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Parenting is a common and potent environmental factor influencing adolescent anxiety. Yet, the underlying neurobiological susceptibility signatures remain elusive. Here, we used a longitudinal twin neuroimaging study to investigate the brain network integration and its heritable relation to underpin the neural differential susceptibility of adolescent anxiety to parenting environments.
216 twins from the Beijing Twin Study completed the parenting and anxiety assessments and fMRI scanning. We first identified the brain network integration involved in the influences of parenting at age 12 on anxiety symptoms at age 15. We then estimated to what extent heritable sensitive factors are responsible for the susceptibility of brain network integration.
Consistent with the differential susceptibility theory, the results showed that hypo-connectivity within the central executive network amplified the impact of maternal hostility on anxiety symptoms. A high anti-correlation between the anterior salience and default mode networks played a similar modulatory role in the susceptibility of adolescent anxiety to paternal hostility. Genetic influences (21.18%) were observed for the connectivity pattern in the central executive network.
Brain network integration served as a promising neurobiological signature of the differential susceptibility to adolescent anxiety. Our findings deepen the understanding of the neural sensitivity in the developing brain and can inform early identification and personalized interventions for adolescents at risk of anxiety disorders.
In spring 2020, U.S. schools universally transitioned to online learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic’s onset, thus creating a natural experiment for examining adolescents’ risk and resilience during an ongoing school crisis response. This longitudinal study used a daily-diary approach to investigate the role of social support in the link between remote learning and psychological well-being across 64 days among a national sample of adolescents (n = 744; 42% Black, 36% White, 22% Other ethnicity/race; 41% boys; 72% eligible for free/reduced-priced lunch; Mage=14.60, SDage=1.71, age-range = 12–17 years). On days when youth attended remote learning, they reported lower daily positive affect, more daily stress, and higher parent social support. There were no significant differences in the effect of remote learning on affect or stress by race or economic status. On days when youth experienced more parent support, they reported lower daily stress and negative affect and higher daily positive affect. On days when youth experienced more peer support, they reported higher daily positive affect. Overall, the study highlights the impact of pandemic-onset remote learning on adolescents’ psychological well-being and emphasizes the need for future research on school crisis contingency planning to address these challenges.
Insect response to cold stress is often associated with adaptive strategies and chemical variation. However, low-temperature domestication to promote the cold tolerance potential of Bactrocera dorsalis and transformation of main internal substances are not clear. Here, we use a series of low-temperature exposure experiments, supercooling point (SCP) measurement, physiological substances and cryoprotectants detection to reveal that pre-cooling with milder low temperatures (5 and 10°C) for several hours (rapid cold hardening) and days (cold acclimation) can dramatically improve the survival rate of adults and pupae under an extremely low temperature (−6.5°C). Besides, the effect of rapid cold hardening for adults could be maintained even 4 h later with 25°C exposures, and SCP was significantly declined after cold acclimation. Furthermore, content of water, fat, protein, glycogen, sorbitol, glycerol and trehalose in bodies were measured. Results showed that water content was reduced and increased content of proteins, glycogen, glycerol and trehalose after two cold domestications. Our findings suggest that rapid cold hardening and cold acclimation could enhance cold tolerance of B. dorsalis by increasing proteins, glycerol, trehalose and decreasing water content. Conclusively, identifying a physiological variation will be useful for predicting the occurrence and migration trend of B. dorsalis populations.
