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The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. In total 159 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. There was a decrease in the incidence of IPD in children <2 years old after the introduction of PCV7 (18.4/100 000 vs. 5.1/100 000, P = 0.004). Meningitis cases decreased significantly in the second period (P = 0.036) as well as the overall case fatality rate (P = 0.025), including a decreased case fatality rate of pneumonia (16.3% to 0%, P = 0.04). PCV7 serotypes showed a downward trend. Vaccine-preventable serotypes caused 78.9% of IPD cases, mainly 14, 6B, 5, 19F and 23F. A non-significant increase in erythromycin resistance was reported. Our findings suggest that the introduction of PCV7 led to a significant decrease of IPD in children under 2 years old and in the overall case fatality rate.
Men have an important role as allies in reducing discrimination against women. Following the Social Identity Model of Collective Action (SIMCA), we examined whether men's identification with women would predict their allied collective action, alongside moral convictions, efficacy, and anger. We also examined whether identification with their own ingroup would decrease their willingness to improve women's situation. We tested the SIMCA, extended to consider ingroup identification among men, in Japan (N = 103) and the Philippines (N = 131). Consistent with the SIMCA, moral convictions and group efficacy predicted men's willingness to engage in collective action to fight discrimination against women. However, anger was not significant, and identification with the advantaged and disadvantaged groups played different roles in the two countries. We discuss the possible role of norms and legitimacy in society in explaining the pattern of results.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
Few reports exist on the use of Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry coupled with Mass Spectrometry (DRIFTS-MS) in situ to monitor the dehydroxylation of kaolinitic clays. The use of DRIFTS-MS in situ allows study of the effect of heat treatment on the dehydroxylation, identifying intensities and temperatures at which the hydroxyl groups are released, forming metakaolinite and meta-alunite. The effluent gases from the infrared cell were analysed by mass spectrometry. The decrease in intensity of the bands at 3694, 3669, 3650 and 3621 cm−1 associated with the −OH stretching vibration modes of AlVI−OH−AlVI of kaolinite began at 450°C. Two additional bands at 3513 and 3485 cm−1 are associated with the vibration of AlVI−OH of alunite that also began to disappear during thermal treatment. Monitoring of the fractions m/e 17 and 18 using a mass spectrometer revealed that the intensity of these fractions increased starting at 450°C. Therefore, it is possible to study the dehydroxylation process of clays during thermal treatment.Chemical and mineralogical characterization of a kaolinitic clay (KN) fromMexico showed that the clay consists of 64.8% kaolinite, 11.0% alunite and 24.4% quartz based on PXRD, EDS, TG/DTA, TEM and FTIR results, and suggested that the material might have potential for use in the manufacture of ceramics, refractory bricks or geopolymers.
Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) originally were identified as small (~24 kDa), soluble, amphitropic proteins that specifically accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids. GLTPs and related homologs now are known to adopt a unique, helically dominated, two-layer ‘sandwich’ architecture defined as the GLTP-fold that provides the structural underpinning for the eukaryotic GLTP superfamily. Recent advances now provide exquisite insights into structural features responsible for lipid headgroup selectivity as well as the adaptability of the hydrophobic compartment for accommodating hydrocarbon chains of differing length and unsaturation. A new understanding of the structural versatility and evolutionary premium placed on the GLTP motif has emerged. Human GLTP-motifs have evolved to function not only as glucosylceramide binding/transferring domains for phosphoinositol 4-phosphate adaptor protein-2 during glycosphingolipid biosynthesis but also as selective binding/transfer proteins for ceramide-1-phosphate. The latter, known as ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein, recently has been shown to form GLTP-fold while critically regulating Group-IV cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activity and pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production.
Optical properties of Si nanowire (SiNW) arrays prepared on p-doped Si(111) and Si(100) substrates were studied. SiNWs were synthesized by self-assembly electroless metal deposition nanoelectrochemistry in an ionic silver HF solution through selective etching. Total reflectance (Rt) and total diffuse reflectance (Rdt) of SiNWs change drastically in comparison to polished Si. To understand these changes, diffuse reflectance (Rd) with polarized incident light was studied. For samples prepared on Si(111), the wave length integrated Rd (wIRd) shows maxima at certain angles of incidence θ, regardless of the incident light polarization. For samples prepared on Si(100), wIRd increases with θ and depends on incident light polarization. Also, Rd spectra show structures due to interference effects. Therefore, SiNWs prepared on Si(100) can be considered as thin films whose refractive index depends on light polarization. Moreover, Rdt of SiNWs prepared on Si(111) can be modeled as an ensemble of diffuse reflectors.
We simulated the frequency of tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in order to classify the risk of TB transmission for nine hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. We used a risk assessment approach to estimate the average number of infections in three risk groups of a cohort of 1082 workers exposed to potentially infectious patients over 10- and 20-day periods. The risk level of the hospitals was classified according to TB prevalence: two of the hospitals were ranked as being of very high priority, six as high priority and one as low priority. Consistent results were obtained when the simulation was validated in two hospitals by studying 408 healthcare workers using interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing. The latent infection prevalence using laboratory tests was 41% [95% confidence interval (CI) 34·3–47·7] and 44% (95% CI 36·4–51·0) in those hospitals, and in the simulation, it was 40·7% (95% CI 32·3–49·0) and 36% (95% CI 27·9–44·0), respectively. Simulation of risk may be useful as a tool to classify local and regional hospitals according to their risk of nosocomial TB transmission, and to facilitate the design of hospital infection control plans.
A survey of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) belonging to the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae was conducted in three municipalities on the Pacific coast of the State of Colima, México, to determine their occurrence and recovery frequency and predominant plant species in cultivated and non-cultivated habitats. Nineteen soil samples were collected: seven from non-cultivated habitats and 12 from habitats or areas cultivated mostly with fruit and grain crops and grasses. Of the 19 soil samples, 14 were positive for EPNs; the total prevalence was 73.7%. From the 14 positive soil samples, 12 steinernematid isolates (85.7%) and two heterorhabditid isolates (14.3%) were recovered. Irrespective of the locations, EPNs from the genus Steinernema were recovered from the three municipalities; EPNs from the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis were recovered from Armería and Ixtlahuacán. Only steinernematid isolates were recovered from non-cultivated habitats. Most of the isolates were recovered from cultivated habitats, and our results suggest that there is a higher prevalence of EPNs in cultivated soils.
The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is a destructive insect pest in citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. africanus’ (Laf) and ‘Ca. L. americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria cause the ‘huanglongbing’ disease or ‘greening’ or ‘yellow dragon’ disease. The disease kills the plant and reduces fruit production. This insect pest is susceptible to entomopathogenic fungi, and we report the use of different strains of Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea against the nymphs and adults of D. citri under field conditions. The fungi were applied four times using a concentration of 2 × 1013 conidia/ha with a time interval of 15 days between applications. The percentage of control of Cb 108, Ma 65, Ma 14 and Ifr 4 was 60, 50, 40 and 35% in nymphs, and 50, 50, 42 and 22% in adults, respectively. Metarhizium anisopliae, C. bassiana and I. fumosorosea applied on Persian lime groves are more effective in reducing higher density of nymphs than adults of D. citri.