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Novel NiMoO4-integrated electrode materials were successfully prepared by solvothermal method using Na2MoO4·2H2O and NiSO4·6H2O as main raw materials, water, and ethanol as solvents. The morphology, phase, and structure of the as-prepared materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, Raman, and FT-IR. The electrochemical properties of the materials in supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge–discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of volume ratio of water to ethanol (W/E) in solvent on the properties of the product were studied. The results show that the pure phase monoclinic crystal NiMoO4 product can be obtained when the W/E is 2:1. The diameter and length are 0.1–0.3 µm and approximately 3 µm, respectively. As an active material for supercapacitor, the NiMoO4 nanorods material delivered a discharge specific capacitance of 672, 498, and 396 F/g at a current density of 4, 7, and 10 A/g, respectively. The discharge specific capacitance slightly decreased from 815 to 588 F/g with a retention of 72% after 1000 cycles at a current density of 1 A/g. With these superior capacitance properties, the novel NiMoO4 integrated electrode materials could be considered as promising material for supercapacitors.
Laves phase plays a positive role in improving the strength of high-entropy alloys (HEAs); Nb and Ti elements have potential to promote Laves phase formation in some HEAs. For improving the strength of the face-centered cubic (FCC) CoCrFeMnNi HEA, a series of (CoCrFeMnNi)100−xNbx (atomic ratio: x = 0, 4, 8, 12, 16) and (CoCrFeMnNi)100−xTix (atomic ratio: x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12) HEAs were prepared by melting. The effects of Nb and Ti on the microstructure evolution and compressive properties of the CoCrFeMnNi HEAs were investigated. For (CoCrFeMnNi)100−xNbx HEAs, the second-phase (Laves and σ phase) volume fraction increased from 0 to 42%. The yield strength also increased gradually from 202 to 1010 MPa. However, the fracture strain decreased from 60% (no fracture) to 12% with increasing Nb content. For (CoCrFeMnNi)100−xTix HEAs, the yield strength increased from 202 to 1322 MPa. The Laves phase volume fraction also increased from 0 to 27%. However, the fracture strain decreased from 60% (no fracture) to 7.5% with increasing Ti content. Addition of Nb and Ti has a good effect on improving the strength of FCC CoCrFeMnNi HEA.
Most of original studies indicated maternal violence experiences is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, to date, but it is not clear that the association of maternal violence experiences and the risk of postpartum depression (PPD). We aimed to assess the association between maternal violence experiences and risk of developing PPD by performing a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Libraries and Chinese databases were searched through December 2017 to identify studies that assessed the association between violence and PPD. Meta-analysis was conducted by the RevMan software and Stata software. Potential heterogeneity source was explored by subgroup analysis and potential publication bias was assessed by Begg's funnel plots and Egger’s linear regression test.
Overall, women experiencing any violence events compared with the reference group were at a higher risk of developing PPD (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72–2.41). Additionally, different types of violence events such as sexual (OR = 1.56; 95%CI: 1.35–1.81), emotional (OR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.61–1.89), and physical violence (OR = 1.90; 95%CI: 1.36–2.67), as well as domestic (OR = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.50–2.80) or childhood violence (OR = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.34–1.88) also increased the risk of developing PPD. Relevant heterogeneity moderators have been identified by subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analysis yielded consistent results.
Maternal violence experiences are significantly associated with risk of developing PPD. These finding highlight the necessary to protect women from any types of violence and formulate preventive strategies to promote the maternal mental health.
Since 2010, Jankowski’s Bunting Emberiza jankowskii has been listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, because no comprehensive surveys had been conducted, it was not known whether undiscovered populations existed elsewhere, so the population status of the species could not be assessed accurately. The aim of this study was to assess the breeding distribution and population size of Jankowski’s Bunting in China. Fifty sites in Inner Mongolia, and Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Hebei Provinces were surveyed to locate suitable habitat and breeding populations of Jankowski’s Bunting. The surveyed sites included historical breeding distribution areas, wintering sites, and regions adjacent to historical breeding distribution areas. We confirmed that Jankowski’s Bunting has disappeared from most of its former breeding distributions, with the exceptions of Dagang, Xiergen and Tumiji. Additionally, 13 new breeding sites were discovered in Inner Mongolia. All currently known populations breed in Mongolian steppe-vegetation zones, with shrubs dominated by the natural Siberian apricot Prunus sibirica, indicating that this type of habitat is crucial for the survival of the species. Based on remote sensing, the suitable breeding habitat for Jankowski’s Bunting is estimated to be approximately 280 km2. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting could range between 9,800 and 12,500 individuals, which is much higher than the numbers estimated in previous reports that were based on partial surveys. The suitable habitat remaining in Inner Mongolia would highly benefit from the implementation of the National Key Public Forest Protection Project. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting is larger than previously estimated, but it is still threatened by habitat degradation and fragmentation, and our survey results reinforce the need for more research. The status of Jankowski’s Bunting in China still meets the IUCN criteria B2ab for an ‘Endangered’ species.
