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Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with a high risk of suicide. This meta-analysis examined the prevalence of suicide attempts (SA) in patients with BD and its associated factors.
A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from their inception to 11 June 2018. The prevalence of SA in BD was synthesised using the random-effects model.
The search identified 3451 articles of which 79 studies with 33 719 subjects met the study entry criteria. The lifetime prevalence of SA was 33.9% (95% CI 31.3–36.6%; I2 = 96.4%). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was positively associated with female gender, BD-I, BD Not Otherwise Specified and rapid cycling BD subtypes, income level and geographic region.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA is common in BD and identified a number of factors related to SA. Further efforts are necessary to facilitate the identification and prevention of SA in BD. Long-term use of mood stabilisers coupled with psycho-social interventions should be available to BD patients to reduce the risk of suicidal behaviour.
We show that compatible systems of
-adic sheaves on a scheme of finite type over the ring of integers of a local field are compatible along the boundary up to stratification. This extends a theorem of Deligne on curves over a finite field. As an application, we deduce the equicharacteristic case of classical conjectures on
-independence for proper smooth varieties over complete discrete valuation fields. Moreover, we show that compatible systems have compatible ramification. We also prove an analogue for integrality along the boundary.
Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD is unknown in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of mushroom intake with NAFLD among Chinese adults. This is a cross-sectional study of 24,236 adults (mean [standard deviation] age: 40.7 [11.9] years; 11,394 men [47.0%]). Mushroom intake was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was identified based on the results of annual health examinations, including ultrasound findings and a self-reported history of the disease. Multiple logistic models were used to examine the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD. The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 19.0%. Compared to those consuming mushrooms less frequently (≤1 time/week), the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of newly diagnosed NAFLD were 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) for those consuming 2-3 times/week and 0.76 (0.63, 0.92) for those consuming ≥4 times/week, respectively (P for trend = 0.01). The inverse association was consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex, and body mass index. In conclusion, higher mushroom intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Future research is required to understand the causal association between mushroom intake and NAFLD.
We present an experimental and numerical study of natural convection with moist air as convecting fluid. By simplifying the system as two-component convection, an experimental method is proposed for indirectly measuring the moisture transfer rates in buoyancy-driven flows. We verify the results using direct numerical simulations. It is found that the non-dimensionalized transfer rates for both sensible heat (
) and water vapour (
) are essentially determined by a generalized Grashof number
(the ratio of combined buoyancy generated by the imposed temperature and vapour pressure gradients to viscous force), and are only weakly dependent on the buoyancy ratio
(the ratio of buoyancy induced by temperature variation to that due to vapour pressure variation). Moreover, we show that the full set of control parameters
is more suitable than other choices for characterizing the two-component system under investigation. As a special case, the Schmidt number dependence for passive scalar transport rates in buoyancy-driven flows is also deduced.
This paper presents a novel balanced-to-balanced power divider (PD) based on a simple and compact three-line coupled structure for the first time. By bisecting the proposed symmetrical structure, the differential mode (DM) and the common mode (CM) equivalent circuits can be obtained for analysis. The DM equivalent circuit exhibits a three-line in-phase power dividing response, and then a resistor is added between the two outputs for achieving good isolation. Meanwhile, the CM equivalent circuit shows a three-line all-stop response so that the CM suppression in this design does not need to be considered. Accordingly, the detailed design procedure of the DM PD is given. For demonstration, a prototype centered at 1.95 GHz is designed, fabricated, and measured. The simulated and measured results with good agreement are presented, showing low DM loss and wideband CM suppression.
The semilocal convergence of a third-order Newton-like method for solving nonlinear equations is considered. Under a weak condition (the so-called γ-condition) on the derivative of the nonlinear operator, we establish a new semilocal convergence theorem for the Newton-like method and also provide an error estimate. Some numerical examples show the applicability and efficiency of our result, in comparison to other semilocal convergence theorems.
The degradation, alteration and depletion of riparian habitats caused by river regulation are among critical conservation concerns. Aquatic and riparian habitats support not only river-dwelling biota such as macroinvertebrates and fish, but also waterbirds, the top predators in the aquatic food web. Despite the intimate relationships between fish and waterbirds, the two groups are often investigated separately. Using an integrative approach, we examined the effects of dams on fish and scaly-sided merganser (Mergus squamatus), an endangered, iconic riverine species, where the lack of knowledge about habitat preferences greatly hampers long-term conservation efforts. Our analysis quantified three causal links: (1) water depth had direct, comparable, negative effects on both fish and waterbirds, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are –0.31 and –0.46, respectively; (2) river landscape heterogeneity directly and positively affected fish and waterbirds, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are 0.63 and 0.19, respectively; and (3) depth and river landscape also exerted indirect effects on waterbirds through their impacts on fish abundance, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are –0.15 and 0.28, respectively. Our findings could contribute to the rational spatial planning and sustainable operation of dams in that maintaining instream habitat availability and heterogeneity would benefit the whole riverine ecosystem.
