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Towards a comprehensive revision of Gesneriaceae in Sri Lanka, 12 names are here typified, of which 11 are lectotypifications, including one second-step lectotypification, and the other is a neotypification.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
Early life exposures affect health and disease across the life course and potentially across multiple generations. The Clinical and Translational Research Institutes (CTSIs) offer an opportunity to utilize and link existing databases to conduct lifespan research.
A survey with Lifespan Domain Taskforce expert input was created and distributed to lead lifespan researchers at each of the 64 CTSIs. The survey requested information regarding institutional databases related to early life exposure, child-maternal health, or lifespan research.
Of 64 CTSI, 88% provided information on a total of 130 databases. Approximately 59% (n=76/130) had an associated biorepository. Longitudinal data were available for 72% (n=93/130) of reported databases. Many of the biorepositories (n=44/76; 68%) have standard operating procedures that can be shared with other researchers.
The majority of CTSI databases and biorepositories focusing on child-maternal health and lifespan research could be leveraged for lifespan research, increased generalizability and enhanced multi-institutional research in the United States.
Eleven new species of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) from Sulawesi are described and illustrated: C. albiflora Karton. & H.J.Atkins, C. boliohutensis Karton. & H.J.Atkins, C. gambutensis Karton. & H.J.Atkins, C. hekensis Karton. & H.J.Atkins, C. hendrianii Karton. & H.J.Atkins, C. hispidula Karton. & H.J.Atkins, C. kinhoii Karton. & H.J.Atkins, C. multinervis Karton. & R.Bone, C. nitida Karton. & H.J.Atkins, C. rantemarioensis Karton. & R.Bone and C. rubribracteata Karton. & H.J.Atkins. Illustrations, maps and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all the species.
This work is motivated by the need for low-order aerodynamic models to predict accurately the effect on profile drag of controlling attachment line transition. Head's entrainment method(1), a rapid integral boundary layer technique used for design studies on swept wings, suffers from the governing swept-tapered turbulent integral boundary layer equations being ill-posed in the vicinity of the attachment line. This singularity has been treated using crude extrapolations of the attachment-line similarity solution for over half a century, but this approach is unlikely to deliver accurate predictions of the effect of changes in the attachment line flow on profile drag. An experimental study has been carried out to explore the nature of the turbulent flow in the vicinity of a highly swept swept attachment line and has revealed a quite complex, non-monotonic development of the momentum thickness in this region. It has also revealed lower levels of twist in the boundary layer velocity profiles than anticipated from the highly curved character of the inviscid flow streamlines. These observations have prompted an alternative approach to the modelling of the flow in this region which not only successfully eliminates the lack of robustness in the swept-tapered equations but which also matches the experimental results to within ±5%.
We consider the influence of a smooth three-dimensional (3-D) indentation on the instability of an incompressible boundary layer by linear and nonlinear analyses. The numerical work was complemented by an experimental study to investigate indentations of approximately
width at depths of 45 %, 52 % and 60 % of
indicates 99% boundary layer thickness. For these indentations a separation bubble confined within the indentation arises. Upstream of the indentation, spanwise-uniform Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves are assumed to exist, with the objective to investigate how the 3-D surface indentation modifies the 2-D TS disturbance. Numerical corroboration against experimental data reveals good quantitative agreement. Comparing the structure of the 3-D separation bubble to that created by a purely 2-D indentation, there are a number of topological changes particularly in the case of the widest indentation; more rapid amplification and modification of the upstream TS waves along the symmetry plane of the indentation is observed. For the shortest indentations, beyond a certain depth there are then no distinct topological changes of the separation bubbles and hence on flow instability. The destabilising mechanism is found to be due to the confined separation bubble and is attributed to the inflectional instability of the separated shear layer. Finally for the widest width indentation investigated (
), results of the linear analysis are compared with direct numerical simulations. A comparison with the traditional criteria of using
-factors to assess instability of properly 3-D disturbances reveals that a general indication of flow destabilisation and development of strongly nonlinear behaviour is indicated as
values are attained. However
-factors, based on linear models, can only be used to provide indications and severity of the destabilisation, since the process of disturbance breakdown to turbulence is inherently nonlinear and dependent on the magnitude and scope of the initial forcing.
Summer iron (Fe) fertilization in the Ross Sea has previously been observed in association with diatom productivity, lithogenic particles and excess Fe in the water column. This productivity event occurred during an early breakout of sea ice via katabatic winds, suggesting that aeolian dust could be an important source of lithogenic Fe required for diatom growth in the Ross Sea. Here we investigate the provenance of size-selected dust deposited on sea ice in McMurdo Sound, south-western (SW) Ross Sea. The isotopic signature of McMurdo Sound dust (0.70533<87Sr/86Sr<0.70915 and -1.1<εNd(0)<3.45) confirms that dust is locally sourced from the McMurdo Sound debris bands and comprises a two-component mixture of McMurdo Volcanic Group and southern Victoria Land lithologies. In addition, the provenance of lithogenic sediment trapped in the water column was investigated, and the isotopic signature (εNd(0)=3.9, 87Sr/86Sr=0.70434) is differentiated from long-range transported dust originating from South America and Australia. Elevated lithogenic accumulation rates in deeper sediment traps in the Ross Sea suggest that sinking particles in the water column cannot simply result from dust input at the surface. This discrepancy can be best explained by significant upwelling and remobilization of lithogenic Fe from the sea floor.