Zeolite–zeolite composite composed of alumina-rich hierarchically porous ZSM-5 cores and high-silicon MFI shells was prepared by a hydrothermal synthesis procedure, in which a commercial ZSM-5 zeolite with a SiO2/Al2O3 of 36 was treated by an alkaline solution and then used as a supporter for epitaxial growth of a polycrystalline Silicalite-1 zeolite shell (denoted as MMZsa). Acid sites associated with framework Al on exterior surfaces of ZSM-5 zeolite cores are therefore passivated in different degrees by the epitaxial MFI zeolite shell. The structural, crystalline, and textural properties of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), N2 adsorption-desorption, in situ IR spectra of pyridine and NH3-TPD. Aluminum species were observed to transfer from the alumina-rich cores to the high-silica shells. The adjustable thickness and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of the shell offer the as-synthesized composite a potential and high-efficiency catalyst for methanol conversion into gasoline and diesel. As compared with the commercial ZSM-5 zeolite, the composite catalyst exhibits excellent catalytic performances with a longer catalytic life as well as a higher conversion and a slightly higher yield of diesel oil.
The microstructure evolution of a typical nickel-based superalloy was studied in the temperature range of 960–1160 °C with the strain rate of 0.001 s−1 by using electron backscattered diffraction technique. Based on the grain orientation spread method, the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) grains were distinguished from the deformed grains. The results revealed that the volume fraction and the size of DRX grains increased with the increasing deformation temperatures. Most of the original Σ3 boundaries lost their twin characteristics due to crystal rotations during hot deformation. Meanwhile, lots of new Σ3 boundaries were formed in the DRX grains mainly by growth accidents. Moreover, the deformation temperature had a similar effect on the fraction of Σ3 boundary and the Σ3 boundary density in the DRX domains, which increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing deformation temperature. The Σ3 boundary density was analyzed as a function of grain size, and the critical grain size below which no twin forms was calculated to be 2.06 µm. In addition, the coherent Σ3 boundaries were easier to form at the higher deformation temperature due to their lower boundary energy.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for letrozole, C17H11N5, are reported [a = 7.034(0) Å, b = 16.177(5) Å, c = 13.411(3) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 105.71(9)°, unit-cell volume V = 1469.0(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
Novel composite materials with wide pores were synthesized by an in situ technique using kaolin, palygorskite and pseudoboehmite as raw materials. The characterization results indicated that the synthesis components and conditions influenced the micro-, meso- and macro-porosity of the composite materials. The composites contained 53.5% zeolite Y and had much larger specific surface areas and pore volumes as well as significant hydrothermal stability. Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts were prepared based on the composite materials. The results indicated that the as-prepared catalysts possessed a unique pore structure which assisted in diffusion-controlled reactions. In addition, the attrition resistance, activity and hydrothermal stability of the catalyst studied were superior to those of a reference catalyst. The catalyst studied also exhibited excellent nickel and vanadium passivation performance, strong ‘bottoms upgrading’ selectivity and better gasoline and coke selectivity.
Thermal stress can induce birefringence in a laser medium, which can cause depolarization of the laser. The depolarization effect will be very severe in a high-average-power laser. Because the depolarization will make the frequency doubling efficiency decline, it should be compensated. In this paper, the thermal characteristics of two kinds of materials are analyzed in respect of temperature, thermal deformation and thermal stress. The depolarization result from thermal stress was simulated. Depolarization on non-uniform pumping was also simulated, and the compensation method is discussed.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
As an international metropolitan area undergoing rapid development, Beijing is facing a sharp rise in the volume of motor vehicles and mobility, which has become the major contributor to the air pollution in this city. This is evident in the recent ranking of Beijing as the most congested as well as the most polluted city in the world by the Millennium Cities Database. Local government has adopted a battery of policies to reduce these problems. In this study, we investigate the impact of increasing the fuel tax on travel mode choice based on a large sample of travel survey data. We estimate that if the price of gasoline increased to a moderate level, 11.53 RMB/liter, the total car volume on the road would be reduced by 7 per cent, which corresponds to a reduction in CO2 emissions of 786,002.4 tons, or about 8 per cent of vehicular emissions from private cars and company-owned cars in Beijing.
We studied seasonal patterns of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in China. From 2008 to 2011, 4200 swine bile specimens were collected for the detection of HEV RNA. A total of 92/2400 (3·83%) specimens in eastern China and 47/1800 (2·61%) specimens in southwestern China were positive for HEV. Seasonal patterns differing by geographical area were suggested. In eastern China, the major peak of HEV RNA prevalence was during March–April, with a minor peak during September–October, and a dip during July–August. In southwestern China, the peak was during September–October and the dip during March–April. The majority of subtype 4a cases (63/82, 76·83%) were detected in the first half of the year, while the majority of subtype 4b cases (26/29, 89·66%) were concentrated in the second half of the year, suggesting that different subtypes contribute to different peaks. Our results indicate that the distribution of HEV subtypes is associated with seasonal patterns.