A study in rodent models showed that phytosterols protected against colon carcinogenesis, probably by inhibiting dysregulated cell cycle progression and inducing cellular apoptosis. However, epidemiological studies on the relationship between phytosterols and colorectal cancer risk are quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary phytosterol intake in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Chinese population. A case–control study was conducted from July 2010 to June 2016, recruiting 1802 eligible colorectal cancer cases plus 1813 age (5-year interval) and sex frequency-matched controls. Dietary information was collected by using a validated FFQ. The OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. A higher total intake of phytosterols was found to be associated with a 50 % reduction in colorectal cancer risk. After adjusting for various confounders, the OR of the highest quartile intake compared with the lowest quartile intake was 0·50 (95 % CI 0·41, 0·61, Ptrend<0·01) for total phytosterols. An inverse association was also found between the consumption of β-sitosterol, campesterol, campestanol and colorectal cancer risk. However, stigmasterol intake was related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer. No statistically significant association was found between β-sitostanol and colorectal cancer risk. Stratified analysis by sex showed that the positive association of stigmasterol intake with colorectal cancer risk was found only in women. These data indicated that the consumption of total phytosterols, β-sitosterol, campesterol and campestanol is inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior is significantly affected by surface roughness, especially for high strength metal FV520B-I. However, with surface roughness effect, neither the fatigue property, nor the high-cycle fatigue life model about FV520B-I with surface roughness has been reported. In this paper, designed fatigue experiment using the specimen with different surface roughness is presented to study the effectiveness of the roughness to the fatigue. The observations of the fatigue crack initiation sites and the crack propagation. Then the high cycle fatigue behavior of FV520B-I affected by surface roughness is analyzed. The existing very-high-cycle fatigue life model is not well-fit for high-cycle fatigue model of FV520B-I. A NEW high-cycle fatigue life prediction model of FV520B-I, taking surface roughness as a main effective variable is proposed. The model is built up by a comprehensive use of experimental data and the traditional fatigue modeling theory. The new finding between the fatigue strength coefficient and stress amplitude, with surface roughness, is adopted, leading to a NEW modified life prediction model. Study on fatigue model of FV520B-I with surface roughness is a very beneficial effort in fatigue theory and fatigue engineering development.
Flavonoids may play an important role in the protective effects of vegetables, fruits and tea against colorectal cancer. However, associations between flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent, and a few studies have evaluated the effect of flavonoids from different dietary sources separately. This study aimed to evaluate associations of flavonoids intake from different dietary sources with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. From July 2010 to December 2015, 1632 eligible colorectal cancer cases and 1632 frequency-matched controls (age and sex) completed in-person interviews. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary flavonoids intake. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to calculate the OR and 95 % CI of colorectal cancer risk after adjusting for various confounders. No significant association was found between total flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk, with an adjusted OR of 1·06 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·32) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. Anthocyanidins, flavanones and flavones intakes from total diet were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted OR for the highest quartile were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·00) for anthocyanidins, 0·28 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·36) for flavanones and 0·54 (95 % CI 0·43, 0·67) for flavones. All subclasses of flavonoids from vegetables and fruits were inversely associated with colorectal cancer. However, no significant association was found between tea flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk. These data indicate that specific flavonoids, specifically flavonoids from vegetables and fruits, may be linked with the reduced risk of colorectal cancer.
In this paper, we focus on studying the high energy emission of GRB 160625B. The lightcurve of prompt emission is composed of three episodes: short-soft precursor, hard main burst, and possible long extended emission. The spectra of first and third episode can be fitted by a multi-color blackbody and cutoff power-law model, respectively. However, the spectrum of second episode was contributed by both multi-color blackbody and cutoff power-law. One can estimate the Lorenz factor of jet of first two episodes by invoking photosphere model as Γ0 ~ 175 and 1694, respectively. It suggests that the ejecta of this case evolved from photosphere dominated initially to internal shock later. On the other hand, the optical emission is very bright during the second episode, which is likely a prompt optical emission. Finally, a more shallower normal decay segment appeared, which is consistent with standard external shock model.
The Lorentz factor (Γ) is an important parameter related to the relativistic jet physics. We study the evolution patterns of Γ within gamma-ray burst (GRB) and active galactic nuclear jets for individual GRB 090168, GRB 140508A, and 3C 454.3. By estimating the Γ values for well-separated pulses in GRBs 090618 and 140508A with an empirical relation derived from typical GRBs, we find that the Γ evolution pattern in the two GRBs are different. The increasing-to-coasting evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 090618 likely indicates that the GRB fireball is still being accelerated in the prompt phase. The clear decrease evolution pattern of Γ in GRB 140508A suggests the deceleration of the fireball components. By deriving the Γ value through fitting their spectral energy distribution in different flares of 3C 454.3, a pattern of Γ-tracking-γ-ray flux is clearly found, likely indicating that the observed gamma-ray flares are being due to the Doppler boosting effect to the jet emission.