Trace elements may play an important role in obesity. This study aimed to assess the plasma and dietary intake levels of four trace elements, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se in a rural Chinese population, and analyse the relationship between trace elements and obesity. A cross-sectional study involving 2587 participants was conducted. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between trace elements and obesity; restricted cubic spline (RCS) models were used to assess the dose–response relationship between trace elements and obesity; the weighted quantile sum (WQS) model was used to examine the potential interaction of four plasma trace elements on obesity. Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma Se concentrations in the fourth quartile (Q4) exhibited a lower risk of developing obesity than the first quartile (Q1) (central obesity: OR = 0·634, P = 0·002; general obesity: OR = 0·525, P = 0·005). Plasma Zn concentration in the third quartile (Q3) showed a lower risk of developing obesity in general obesity compared with the first quartile (Q1) (OR = 0·625, P = 0·036). In general obesity, the risk of morbidity was 1·727 and 1·923 times higher for the second and third (Q2, Q3) quartiles of dietary Mn intake than for Q1, respectively. RCS indicated an inverse U-shaped correlation between plasma Se and obesity. WQS revealed the combined effects of four trace elements were negatively associated with central obesity. Plasma Zn and Se were negatively associated with obesity, and dietary Mn was positively associated with obesity. The combined action of the four plasma trace elements had a negative effect on obesity.
Cryptosporidium spp. are significant opportunistic pathogens causing diarrhoea in humans and animals. Pigs are one of the most important potential hosts for Cryptosporidium. We evaluated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs globally using published information and a random-effects model. In total, 131 datasets from 36 countries were included in the final quantitative analysis. The global prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs was 16.3% (8560/64 809; 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.0–17.6%). The highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs was 40.8% (478/1271) in Africa. Post-weaned pigs had a significantly higher prevalence (25.8%; 2739/11 824) than pre-weaned, fattening and adult pigs. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was higher in pigs with no diarrhoea (12.2%; 371/3501) than in pigs that had diarrhoea (8.0%; 348/4874). Seven Cryptosporidium species (Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium muris, Cryptosporidium tyzzeri, Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium struthioni) were detected in pigs globally. The proportion of C. scrofarum was 34.3% (1491/4351); the proportion of C. suis was 31.8% (1385/4351) and the proportion of C. parvum was 2.3% (98/4351). The influence of different geographic factors (latitude, longitude, mean yearly temperature, mean yearly relative humidity and mean yearly precipitation) on the infection rate of Cryptosporidium in pigs was also analysed. The results indicate that C. suis is the dominant species in pre-weaned pigs, while C. scrofarum is the dominant species in fattening and adult pigs. The findings highlight the role of pigs as possible potential hosts of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis and the need for additional studies on the prevalence, transmission and control of Cryptosporidium in pigs.
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection in the world, and its epidemics result in heavy disease burdens. Over the past decade, HFMD has been widespread among children in China, with Shanxi Province being a severely affected northern province. Located in the temperate monsoon climate, Shanxi has a GDP of over 2.5 trillion yuan. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the basic features of HFMD in those areas that have similar meteorological and economic backgrounds to northern China. We aimed to investigate epidemiological characteristics, identify spatial clusters and predict monthly incidence of HFMD. All reported HFMD cases were obtained from the Shanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Overall HFMD incidence showed a significant downward trend from 2017 to 2020, increasing again in 2021. Children aged < 5 years were primarily affected, with a high incidence of HFMD in male patients (relative risk: 1.316). The distribution showed a seasonal trend, with major peaks in June and July and secondary peaks in October and November with the exception of 2020. Other enteroviruses were the predominant causative agents of HFMD in most years. Areas with large numbers of HFMD cases were primarily in central Shanxi, and spatial clusters in 2017 and 2018 showed a positive global spatial correlation. Local spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that hot spots and secondary hot spots were concentrated in Jinzhong and Yangquan in 2018. Based on monthly incidence from September 2021 to August 2022, the mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and root mean square error (RMSE) of the long short-term memory (LSTM) and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were 386.58 vs. 838.25, 2.25 vs. 3.08, and 461.96 vs. 963.13, respectively, indicating that the predictive accuracy of LSTM was better than that of SARIMA. The LSTM model may be useful in predicting monthly incidences of HFMD, which may provide early warnings of HFMD epidemics.