We construct the generalized Witt modular Lie superalgebra of Cartan type. We give a set of generators for and show that is an extension of a subalgebra of by an ideal . Finally, we describe the homogeneous derivations of Z-degree of and we determine the derivation superalgebra of .
Analyses of sedimentary evidence in the form of spores, pollen, freshwater algae, dinoflagellate cysts, phytoliths and charcoal from AMS 14C-dated, Holocene-aged sequences provide an excellent opportunity to examine the responses of Neolithic agriculturalists in the lower Yangtze to changing environments. Evidence from two sites close to the southern margin of the Yangtze delta and separated by what is now Hangzhou Bay attests the critical importance to early attempts at food production of access to freshwater resources. More readily, if episodically, available freshwater resources during the early to mid-Holocene on the Hangjiahu plain may have encouraged an early reliance on rice-based agriculture, which in turn facilitated the accumulation of agricultural surpluses and cultural diversification. Cultural change was relatively attenuated and human population pressures possibly lower on the Ningshao plain, seemingly because of much more profound environmental impacts of variations in local hydrological conditions, and because predominantly saline conditions, associated with rising relative sea level, hampered the early development of irrigated agriculture. The evidence, although largely dating to the early and middle parts of the Holocene, provides a timely warning of the complexity of vulnerability to climate change-induced processes of agriculture, and indeed human activities more generally, on megadeltas in Asia.
An anisotropic solution adaptive method based on unstructured quadrilateral meshes for inviscid compressible flows is proposed. The data structure, the directional refinement and coarsening, including the method for initializing the refined new cells, for the anisotropic adaptive method are described. It provides efficient high resolution of flow features, which are aligned with the original quadrilateral mesh structures. Five different cases are provided to show that it could be used to resolve the anisotropic flow features and be applied to model the complex geometry as well as to keep a relative high order of accuracy on an efficient anisotropic mesh.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. Baicalein is a flavonoid originally isolated from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of the combination of albendazole and baicalein for treating eosinophilic meningitis in BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy included the survival time, body weight, neurological function, leucocyte and eosinophil counts, eotaxin concentration, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity, larval recovery and histopathological examination. The results showed that the combination of albendazole and baicalein was more effective than either drug administered singly. Combination therapy increased the survival time, decreased body weight loss, neurological dysfunction, leucocyte response, eotaxin concentration and MMP-9 activity. Our results suggest that the combination of albendazole and baicalein may exhibit synergistic beneficial effects in the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis induced by A. cantonensis.
The effects of acid and Al concentration, type of Al salt, treatment temperature and time of removal of Mg from sepiolite have been investigated, as has the use of modified sepiolite as an active fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) matrix. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption and X-ray diffraction. Mg removal from sepiolite increased with increasing acid and Al ion concentration, treatment time and temperature. The temperature had the greatest impact on Mg removal. After acid and Al modification, 29% of the Mg was removed. When using the modified sepiolites as active matrices in FCC catalysts, the specific surface area, pore volume and mesoporous pore volume of the catalysts increased and they exhibited excellent performance in resisting the effects of heavy-metals as a result of the introduction of Mg oxide from the modified sepiolite.
Sulphur reduction catalysts represent a viable option for S reduction in the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. In this paper, a kaolin in situ crystallization catalyst was modified with vanadium and evaluated in a fixed fluid bed (FFB) reactor. The relation between the acidity of the catalyst, the S reduction rate and the catalyst activity is discussed. The results show that increasing weak Lewis acid acidity favours S reduction in the FCC process. Increasing the V content enhances the weak Lewis acidity, so causing the S reduction rate to increase. The kaolin in situ crystallization catalyst modified with 0.6 wt.% of V leads to a 34.5% reduction in the S content of the liquid product. Comprehensive evaluation of the FFB results and the S reduction ability indicates that the catalyst modified with 0.45 wt.% V provided the best performance.
The properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT), in particular a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT), are highly sensitive to the atomic structure of the nanotube described by its chirality (chiral indices). We have grown isolated SWNTs on a silicon substrate using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and patterned sub-micron probes using electron beam lithography. The SWNT was exposed by etching the underlying substrate for transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging and diffraction studies. For each individual SWNT, its electrical resistance was measured by the four-probe method at room temperature and the chiral indices of the same SWNT were determined by nano-beam electron diffraction. The contact resistances were reduced by annealing to typically 3-5 kΩ. We have measured the I-V curve and determined the chiral indices of each nanotube individually from four SWNTs selected randomly – two are metallic and two are semiconducting. We will present the electrical resistances in correlation with the carbon nanotube diameter as well as the band gap calculated from the determined chiral indices for the semiconducting carbon nanotubes. These experimental results are also discussed in connection with theoretical estimations.