The model of a bimodal accretion disk, which consists of an Shakura-Sunyaev disk (SSD) as the outer part and an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) as the inner part, has been quite successfully applied to many black hole X-ray binaries. However, the precise physical mechanism through which such a transition occurs remains a matter of debate. We review briefly SSD-ADAF transition mechanisms presented in the literature, and offer a proposal that in the case of moderately strong viscosity, the thermal instability of a radiation pressure-supported SSD can trigger the transition.
The advancement of computational tools for material property predictions enables broad search of novel materials for various energy-related applications. However, challenges still exist in accurately predicting the mean free paths (MFPs) of electrons and phonons in a high-throughput frame for thermoelectric property predictions, which largely hinders the computation-driven search for novel materials. In this work, this need is eliminated under the small-grain-size limit, in which these MFPs are restricted by the grain sizes within a bulk material. A new criterion for ZT evaluation is proposed for general nanograined bulk materials and is demonstrated with representative oxides.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Calcification in cardiovascular aortic atherosclerotic plaque contains Ca-phosphate minerals. However, most research on cardiovascular calcification has focused on its physiological properties rather than its mineralogical features. In this present study, cardiovascular calcification was characterized by collecting samples from patients’ tissues and applying mineralogical techniques. Synchrotron radiation-based micro-X-ray diffraction showed the calcification had a similar structure to hydroxylapatite (HAp). Transmission electron microscopy showed some structurally HAp-like spherical particles with a diameter of ∼200 nm and acicular crystals ∼100 nm × ∼20 nm in size. Selected-area electron diffraction indicated that these mineral particles belonged to the hexagonal crystal system. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed three typical peaks at 1469 cm−1, 1455 cm−1 and 1413 cm−1, indicating that the carbonate group in the calcification plaque substituted for a hydroxyl group to form B-type CHAp (Ca10(PO4,CO3)x(OH)y). The FTIR mapping results illustrated the intergrowth of calcification and organic tissues and the inhomogeneous substitution of phosphate by carbonate in the calcification area. X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis affirmed that the chemical environments of Ca in the calcification were close to those in HAp. Based on these mineralogical characteristics, the calcification in plaque is identified as a mixture phase of HAp and B-type carbonate HAp, which is similar to the composition of bones.
Crystal and X-ray powder diffraction data are presented for the Al3Ho2Si2 ternary compound. The powder pattern was indexed and refined on a monoclinic cell with the Al3Y2Si2 structure type with space group C12/m1, a = 10.1096(2) Å, b = 4.020(6) Å, c = 6.5734(6) Å, β = 100.848(2)°, V = 262.37 Å3, Z = 2ρx = 5.910 g cm−3, F30 = 142.8(0.006, 35), and RIR = 0.91.
An efficient numerical method is proposed for the solution of Love's integral equation
where c > 0 is a small parameter, by using a sinc Nyström method based on a double exponential transformation. The method is derived using the property that the solution ƒ(x) of Love's integral equation satisfies ƒ (x) → 0.5 for x ∈ (−1, 1) when the parameter c → 0. Numerical results show that the proposed method is very efficient.
Reprogramming of DNA methylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos is incomplete, and aberrant DNA methylation patterns are related to the inefficiency of SCNT. To facilitate nuclear reprogramming, this study investigated the effect of treating Guangxi Bama minipig donor cells with trichostatin A (TSA), 5-aza-2′-deoxycytine (5-aza-dC), or combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC prior to nuclear transfer. Analyses showed that there were no major changes in cell-cycle status among all groups. We monitored the transcription of DNMT1, DNMT3a, HDAC1 and IGF2 genes in donor cells. Transcription levels of HDAC1 were decreased significantly after treatment with a combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC, along with a significantly increased level of IGF2 (P < 0.05). Although treatment of donor cells with either TSA or 5-aza-dC alone resulted in non-significant effects in blastocyst formation rate and DNA methylation levels, a combination of TSA and 5-aza-dC significantly improved the development rates of minipig SCNT embryos to blastocyst (25.6% vs. 16.0%, P < 0.05). This change was accompanied by decreased levels of DNA methylation in somatic cells and blastocyst (P < 0.05). Thus in combination with TSA, lower concentrations of 5-aza-dC may produce a potent demethylating activity, and lead to the significantly enhanced blastocyst development percentage of Bama minipig SCNT embryos.
The molecular structure of precursors in sol-gel processing of PbTiO3 is modified via β-diketone substitution for the isopropyl groups of titanium isopropoxide. Crystallite size and crystallization behavior are studied using x-ray diffractometry and differential thermal analysis. The crystallite size decreases with increasing amount of β-diketone substitution. Whereas the weight percent of crystalline phase first decreases and then increases with increasing β-diketone substitution. Our results indicate that the β-diketone substitution reduces the size of the structural units in the gel network resulting in smaller crystallite size and more nucleation sites in the powders produced.