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Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.
The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.
The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.
Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.
Large-scale green tides of Ulva prolifera occur repeatedly in the Yellow Sea, and the microscopic propagules of U. prolifera play a critical role during the development of green tides. Ulva prolifera propagules and microalgae are both present in seawater and share similar niches, but their potential interactions are poorly understood. Nine species of microalgae were selected to study their interactions with the propagules of U. prolifera (gametes) in laboratory. The results showed that settlement of gametes could be inhibited by some microalgae, such as Alexandrium tamarense, Prorocentrum lima and Karenia mikimotoi, at the cell density of blooming (102–103 cells ml–1). Inversely, the germlings germinated from U. prolifera gametes had negative effects on the microalgae, the inhibition rate ranged from 28 to 66%. Our results demonstrated the complex interactions between microalgae and propagules of green algae, which may influence the formation of green tides and their ecological consequences in the Yellow Sea.
The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior is significantly affected by surface roughness, especially for high strength metal FV520B-I. However, with surface roughness effect, neither the fatigue property, nor the high-cycle fatigue life model about FV520B-I with surface roughness has been reported. In this paper, designed fatigue experiment using the specimen with different surface roughness is presented to study the effectiveness of the roughness to the fatigue. The observations of the fatigue crack initiation sites and the crack propagation. Then the high cycle fatigue behavior of FV520B-I affected by surface roughness is analyzed. The existing very-high-cycle fatigue life model is not well-fit for high-cycle fatigue model of FV520B-I. A NEW high-cycle fatigue life prediction model of FV520B-I, taking surface roughness as a main effective variable is proposed. The model is built up by a comprehensive use of experimental data and the traditional fatigue modeling theory. The new finding between the fatigue strength coefficient and stress amplitude, with surface roughness, is adopted, leading to a NEW modified life prediction model. Study on fatigue model of FV520B-I with surface roughness is a very beneficial effort in fatigue theory and fatigue engineering development.
Nanogenerators (NGs) have great potential to solve the problems of energy depletion and environmental pollution. Here, two types of flexible nanogenerators (FNGs) based on graphene oxide (GO) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) are presented. The peak output voltage and current of GO based FNG reached up to 2 V and 30 nA, respectively, under 15 N force at 1 Hz. Moreover, the output voltage could be improved to 34.4 V when the frequency was increased to 10 Hz. It was also found the output voltage increased from 0.1 V to 2.0 V using a released GO structure. The other FNG was made by MW-CNTs mixed with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Its output voltage and power reached up to 7.5 V and 18.75 mW, respectively, which is much larger than that of bare ZnO based FNG. Furthermore, a peak voltage of 30 V could be gained by stamping one’s foot on the FNG. Finally, a modified NG was fabricated using four springs and two flexible layers. As a result, the voltage and power reached up to 9 V and 27mW, respectively. These works may bring out broad applications in energy harvesting.
We examined how external stakeholder pressure and ethical leadership independently and interactively influence the implementation of corporate social responsibility. Based on data collected from 292 employees from 53 companies (Study 1) and from 224 middle-level managers from 40 companies (Study 2) in mainland China, we found that both ethical leadership and external stakeholder pressure have significant and positive impacts on corporate social responsibility implementation and the positive effect of external stakeholder pressure on corporate social responsibility weakens under a higher level of ethical leadership and strengthens under a low level of ethical leadership. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Large-scale blooms of dinoflagellates, such as Prorocentrum donghaiense and Karenia mikimotoi, have occurred frequently in the East China Sea (ECS) in recent decades. However, little is known about their effects on the entire life history of copepods. Under laboratory conditions, we investigated the effects of these two common dinoflagellates on the survival of Calanus sinicus individuals at different stages and on reproduction of this copepod. Compared with the control treatment (Skeletonema costatum), the presence of P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi decreased the survival rates of adults and nauplii during the 16 days of the experiment. Survival of nauplii decreased to 49% and 48%, respectively, relative to the nearly 80% survival of adults. Among the six stages of nauplii, individuals at NII and NIII were more susceptible to P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi. Lower egg production rates were also observed when copepods were exposed to P. donghaiense and K. mikimotoi, and hatching success decreased only with exposure to P. donghaiense. These results suggest that blooms of the two common dinoflagellates may have detrimental effects on the survival of nauplii and the reproduction of C. sinicus, which may pose a major threat to the recruitment of C. sinicus.
