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People with serious mental illness are at great risk of suicide, but little is known about the suicide rates among this population. We aimed to quantify the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness (bipolar disorder, major depression, or schizophrenia).
PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify studies published from 1 January 1975 to 10 December 2020. We assessed English-language studies for the suicide rates among people with serious mental illness. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. Changes in follow-up time and the suicide rates were presented by a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing (LOESS) curve. Suicide rate ratio was estimated for assessments of difference in suicide rate by sex.
Of 5014 identified studies, 41 were included in this analysis. The pooled suicide rate was 312.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 230.3–406.8). Europe was reported to have the highest pooled suicide rate of 335.2 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 261.5–417.6). Major depression had the highest suicide rate of 534.3 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 30.4–1448.7). There is a downward trend in suicide rate estimates over follow-up time. Excess risk of suicide in males was found [1.90 (95% CI 1.60–2.25)]. The most common suicide method was poisoning [21.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI 3.7–50.4)].
The suicide rates among people with serious mental illness were high, highlighting the requirements for increasing psychological assessment and monitoring. Further study should focus on region and age differences in suicide among this population.
Schizophrenia is considered a polygenic disorder. People with schizophrenia and those with genetic high risk of schizophrenia (GHR) have presented with similar neurodevelopmental deficits in hemispheric asymmetry. The potential associations between neurodevelopmental abnormalities and schizophrenia-related risk genes in both schizophrenia and those with GHR remains unclear.
To investigate the shared and specific alternations to the structural network in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR. And to identify an association between vulnerable structural network alternation and schizophrenia-related risk genes.
A total of 97 participants with schizophrenia, 79 participants with GHR and 192 healthy controls, underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans at a single site. We used graph theory to characterise hemispheric and whole-brain structural network topological metrics. For 26 people in the schizophrenia group and 48 in the GHR group with DTI scans we also calculated their schizophrenia-related polygenic risk scores (SZ-PRSs). The correlations between alterations to the structural network and SZ-PRSs were calculated. Based on the identified genetic–neural association, bioinformatics enrichment was explored.
There were significant hemispheric asymmetric deficits of nodal efficiency, global and local efficiency in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Hemispheric asymmetric deficit of local efficiency was significantly positively correlated with SZ-PRSs in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Bioinformatics enrichment analysis showed that these risk genes may be linked to signal transduction, neural development and neuron structure. The schizophrenia group showed a significant decrease in the whole-brain structural network.
The shared asymmetric deficits in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR, and the association between anomalous asymmetry and SZ-PRSs suggested a vulnerability imaging marker regulated by schizophrenia-related risk genes. Our findings provide new insights into asymmetry regulated by risk genes and provides a better understanding of the genetic–neural pathological underpinnings of schizophrenia.
This study evaluated the effects of dietary myo-inositol (MI) on growth performance, body composition, antioxidant status and lipid metabolism of juvenile Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) fed different percentage of lipid. Crabs (4.58 ± 0.05 g) were fed four diets including a normal lipid diet (N, containing 7% lipid and 0 mg/kg MI), N with MI supplementation (N+MI, containing 7% lipid and 1600 mg/kg MI), a high lipid diet (H, containing 13% lipid and 0 mg/kg MI) and H with MI supplementation (H+MI, containing 13% lipid and 1600 mg/kg MI) for 8 weeks. The H+MI group showed higher weight gain and specific growth rate than those in the H group. The dietary MI could improve the reduction of whole-body protein content, low MI content in the hepatopancreas, and lipid accumulations in the whole-body, hepatopancreas and muscle as a result of feeding on the high dietary lipid (13%) in crabs. Besides, the crabs fed the H+MI diets increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, but reduced the malondialdehyde content in hepatopancreas compared with those fed the H diets. Moreover, dietary MI enhanced the expression of genes involved in lipid oxidation and exportation, yet reduced lipid absorption and synthesis genes expression in the hepatopancreas of crabs fed the H diet, which might be related to the activation of IP3R/CaMKKβ/AMPK signalling pathway. This study demonstrates that MI could increase lipid utilization and reduce lipid deposition in the hepatopancreas of E. sinensis fed a high lipid diet through IP3R/CaMKKβ/AMPK activation. This work provides new insights into the function of MI in the diet of crustaceans.
