previously variously dated between 6 and 3.4 ka. Examination of the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context of a mid-Holocene whale beaching allows us to accurately constrain the timing of the transgressive, highstand and regressive phases of the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand in the Persian Gulf. Mid-Holocene transgression of the Gulf surpassed today's sea level by 7100–6890 cal yr BP, attaining a highstand of > 1 m above current sea level shortly after 5290–4570 cal yr BP before falling back to current levels by 1440–1170 cal yr BP. The cetacean beached into an intertidal hardground pond during the transgressive phase (5300–4960 cal yr BP) with continued transgression interring the skeleton in shallow-subtidal sediments. Subsequent relative sea-level fall produced a forced regression with consequent progradation of the coastal system. These new ages refine previously reported timings for the mid- to late Holocene sea-level highstand published for other regions. By so doing, they allow us to constrain the timing of this correlatable global eustatic event more accurately.
As water and land resources become scarcer, further conflicting demands of different uses and users will arise (Vörösmarty et al. 2000). Sustainable management is required to secure water resources for future generations. Ecosystem services-based approaches aim to ensure that the values of a broad range of benefits to humanity that are provided by our natural environment are accounted for in policy making, in order to foster sustainable development (Chapter 2). National-level incorporation of sustainable development goals has propelled interest in large-scale assessments of ecosystem services which can help address complex problems of ecosystem change (Bateman et al. 2013).
The central question of this chapter is whether large-scale ecosystem services-based approaches provide an opportunity for improving water management. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment (UK-NEA) was the first analysis of the societal benefits of the UK natural environment (UK-NEA 2011a). Moreover, it was one of the leading initiatives worldwide to assess ecosystem services at national level after the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005) produced a global assessment. The first phase of the UK-NEA provided a wealth of policy-relevant information, and we use it here as a case study.
UK rivers, lakes, and ponds make up around 250 000 hectares (1.1%) of the UK total surface area. These surface waters, together with unseen groundwater systems, contribute significant ecosystem services and goods to human well-being in the UK. The quality of UK freshwaters has improved over the last 50 years following direct regulatory interventions in rural and agricultural practices and EU Directives, such as the Water Framework Directive (Watson 2012). These policies have led to a reduction of point and diffuse chemical pollution and improved ecological conditions. Nonetheless, pressures from agricultural, industrial, and domestic use on water resources remains high, both in terms of quality and quantity (Watson 2012). Agricultural practices and landscape modifications, such as use of fertilisers, habitat fragmentation, and degradation, reduce the ecosystem service provision and resulting human benefits.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Increased political interest in addressing environmental issues, notably climate change, conservation and landscape restoration, has the potential to strengthen the focus, integration and profile of systematic biology. In particular, it could rescue descriptive taxonomy from its current state of near-extirpation in the developed world. However, exploiting this opportunity will require greater consensus than the systematics community has previously achieved, together with the determination to resist exaggerating the value of existing systematic data and of technological advances such as DNA barcoding and web-based identification. Descriptive taxonomy erects hypotheses of species existence that must be tested using other categories of data if systematics is to become a genuinely predictive enterprise. Prediction followed by recommendations for adaptation and/or mitigation, each essential to address the consequences of climate change, are possible only with good knowledge of the species and ecosystems under scrutiny. Taxonomic data alone are of little value, but, equally, non-taxonomic data are rarely of value in the absence of a taxonomic framework. Instead of seeking shortcuts to, or even substitutes for, taxonomy in the hope of accelerating the rate of superficial species description (and redescription), the climate change challenge is best addressed by obligatorily increasing the rigour required in taxonomic descriptions. This especially requires: (1) escaping from traditional typology by prescribing minimum levels of both morphological and molecular data via obligatory online registration of species; (2) requiring taxonomists to state the species concept(s) employed in each study; (3) improving feedback to taxonomy from identifications performed by non-systematists; and (4) prioritising groups for taxonomic study according to the importance of the questions that the study group can address.