This study examined how information seeking and proximal adjustment outcomes (role clarity and social integration) mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and distal adjustment outcome (affective organizational commitment) in work group context. The results of hierarchical linear modeling involving 212 newcomers and their 53 immediate supervisors revealed that information seeking mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and proximal adjustment outcomes. These in turn were positively related to distal adjustment outcome. Furthermore, work group structure was found to moderate the relationship between transformational leadership and newcomer information seeking.
The influence of predeformation and stress on the isothermal bainite transformation has been investigated in G55SiMoV steel via microstructure observation and kinetic analysis. It was found that the bainite transformation became faster and at the end of isothermal holding the bainite fraction increased under the applied stress condition. When the stress increased to 150 MPa, the bainite distribution became to be nonrandom in G55SiMoV steel. Different deformation conditions, in which both promotion and inhibition occurred in the same steel, were created. The promoting and inhibiting factors affected bainite transformation comprehensively. 20% deformation could promote the bainite transformation when it deformed at 900 °C, but prevent bainite transformation when it deformed at 750 °C. Increase of ferrite nucleation rate caused by distortion and dislocation, would suppress the growth of bainite carbides and make most carbides without full growth be finer and shorter.
Plant height is important for crop yield improvement. In this study, a dwarf mutant, Gmdwarf1, was screened from a γ-ray-treated soybean population. Compared with the wild type, the mutant exhibited later germination, smaller and darker green leaves, and less-elongated shoots. Genome-wide transcriptome detection through RNA-seq analysis revealed that not only gibberellin-related genes but many other genes involved in hormone biosynthetic pathways were also significantly influenced in the mutant. We presumed that Gmdwarf1 might play essential roles in the plant hormone pathways. Future functional analysis of this dwarf mutant would help us to understand the underlying mechanisms and be beneficial for improving soybean yield.
Various heat treatments and thermal simulation with different austenitizing temperatures and austenite deformation were applied on a bearing steel to obtain various austenitic state. The effect of austenitic state on microstructure of martensite/bainite (M/B) dual phase steel and its mechanical property has been investigated via microstructure observation and kinetic analysis. The results show that the M/B steels austenitized at 900 and 950 °C have better comprehensive performance compared with the steels austenitized at 850 and 1050 °C. The refined microstructure can be obtained after deformation, and the heavy deformation and low deformation temperature are useful for refining the microstructure. The bainite lath is longer and has well-directional arrangement at high austenitizing temperature with the same deformation. Furthermore, austenite deformation can improve the nucleation ratio, reduce incubation process, and affect the kinetics of bainite transformation significantly.
In this work, the relationship between the substrate crystallinity and the on-state resistances of silicon carbide (SiC) photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) was investigated. PCSSs with different channel lengths were fabricated on semi insulating 6H–SiC having different crystal qualities. A method was introduced for determining the photoconductive capacity of the SiC PCSSs. The experimental data suggest that the photoconductive capacity decreases sharply with the degradation of the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve of the 6H–SiC substrates. It is found that increasing the carrier mobility is a key factor for reducing the on-state resistance of the 6H–SiC PCSSs. Moreover, the results in this work present reference for the selection of 6H–SiC substrates for the fabrication of PCSSs and some other photoelectric devices.
The localization of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and HSP70 mRNA in the heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, thymus and cloacal bursa in broilers that were heat stressed for 6 h was conducted using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Positive HSP70 mRNA signals were detected in the liver and lung, especially in the vessel walls. A weak presence was found in the myocardial cells. No significant signals were observed in spleen, thymus and cloacal bursa. HSP70 was observed in the vessel walls of all investigated broiler tissues. Localizations of HSP70 and HSP70 mRNA suggest that HSP70 could be correlated with cardiovascular function.
The molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of oligodendrocytes in formation of the nodes of Ranvier (NORs) remain poorly understood. Here we show that oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) aggregates specifically at NORs. Nodal location of OMgp does not occur along demyelinated axons of either Shiverer or proteolipid protein (PLP) transgenic mice. Over-expression of OMgp in OLN-93 cells facilitates process outgrowth. In transgenic mice in which expression of OMgp is down-regulated, myelin thickness declines, and lateral oligodendrocyte loops at the node-paranode junction are less compacted and even join together with the opposite loops, which leads to shortened nodal gaps. Notably, each of these structural abnormalities plus modest down-regulation of expression of Na+ channel α subunit result in reduced conduction velocity in the spinal cords of the mutant mice. Thus, OMgp that is derived from glia has distinct roles in regulating nodal formation and function during CNS myelination.
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