In this contribution, we report on an in-depth case study of the ten-thousand-citizen review in Nanjing, an initiative to deal with the accountability deficit with which many Chinese governments have to cope. Nanjing Municipality invited citizens to evaluate officials’ performance, and their reviews influenced the scores of officials’ remunerations and even their careers. On the basis of theory, in this study, we develop a typology that is used to analyse how the introduction of this new horizontal practice of “letting citizens judge” influenced the existing accountability relations and how these relationships evolved over time. Our findings show that citizens’ involvement initially resulted in a practice in which types of accountability were mixed and resulted in a situation of multiple accountabilities disorder. Only gradually were accountability characteristics aligned and the accountability deficit and overload reduced. This demonstrates the difficulties and challenges of introducing horizontal accountability arrangements in existing accountability systems.
The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
Embryogenic callus induction and regeneration are useful in many aspects of plant biotechnology, especially in the functional characterization of economically important genes. However, in sugarcane, callus induction and regeneration vary across genotypes. Saccharum spontaneum is an important wild germplasm that confers disease resistance and stress tolerance to modern sugarcane cultivars, and its genome has been completely sequenced. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic variations on embryogenic callus induction and regeneration in S. spontaneum and to screen genotypes having high tissue culture susceptibility. The study was performed using nine genotypes of S. spontaneum and the following five parameters were assessed to determine the response of genotypes to embryogenic callus induction and regeneration: callus induction, embryogenic callus ratio, embryogenic callus induction, embryonic callus regeneration and regeneration capacity. All the genotypes varied significantly (P < 0.01) in all the parameters, except for embryonic callus regeneration, which was high (>80%) for all the genotypes. High broad-sense heritability (86.1–96.8%) indicated that genetic differences are the major source of genotypic variations. Callus induction was found to be strongly positively correlated with embryogenic callus induction (r = 0.890, P < 0.01) and regeneration capacity (r = 0.881, P < 0.01). Among the nine tested genotypes, VN2 was found to be the most responsive to tissue culture and could therefore be used to characterize functional genes in S. spontaneum. We also suggested an approach with potential applications in facilitating the rapid identification of sugarcane genotypes susceptible to tissue culture.
This article interrogates the operating logic of China's street-level regulatory state, demonstrating that residents’ committees (RCs) assume a role as regulatory intermediaries to enhance the efficiency of local governance. Using Shanghai's new recycling regulations as a case study, it explores the mechanisms by which RCs elicit not only citizens’ compliance but also active participation. We show that the central mechanisms derive from the RCs’ skilful mobilization of particular social forces, namely mianzi and guanxi, which are produced within close-knit social networks inside Shanghai's housing estates (xiaoqu). We advance three arguments in the study of China's emerging regulatory state. First, we show how informal social forces are employed in regulatory governance at the street level, combining authoritarian control with grassroots participation. Second, the focus on RCs as regulatory intermediaries reveals the important role played by these street-level administrative units in policy implementation. Third, we suggest that the RCs’ harnessing of informal social forces is essential not only for successful policy implementation at street level but also for the production of the local state's political legitimacy.
The low efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) greatly limits its application. Compared with the fertilized embryo, cloned embryos display abnormal epigenetic modification and other inferior developmental properties. In this study, small RNAs were isolated, and miR-34c and miR-125b were quantified by real-time PCR; results showed that these micro-RNAs were highly expressed in sperm. The test sample was divided into three groups: one was the fertilized group, one was the SCNT control group (NT-C group), and the third group consisted of SCNT embryos injected with sperm-borne small RNA (NT-T group). The level of tri-methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3) at the 8-cell stage was determined by immunofluorescence staining, and the cleavage ratio, blastocyst ratio, apoptotic cell index of the blastocyst and total cell number of blastocysts in each group were analyzed. Results showed that the H3K9me3 level was significantly higher in the NT-C group than in the fertilized group and the NT-T group. The apoptosis index of blastocysts in the NT-C group was significantly higher than that in the fertilized group and the NT-T group. The total cell number of SCNT embryos was significantly lower than that of fertilized embryos, and injecting sperm-borne small RNAs could significantly increase the total cell number of SCNT blastocysts. Our study not only demonstrates that sperm-borne small RNAs have an important role in embryo development, but also provides a new strategy for improving the efficiency of SCNT in rabbit.