We present a high-energy, hundred-picosecond (ps) pulsed mid-ultraviolet solid-state laser at 266 nm by a direct second harmonic generation (SHG) in a barium borate (BaB2O4, BBO) nonlinear crystal. The green pump source is a 710 mJ, 330 ps pulsed laser at a wavelength of 532 nm with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Under a green pump energy of 710 mJ, a maximum output energy of 253.3 mJ at 266 nm is achieved with 250 ps pulse duration resulting in a peak power of more than 1 GW, corresponding to an SHG conversion efficiency of 35.7% from 532 to 266 nm. The experimental data were well consistent with the theoretical prediction. To the best of our knowledge, this laser exhibits both the highest output energy and highest peak power ever achieved in a hundred-ps/ps regime at 266 nm for BBO-SHG.
The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing urban–rural differences in depressive symptoms among old people in China and to measure the contribution of relevant influencing factors.
A cross-sectional research. The 2018 data from The Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey (CLHLS).
Twenty-three provinces in China.
From the 8th CLHLS, 11,245 elderly participants were selected who met the requirements of the study.
We established binary logistic regression models to explore the main influencing factors of their depressive symptoms and used Fairlie models to analyze the influencing factors of the differences in depressive symptoms between the urban and rural elderly and their contribution.
The percentage of depressive symptoms among Chinese older adults was 11.72%, and the results showed that rural older adults (12.41%) had higher rates of depressive symptoms than urban (10.13%). The Fairlie decomposition analysis revealed that 73.96% of the difference in depressive symptoms could be explained, which was primarily associated with differences in annual income (31.51%), education level (28.05%), sleep time ( − 25.67%), self-reported health (24.18%), instrumental activities of daily living dysfunction (20.73%), exercise (17.72%), living status ( − 8.31%), age ( − 3.84%), activities of daily living dysfunction ( − 3.29%), and social activity (2.44%).
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in rural than in urban older adults, which was primarily associated with differences in socioeconomic status, personal lifestyle, and health status factors between the urban and rural residents. If these factors were addressed, we could make targeted and precise intervention strategies to improve the mental health of high-risk elderly.
Pie charts are often used to communicate risk, such as the risk of driving. In the foreground-background salience effect (FBSE), foreground (probability of bad event) has greater salience than background (no bad event) in such a chart. Experiment 1 confirmed that the displays format of pie charts showed a typical FBSE. Experiment 2 showed that the FBSE resulted from a difference in cognitive efforts in processing the messages and that a foreground-emphasizing display was easier to process. Experiment 3 manipulated subjects’ information processing mindset and explored the interaction between displays format and information processing mindset. In the default mindset, careless subjects displayed a typical FBSE, while those who were instructed to be careful reported similar risk-avoidant behavior preference reading both charts. Suggestions for improving risk communication are discussed.
Despite increasing knowledge on the neuroimaging patterns of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in non-clinical populations, studies using whole-brain machine learning to identify connectome-based neuromarkers of ED symptomatology are absent. This study examined the association of connectivity within and between large-scale functional networks with specific symptomatic behaviors and cognitions using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM).
CPM with ten-fold cross-validation was carried out to probe functional networks that were predictive of ED-associated symptomatology, including body image concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors, within the discovery sample of 660 participants. The predictive ability of the identified networks was validated using an independent sample of 821 participants.
The connectivity predictive of body image concerns was identified within and between networks implicated in cognitive control (frontoparietal and medial frontal), reward sensitivity (subcortical), and visual perception (visual). Crucially, the set of connections in the positive network related to body image concerns identified in one sample was generalized to predict body image concerns in an independent sample, suggesting the replicability of this effect.
These findings point to the feasibility of using the functional connectome to predict ED symptomatology in the general population and provide the first evidence that functional interplay among distributed networks predicts body shape/weight concerns.
As an integral ingredient of human sociality, prosocial behavior requires learning what acts can benefit or harm others. However, it remains unknown how individuals adjust prosocial learning to avoid punishment or to pursue reward. Given that arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neuropeptide that has been involved in modulating various social behaviors in mammals, it could be a crucial neurochemical facilitator that supports prosocial learning.