Dark Earth deposits immediately overlie late Roman urban stratigraphy across northwest Europe, representing the crucial but poorly documented collapse of provincial Roman urbanism. Deficient in artefacts, they have proved recalcitrant to traditional methods of archaeological interpretation. Here, they are used as a vehicle to promote a more integrated, holistic approach to scientific archaeology. This recognises the great potential value of applying a wide range of geoanalytical techniques to the finer-grained matrices that enclose (or, more precisely, grade into) artefacts in archaeological sequences. As this multifaceted approach is time-consuming, deposits chosen for analysis should contain potential answers to profound historical questions. Comparative studies are necessary, in which samples of known age, provenance, environment and mode of deposition outnumber those of a more equivocal nature. Considerable knowledge is required to select the optimal range of complementary techniques for application to a particular suite of materials; this case study outlines the relative merits of analyses for fabric orientation, particle size, micromorphology, bulk geochemistry (ICP), particle geochemistry (microprobe), heavy mineralogy, plant remains (pollen, phytoliths, wood), animal remains, macroscopic artefacts, and radiometric dating. The resulting large bodies of data are best summarised by multivariate analyses (notably ordination algorithms), together with semivariograms for spatial data. Interpretations should take full account of the range of anthropogenic processes and products inherent in archaeological deposits.
Argonne National Laboratory has developed a composite ceramic waste form for the disposition of high level radioactive waste produced during electrometallurgical conditioning of spent nuclear fuel. The electrorefiner LiCl/KCl eutectic salt, containing fission products and transuranics in the chloride form, is contacted with a zeolite material which removes the fission products from the salt. After salt contact, the zeolite is mixed with a glass binder. The zeolite/glass mixture is then hot isostatic pressed (HIPed) to produce the composite ceramic waste form. The ceramic waste form provides a durable medium that is well suited to incorporate fission products and transuranics in the chloride form. Presented are preliminary results of the process qualification and characterization studies, which include chemical and physical measurements and product durability testing, of the ceramic waste form.
The laboratory experiments described here, were aimed at examining the interaction of microbes with mineralogical surfaces involved with groundwater flow. These experiments were designed to study simple systems and were aimed at identifying relevant reactions both chemical and biological. They contained groundwater with either sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), iron reducing bacteria (IRB) or a mixture of both, together with control experiments without bacteria. The results of the chemical analyses of fluid phases showed evidence for dissolution of primary minerals. Microbial analysis showed both SRB and IRB appeared to be active albeit for a limited period due to exhaustion of nutrient and energy supplies. SRB seem to have a greater effect on groundwater chemistry than IRB with sulphide being produced. However, when the two types of bacteria are mixed together, the IRB appear to dominate the system. Further work is underway to give detailed mineralogical analysis of the solids in order to better understand the influence of microbial interaction on the redox reactions.
Experiments were conducted to identify the rock-water and microbial interactions influencing accelerated smectite-clay formation. Packed columns and stirred batch reactors contained Äspö granodiorite, artificial groundwater mimicking that from Äspö and combinations of three types of subsurface chemolithotrophic bacteria, two of which were indigenous to the Äspö rocks. Results showed evidence that, within 5 days under anaerobic reducing conditions, all three of the bacterial types produced copious biofilamentous ‘meshes’ across porespaces, apparently using the larger grains as anchor points. The biofilaments quickly became encrusted with fine grained material and surrounded with neoformed clay-like deposits. In contrast, the abiotic controls showed little or no evidence of clay formation suggesting that this process is biologically induced or controlled. A second series of abiotic experiments to determine the effects of increased acidity showed evidence of mineral pitting and dissolution along with an increase in concentration of soluble species thought to be important in smectite formation (i.e. Si, Al, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na). However, there was no evidence of clay formation, and the biotic experiments showed no signs of bulk scale pH change, suggesting that either the bacteria are actively concentrating relevant chemical species at a local level or they are acting as templates or nucleation points for clay formation.
We report a case of a large maxillary sinus mucocele in a 14-year-old girl presenting with epiphora, proptosis and dental pain. This was marsupialized endoscopically, with complete resolution of symptoms over three months’ follow up. The literature is reviewed.