We investigated the effects of botulinum toxin on gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with foot dystonia. Six patients underwent onabotulinum toxin A injection and were assessed by Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS), visual analog scale (VAS) of pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG), Berg Balance Test (BBT), and 3D gait analysis at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. BFMDRS (p = 0.002), VAS (p = 0.024), TUG (p = 0.028), and BBT (p = 0.034) were improved. Foot pressures at Toe 1 (p = 0.028) and Midfoot (p = 0.018) were reduced, indicating botulinum toxin’s effects in alleviating the dystonia severity and pain and improving foot pressures during walking in PD.
The Dayao Paleolithic site, located in Inner Mongolia on the eastern margin of China's vast northwestern drylands, was a lithic quarry-workshop utilized by Pleistocene human migrants through the region. Determining the age of this activity has previously yielded controversial results. Our magnetostratigraphic and OSL dating results suggest the two artifact-bearing paleosols are correlated with MIS 5 and 7, respectively. Correlating paleoclimatic data with marine δ18O records leads us to conclude that two sandy gravel layers containing many artifacts in the lower part of the Dayao sequence were formed during MIS 9 and 11, if not earlier. Our results reveal that the earliest human occupation at the Dayao site occurred before ca. 400 ka during a relatively warm and moist interglacial period, similar to several subsequent occupations, documenting the earliest and northernmost archaeological assemblage yet reported in China's arid northwest. We conclude that the northward and southward displacements of the East Asian summer monsoon rain belt during past interglacial-glacial cycles were responsible for the discontinuous human occupation detected at the Dayao site. The penetration of this precipitation regime into dryland ecologies via the Huanghe (Yellow River) Valley effectively created a corridor for hominin migration into China's arid northwest.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: We are developing the 3D perfusion system for use with patient-derived bacteria to further characterize the mechanism behind bacterial-induced inflammation and cancer. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We previously reported the adherent invasive E. coli NC101 promote colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice. FimH, a mannose-specific adhesin on type 1 fimbriae, is involved in bacterial surface adhesion. Herein, we investigated the role of FimH in E. coli NC101-induced adherence and carcinogenesis in a novel 3D perfusion culture imaging plate. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: E. coli NC101 gene fimH was deleted byï ŲRed Recombinase System. Biofilm formation was assessed by crystal violet and congo red staining. 5 dpf (wild-type strain) zebrafish embryos were infected in 6x107 cfu/ml wild type (WT) or fimH-deleted (ï ,,fimH) E. coli NC101 for 24hr and gut dissected for bacterial culture. A 2D/3D infection culture system for IEC-6 and HT-29 cells was infected for 4 hr and imaged and then DNA damage examined by comet assay, cell cycle andÎ3H2AX accumulation. Germ-free (GF) Il10-/- (colitis) mice were orally gavaged with 108 cfu WT orï ,,fimH E. coli NC101 for 16 weeks. E. coli colonization were quantified by plate culture and qPCR. Lipocalin2 was quantified by ELISA. PCNA and β-catenin were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Biofilm formation was reduced by more than 40% (p<0.05) in E. coli NC101ï ,,fimH compared to WT strain. Zebrafish larvae showed a 41% decrease in intestinal colonization ofï ,,fimH compared to WT (p<0.05). E. coli NC101-induced DNA damage was reduced by 67% (p<0.0001) in HT-29 cells infected withï ,,fimH compared to WT strain. Using the 3D infection system, a 46% decrease in yH2AX (p<0.05) and 42% decrease in G2 cell cycle arrest (p<0.05) was observed inï ,,fimH infected IEC-6 cells compared to WT strain. Furthermore, ï ,,fimH infected Il10-/- mice showed decreased colonization (p<0.01), decreased intestinal inflammation (p<0.05), decreased stool lipocalin2 level (p<0.01), and reduction of PCNA positive cells in the intestine (p<0.05) compared to mice infected with WT strain. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Adhesin protein FimH is required by E. coli NC101 to colonize and promote colitis and carcinogenesis both in a 3D perfusion culture and in mice and may serve as potential therapeutic target.
