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Stressful experiences affect biological stress systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Life stress can potentially alter regulation of the HPA axis and has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. Little, however, is known about the relative influence of stressors that are encountered at different developmental periods on acute stress reactions in adulthood. In this study, we explored three models of the influence of stress exposure on cortisol reactivity to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) by leveraging 37 years of longitudinal data in a high-risk birth cohort (N = 112). The cumulative stress model suggests that accumulated stress across the lifespan leads to dysregulated reactivity, whereas the biological embedding model implicates early childhood as a critical period. The sensitization model assumes that dysregulation should only occur when stress is high in both early childhood and concurrently. All of the models predicted altered reactivity, but do not anticipate its exact form. We found support for both cumulative and biological embedding effects. However, when pitted against each other, early life stress predicted more blunted cortisol responses at age 37 over and above cumulative life stress. Additional analyses revealed that stress exposure in middle childhood also predicted more blunted cortisol reactivity.
Health disparities between racial and ethnic groups have been documented in Canada, the United States, and Australia. Despite evidence that differences in emergency department (ED) care based on patient race and ethnicity exist, there are no comprehensive literature reviews in this area. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the literature on the impact of patient ethnicity and race on the processes of ED care.
A scoping review was conducted to capture the broad nature of the literature. A database search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Social Sciences Citation Index, SCOPUS, and JSTOR. Five journals and reference lists of included articles were hand searched. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined iteratively to ensure literature captured was relevant to our research question. Data were extracted using predetermined variables, and additional extraction variables were added as familiarity with the literature developed.
Searching yielded 1,157 citations, reduced to 153 following removal of duplicates, and title and abstract screening. After full-text screening, 83 articles were included. Included articles report that, in EDs, patient race and ethnicity impact analgesia, triage scores, wait times, treatments, diagnostic procedure utilization, rates of patients leaving without being seen, and patient subjective experiences. Authors of included studies propose a variety of possible causes for these disparities.
Further research on the existence of disparities in care within EDs is warranted to explore the causes behind observed disparities for particular health conditions and population groups in specific contexts.
Regulatory focus theory (RFT) postulates two cognitive-motivational systems for personal goal pursuit: the promotion system, which is associated with ideal goals (an individual’s hopes, dreams, and aspirations), and the prevention system, which is associated with ought goals (an individual’s duties, responsibilities, and obligations). The two systems have been studied extensively in behavioral research with reference to differences between promotion and prevention goal pursuit as well as the consequences of perceived attainment versus nonattainment within each system. However, no study has examined the neural correlates of each combination of goal domain and goal attainment status. We used a rapid masked idiographic goal priming paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging to present individually selected promotion and prevention goals, which participants had reported previously that they were close to attaining (“match”) or far from attaining (“mismatch”). Across the four priming conditions, significant activations were observed in bilateral insula (Brodmann area (BA) 13) and visual association cortex (BA 18/19). Promotion priming discriminantly engaged left prefrontal cortex (BA 9), whereas prevention priming discriminantly engaged right prefrontal cortex (BA 8/9). Activation in response to promotion goal priming was also correlated with an individual difference measure of perceived success in promotion goal attainment. Our findings extend the construct validity of RFT by showing that the two systems postulated by RFT, under conditions of both attainment and nonattainment, have shared and distinct neural correlates that interface logically with established network models of self-regulatory cognition.
Early irritability predicts a broad spectrum of psychopathology spanning both internalizing and externalizing disorders, rather than any particular disorder or group of disorders (i.e. multifinality). Very few studies, however, have examined the developmental mechanisms by which it leads to such phenotypically diverse outcomes. We examined whether variation in the diurnal pattern of cortisol moderates developmental pathways between preschool irritability and the subsequent emergence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms 9 years later.
When children were 3 years old, mothers were interviewed about children's irritability and completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology. Six years later, children collected saliva samples at wake-up and bedtime on three consecutive days. Diurnal cortisol patterns were modeled as latent difference scores between evening and morning samples. When children were approximately 12 years old, mothers again completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology.
Among children with higher levels of irritability at age 3, a steeper diurnal cortisol slope at age 9 predicted greater internalizing symptoms and irritability at age 12, whereas a blunted slope at age 9 predicted greater externalizing symptoms at age 12, adjusting for baseline and concurrent symptoms.