In 50 placebo controls and 54 participants with AVP administration, we examined the modulation of AVP on the prosocial learning characterized by reward and punishment framework, as well as its underlying neurocomputational mechanisms combining computational modeling, event-related potentials and oscillations.
We found a self-bias that individuals learn to avoid punishment asymmetrically more severely than reward-seeking. Importantly, AVP increased behavioral performances and learning rates when making decisions to avoid losses for others and to obtain gains for self. These behavioral effects were underpinned by larger responses of stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) to anticipation, as well as higher punishment-related feedback-related negativity (FRN) for prosocial learning and reward-related P300 for proself benefits, while FRN and P300 neural processes were integrated into theta (4–7 Hz) oscillation at the outcome evaluation stage.
These results suggest that AVP context-dependently up-regulates altruism for concerning others' losses and reward-seeking for self-oriented benefits. Our findings provide insight into the selectively modulatory roles of AVP in prosocial behaviors depending on learning contexts between proself reward-seeking and prosocial punishment-avoidance.
Family functioning is associated with anxiety and depression. Perinatal depression and anxiety are common and influence the well-being of women, partners and their offspring. However, little is known about differences in associations between family functioning and mood symptoms in women and their partners in early pregnancy.
Investigating differences in associations between family functioning and anxious and depressive symptoms in women and their partners in early pregnancy.
In total, 171 woman–partner pairs were enrolled. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item scale (GAD-7) and Family Assessment Device (FAD) were performed. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were applied to investigate the associations.
In pregnant women, all the subscale scores on the FAD were correlated with total scores on the EPDS and GAD-7 (all P < 0.05), whereas only the Roles subscale showed a predicting effect in regression models (P < 0.01). In partners, all the subscale scores on the FAD were related to total scores on the PHQ-9 (all P < 0.05), whereas only the Problem Solving subscale showed a predicting effect (P = 0.029).
Our findings indicate that family functioning in the domain of roles is associated with anxious and depressive symptoms in pregnant women and functioning in the domain of problem solving is associated with depressive symptoms in partners. Clinicians should pay special attention to roles and problem solving when assessing mood symptoms in pregnant women and their partners. This study also provides a basis for family health education in early pregnancy.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
The autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) has a problem with feature loss when recognizing small targets underwater. At present, algorithms usually use multi-scale feature extraction to solve the problem, but this method increases the computational effort of the algorithm. In addition, low underwater light and turbid water result in incomplete information on target features. This paper proposes an enhanced dilated convolution framework (EHDC) for underwater blurred target recognition. Firstly, this paper extracts small target features through hybrid dilated convolution networks, increasing the perceptive field of the algorithm without increasing the computational power of the algorithm. Secondly, the proposed algorithm learns spatial semantic features through an adaptive correlation matrix and compensates for the missing features of the target. Finally, this paper fuses spatial semantic features and visual features for the recognition of small underwater blurred targets. Experiments show that the proposed method improves the recognition accuracy by 1.04% compared to existing methods when recognizing small underwater blurred targets.
We aimed to investigate the associations of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-style diet and Mediterranean-style diet with blood pressure (BP) in less-developed ethnic minority regions (LEMR).
Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ. Dietary quality was assessed by the DASH-style diet score and the alternative Mediterranean-style diet (aMED) score. The association between dietary quality and BP was evaluated using multivariate linear regression model. We further examined those associations in subgroups of BP level.
A total of 81 433 adults from the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) study were included in this study.
In the overall population, compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH-style diet score was negatively associated with systolic BP (SBP) (coefficient –2·78, 95 % CI –3·15, –2·41; Pfor trend < 0·001), while the highest quintile of aMED score had a weaker negative association with SBP (coefficient –1·43, 95 % CI –1·81, –1·05; Pfor trend < 0·001). Both dietary indices also showed a weaker effect on diastolic BP (coefficient for DASH-style diet –1·06, 95 % CI –1·30, –0·82; coefficient for aMED –0·43, 95 % CI –0·68, –0·19). In the subgroup analysis, both dietary indices showed a stronger beneficial effect on SBP in the hypertension group than in either of the other subgroups.