Four new species of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) from the Latimojong Mountains, South Sulawesi (Sulawesi Selatan) are described and illustrated: C. floccosa R.Bone & H.J.Atkins, C. kjellbergii R.Bone & H.J.Atkins, C. purpureofucata R.Bone & H.J.Atkins, and C. spectabilis R.Bone & H.J.Atkins. Conservation recommendations are made for the four species.
The role of total thyroidectomy in the management of patients with Graves' disease remains controversial. However, there is increasing evidence to support the role of the procedure as a safe and definitive treatment for Graves' disease.
Patients were identified from a prospective thyroid database of the multidisciplinary thyroid clinic at Hull Royal Infirmary. All case notes were independently reviewed to confirm the data held on the database.
Over a 7-year period, the senior author has performed 206 total thyroidectomies for Graves' disease. The incidence of temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism was 3.4 per cent and 24 per cent respectively. There was one case of permanent unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, and 3.9 per cent of patients developed permanent hypoparathyroidism. There has been no relapse of thyrotoxicosis.
In the context of a multidisciplinary thyroid clinic, total thyroidectomy should be offered as a safe and effective first-line treatment option for Graves' disease.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) compared to conventional typing methods in the investigation and control of an outbreak of Shigella sonnei in the Orthodox Jewish (OJ) community in the UK. The genome sequence analysis showed that the strains implicated in the outbreak formed three phylogenetically distinct clusters. One cluster represented cases associated with recent exposure to a single strain, whereas the other two clusters represented related but distinct strains of S. sonnei circulating in the OJ community across the UK. The WGS data challenged the conclusions drawn during the initial outbreak investigation and allowed cases of dysentery to be implicated or ruled out of the outbreak that were previously misclassified. This study showed that the resolution achieved using WGS would have clearly defined the outbreak, thus facilitating the promotion of infection control measures within local schools and the dissemination of a stronger public health message to the community.
The occurrence of a population of the spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Verrill 1873) in the middle reaches of the Tay Estuary is reported. This is a new British and European record of a North American species, and its principal characteristics are described and compared with earlier accounts. Size frequency analysis of the population showed it to be dominated by large animals from July 1984 to May 1986. The population matured coelomic gametes during winter 1985–86 and spawned in March 1986 to produce a heavy settlement in May, which subsequently grew rapidly. The distribution of M. viridis in relation to other species, sediment and other ecological parameters is described from a single survey of the Invergowrie Bay mudflats. Marenzelleria population densities of up to 1500 m 2 were negatively correlated with all other species of a low diversity macrofaunal community dominated by predatory polychaetes and filter feeding bivalves. Marenzelleria was abundant down to sediment depths of 20–30 cm. The significance and origin of this population is discussed.
We use terahertz (THz) spectroscopy as a biomaterials characterization tool. Previously we have shown a strong contrast between the THz dielectric response for wild type (WT) and D96N mutant of bacteriorhodopsin. In those studies we observed a large increase in the THz absorbance of WT with excitation to thermally captured photo-intermediates whereas no such increase in absorbance was observed for the mutant D96N. These results suggest that the THz response is sensitive to structural changes and relative flexibility of biomolecules. However the photo-intermediate populations of the WT and D96N samples were not equivalent in those measurements. While the WT samples had relaxed (bR), M and P state intermediates present, the D96N samples had only bR and M states. Here we present terahertz absorbance measurements of D96N as a function of M and P state populations at room temperature. The THz response is constant for intermediate states populations up to 23% M state and up to 30% P state. These results verify that there is a fundamental difference in the conformational dynamics as measured by THz dielectric response for a single residue mutation.
Biomimetic surfaces were prepared by chemisorption of oxidized dextran (Mw = 110 kDa) onto SiO2 substrates that were previously modified with aminopropyl-tri-ethoxy silane (APTES). The kinetics of dextran oxidation by sodium metaperiodate (NaIO4) were quantified by 1H NMR and pH measurements. The extent of oxidation was then used to control the morphology of the biomimetic surface. Oxidation times of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours resulted in <20, ∼30, ∼40, ∼50 and 100% oxidation, respectively. The surfaces were characterized by contact angle analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surfaces prepared with low oxidation times revealed a more densely packed “brushy” layer when imaged by AFM than those prepared at low oxidation times. Finally, the contact angle data revealed, quite unexpectedly, that the surface with the greatest entropic freedom (0.5 h) wetted the fastest and to the greatest extent (θAPTES>θ1h>θ2,4h>θ0.5h).
Halogen-based slurries have been investigated for chemical-mechanical polishing of tungsten. Among these slurries, Bromine-methanol-water slurry gives the best results. Depending on the polishing parameters and slurry concentration, polishing rate of the slurry for W varies from 100 nm/min to 300 nm/min, while the chemical etch rate of the slurry for W and SiO2 is near zero. The W and SiO2 films after polishing with the slurry show very smooth surfaces (featureless under a high quality optical microscope). The selectivity of larger than 15 has been achieved between W and PECVD TEOS oxide. Tungsten stud formation through CMP with this slurry has been demonstrated with no significant dishing in the metal.
Permanent X(2) gratings can be written in doped silica fibers by coherent irradiation with light at ω and 2ω. The X(2) gratings give rise to phase-matched second harmonic generation (SHG), i.e. subsequent irradiation of the prepared fiber with light at ω results in an output at 2ω. The efficiency with which the gratings can be written depends on the nature and concentration of defect states induced by dopants in the, glass. We present results for fibers doped with Ge and rare earth ions and discuss the implications of our results for the various mechanisms that have been proposed to explain photoinduced SHG in fibers.