Our results suggest that variation in stress system functioning can predict and differentiate developmental trajectories of early irritability that are relatively more internalizing v. those in which externalizing symptoms dominate in pre-adolescence.
While early gendered messages mold children's expectations about the world, we know relatively little about the depictions of women in politics and exposure to gender stereotypes in elementary social studies curricula. In this article, we examine the coverage of political leaders in the children's magazine TIME for Kids, a source commonly found in elementary school classrooms. Coding all political content from this source over six years, we evaluate the presence of women political leaders and rate whether the leaders are described as possessing gender-stereotypic traits. Our results show that although TIME for Kids covers women leaders in greater proportion than their overall representation in politics, the content of the coverage contains gendered messages that portray politics as a stereotypically masculine field. We show that gendered traits are applied differently to men and to women in politics: feminine and communal traits are more likely to be applied to women leaders, while men and women are equally described as having masculine and agentic traits. Portrayals of women political leaders in stereotype-congruent ways is problematic because early messages influence children's views of gender roles.
This study evaluated the efficacy of a family-centered preventive intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), delivered as an online, eHealth model to middle school families. To increase accessibility of family-centered prevention in schools, we adapted the evidence-based FCU to an online format, with the goal of providing a model of service delivery that is feasible, given limited staffing and resources in many schools. Building on prior research, we randomly assigned participants to waitlist control (n = 105), FCU Online as a web-based intervention (n = 109), and FCU Online with coaching support (n = 108). We tested the effects of the intervention on multiple outcomes, including parental self-efficacy, child self-regulation, and child behavior, in this registered clinical trial (NCT03060291). Families engaged in the intervention at a high rate (72% completed the FCU assessment) and completed 3-month posttest assessments with good retention (94% retained). Random assignment to the FCU Online with coaching support was associated with reduced emotional problems for children (p = .003, d = −0.32) and improved parental confidence and self-efficacy (p = .018, d = 0.25) when compared with waitlist controls. Risk moderated effects: at-risk youth showed stronger effects than did those with minimal risk. The results have implications for online delivery of family-centered interventions in schools.
We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
Chapter 4 contains extensive references to exemplifications of the voice quality categories described in Chapters 1 and 2. Distinctive voice quality settings of actors, singers, media announcers, politicians, and other personalities are cited with specific references to be used as search terms to locate video and audio material online. A separate ‘Multimedia References’ section is included at the end of the text to facilitate searching. Long-term voice qualities are essentially extralinguistic, but they can also alternate among phrases of speech as paralinguistic ‘registers’. Many laryngeal postures, and their auditory output, are employed linguistically as syllabic registers or segmental units to signal contrastive lexical meaning. This is a result of the positioning of the laryngeal articulator at the beginning of the shaping of the sound stream, where background elements are easily patterned behind oral articulations. Extensive references to linguistic examples of lower-vocal-tract consonantal strictures and tonal register effects are presented within the text notes and are included among the video and audio materials online.
Chapter 7 explores laryngeal speech disorders, voice pathologies that depart from normal function, and the consequences of laryngeal surgery on voice quality from the perspective of the Laryngeal Articulator Model. Clinical cases involve the laryngeal mechanism as a whole, and many voice quality outcomes resemble the registers of linguistic systems. New drawings diagram surgical excisions of laryngeal structures. Post-surgery compensatory behaviours demonstrate innovative adaptation of the aryepiglottic sphincter mechanism to generate ‘substitution voice’. Numerous videos/audio of clinical cases illustrate the effect of pathologies on voice quality. Pre- and post-operative speech production show how altered structures create altered voice quality. Epilaryngeal tube control is shown to be the cornerstone of our ability to adapt. Mongolian long song and human beatboxing illustrate the use of the professional voice. Clinicians as well as linguists will benefit from the detailed new exploration of the laryngeal articulator and its adaptability.