Our results indicated that the healthy diet originating from Western developed countries can also have beneficial effects on BP in LEMR. DASH-style diet may be a more appropriate recommendation than aMED as part of a dietary strategy to control BP, especially in hypertensive patients.
We report on experimental observation of non-laminar proton acceleration modulated by a strong magnetic field in laser irradiating micrometer aluminum targets. The results illustrate the coexistence of ring-like and filamentation structures. We implement the knife edge method into the radiochromic film detector to map the accelerated beams, measuring a source size of 30–110 μm for protons of more than 5 MeV. The diagnosis reveals that the ring-like profile originates from low-energy protons far off the axis whereas the filamentation is from the near-axis high-energy protons, exhibiting non-laminar features. Particle-in-cell simulations reproduced the experimental results, showing that the short-term magnetic turbulence via Weibel instability and the long-term quasi-static annular magnetic field by the streaming electric current account for the measured beam profile. Our work provides direct mapping of laser-driven proton sources in the space-energy domain and reveals the non-laminar beam evolution at featured time scales.
This study assessed the molecular mechanism of EPA or DHA protection against intestinal porcine epithelial cell line 1 (IPEC-1) cell damage induced by deoxynivalenol (DON). The cells were divided into six groups, including the CON group, the EPA group, the DHA group, the DON group, the EPA + DON group and the DHA + DON group. RNA sequencing was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of selected genes. Changes in ultrastructure were used to estimate pathological changes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) injury in IPEC-1 cells. Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) was tested by ELISA. Fe2+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were estimated by spectrophotometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by fluorospectrophotometry. RNA sequencing analysis showed that EPA and DHA had a significant effect on the expression of genes involved in ER stress and iron balance during DON-induced cell injury. The results showed that DON increased ER damage, the content of MDA and ROS, the ratio of X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s)/X-box binding protein 1u (XBP-1u), the concentration of Fe2+ and the activity of TFR1. However, the results also showed that EPA and DHA decreased the ratio of XBP-1s/XBP-1u to relieve DON-induced ER damage of IPEC-1 cells. Moreover, EPA and DHA (especially DHA) reversed the factors related to iron balance. It can be concluded that EPA and DHA reversed IPEC-1 cell damage induced by DON. DHA has the potential to protect IPEC-1 cells from DON-induced iron imbalance by inhibiting ER stress.
The findings regarding the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the metabolic syndrome (Mets) have been inconclusive, and evidence from Chinese populations is scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the associations between red meat, fish and poultry consumption, and the prevalence of the Mets and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 4424 participants were eligible for the analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the Mets and its components according to red meat, fish and poultry consumption. In addition, the data of our cross-sectional study were meta-analysed under a random effects model along with those of published observational studies to generate the summary relative risks (RR) of the associations between the highest v. lowest categories of red meat, fish and poultry consumption and the Mets and its components. In the cross-sectional study, the multivariable-adjusted OR for the highest v. lowest quartiles of consumption was 1·23 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·48) for red meat, 0·83 (95 % CI 0·72, 0·97) for fish and 0·93 (95 % CI 0·74, 1·18) for poultry. In the meta-analysis, the pooled RR for the highest v. lowest categories of consumption was 1·20 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·35) for red meat, 0·88 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·96) for fish and 0·97 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·10) for poultry. The findings of both cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses indicated that the association between fish consumption and the Mets may be partly driven by the inverse association of fish consumption with elevated TAG and reduced HDL-cholesterol and, to a lesser extent, fasting plasma glucose. No clear pattern of associations was observed between red meat or poultry consumption and the components of the Mets. The current findings add weight to the evidence that the Mets may be positively associated with red meat consumption, inversely associated with fish consumption and neutrally associated with poultry consumption.