Chapter 6 investigates the earliest steps of how infants acquire the phonetic capacity to speak. It is relevant to voice quality that infants begin life with laryngeally constricted qualities, based on which they develop elaborated oral articulations with laryngeal quality as background. Ontogenetically, speech begins with the laryngeal articulator. New drawings illustrate the infant vocal tract (vs. the adult vocal tract). The companion website contains over 100 audio files of phonetic stages during the first year of life, comparing articulatory development in English with Tibeto-Burman Bái. The LAM provides the basis for understanding the distribution of non-syllabic and syllabic utterances, focusing on intermediate ‘mixed’ utterances. During the first several months of life, infants parse phonetic possibilities, refining the identity of potential individual sounds against the emerging backgrounds of long-term laryngeal qualities. Laryngeal voice quality reflects a complex interaction between the developing physiology of the infant vocal tract and the innate disposition to engage in vocal exploration, playing a crucial role in speech development.
Terminology for voice quality is revised, particularly for the lower vocal tract. The concepts of ‘voice quality’ as the long-term, habitual postural settings in an accent and ‘voice quality’ as the vibratory, phonatory portion of speech are reconciled through the laryngeal articulator mechanism that explains how multiple configurational adjustments and vibratory elements are achieved in the lower vocal tract. The origins of voice quality theory are reviewed, and articulatory settings of the laryngeal mechanism, velopharyngeal opening, the tongue, the jaw, and the lips are reviewed. The descriptions from Laver (1980) are reinforced, connections to laryngeal articulation are made explicit, and the musculature responsible for each setting is outlined. New drawings of the mechanisms of the vocal tract provide a fresh perspective on articulatory movements and resulting auditory qualities. Pharyngeal/epiglottal articulations are remapped, and their status as laryngeal configurations is made explicit.
Instrumental phonetic techniques illustrate the analyses behind the interpretation of laryngeal articulator function and laryngeal sounds. High-speed laryngoscopy demonstrates aryepiglottic trilling. Cineradiography demonstrates where and how epiglottal stop and voiceless and voiced aryepiglottic trilling are generated. Simultaneous laryngoscopy and laryngeal ultrasound gauge the vertical displacement of the larynx during laryngeally constricted articulations compared to opening manoeuvres. MRI provides insight into the effects of lower-vocal-tract configurations on changes in vowel quality. Computational modelling shows how algorithms that account for voicing can be adapted to explain the mechanics of complex laryngeal vibrations. Vocal-ventricular fold coupling (VVFC) occurs as a vertical compression effect in stopping airflow and in constricted phonation types (creaky voice, harsh voice) and is modelled to illustrate the relationships and actions among laryngeal structures. Analyses, data capture, explanations of the algorithms, and videos of the working models are incorporated in the online companion materials, including articulatory simulations by the laryngeal component of the ‘ArtiSynth’ model.
The first description of voice quality production in forty years, this book provides a new framework for its study: The Laryngeal Articulator Model. Informed by instrumental examinations of the laryngeal articulatory mechanism, it revises our understanding of articulatory postures to explain the actions, vibrations and resonances generated in the epilarynx and pharynx. It focuses on the long-term auditory-articulatory component of accent in the languages of the world, explaining how voice quality relates to segmental and syllabic sounds. Phonetic illustrations of phonation types and of laryngeal and oral vocal tract articulatory postures are provided. Extensive video and audio material is available on a companion website. The book presents computational simulations, the laryngeal and voice quality foundations of infant speech acquisition, speech/voice disorders and surgeries that entail compensatory laryngeal articulator adjustment, and an exploration of the role of voice quality in sound change and of the larynx in the evolution of speech.
Chapter 5 explores the implications of the Laryngeal Articulator Model for phonology and the place of voice quality in phonological analysis. The Phonological Potentials Model (PPM) is explained, and synergistic and anti-synergistic relations are mapped in diagrams. Earlier phonological approaches that do not consider the laryngeal articulator are reviewed, while the PPM demonstrates how cooperative lingual-laryngeal activity can be accommodated in phonological analysis. Case studies of languages having lower-vocal-tract contrasts (vocal register, pharyngealization in click languages) give an idea of the network of articulatory relationships that form the grounding of phonological representations. We highlight vocalic-harmony (so-called [ATR]), syllabic, and tense–lax registers in West African, Northeast African and Southeast Asian languages. The case of Southern Wakashan pharyngeal genesis illustrates the role of voice quality in sound change.