The effectiveness of entrepreneurial leadership (EL) at different levels has been widely recognized by scholars who have carried out substantial exploration; however, the empirical studies on the effectiveness of EL are scattered and their results are mixed. This study aims to organize these findings, advance knowledge about the multilevel effectiveness of EL and clarify the heterogeneity in the relationship between EL and effectiveness outcomes. Based on a systematic review of the extant literature and the construction of an integrated framework, this study examines the influence of EL on effectiveness outcomes at multiple levels and the moderators of this relationship through meta-analysis of 35 empirical studies including 35 independent samples. The results show that EL can improve effectiveness outcomes at different levels of organization, team and individual; cultural context obviously moderates this relationship, whereas the moderating effects of enterprise type and EL measure are all not significant. This study helps to determine the specific association of EL with effectiveness outcomes at different levels, and identify important factors influencing this relationship, which broadens the understanding of leadership effectiveness and provides certain value for enterprises to give full play to the role of EL at all levels.
In this article, the electron trapping and acceleration in the wake field driven by an ultrarelativistic hollow electron beam is studied. When the hollow driver injects into plasma, there is a doughnut-shaped electron bubble formed because of the existence of a special ‘backflow’ beam in the centre of the electron bubble. At the same time, there is a transverse convergence of the hollow driver, which leads to the weakening of the backflow beam. This results in a local electron density transition at the rear of the bubble. During this process, there is an expansion of the longitudinal electron bubble size, and a bunch of background electrons is trapped by the wake field at the rear of the bubble. The tracks for the trapped electrons show that there are two sources: one is from the bubble sheath and the other is from the unique backflow beam. In the particle-in-cell simulation where the driving beam has initial energy of $1.0$ GeV per particle, the trapped beam can be accelerated to energy of more than $1.5$ GeV per particle and the corresponding transformer ratio is $1.5$. With the increase of driving beam energy up to $40.0$ GeV, a transformer ratio of $1.4$ still can be achieved. By adjusting the hollow beam density, it is possible to control the trapped beam charge value and beam quality, such as its energy spread and transverse emittance.
Patients with schizophrenia and individuals with schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, have been found to have impairments in cognitive control. The Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMC) framework hypothesises that cognitive control can be divided into proactive and reactive control. However, it is unclear whether individuals with schizotypy have differential behavioural impairments and neural correlates underlying these two types of cognitive control.
Twenty-five individuals with schizotypy and 26 matched healthy controls (HCs) completed both reactive and proactive control tasks with electroencephalographic data recorded. The proportion of congruent and incongruent trials was manipulated in a classic colour-word Stroop task to induce proactive or reactive control. Proactive control was induced in a context with mostly incongruent (MI) trials and reactive control in a context with mostly congruent (MC) trials. Two event-related potential (ERP) components, medial frontal negativity (MFN, associated with conflict detection) and conflict sustained potential (conflict SP, associated with conflict resolution) were examined.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of behavioural results. In terms of ERP results, in the MC context, HC exhibited significantly larger MFN (360–530 ms) and conflict SP (600–1000 ms) amplitudes than individuals with schizotypy. The two groups did not show any significant difference in MFN or conflict SP in the MI context.
The present findings provide initial evidence for dissociation of neural activation between proactive and reactive cognitive control in individuals with schizotypy. These findings help us understand cognitive control deficits in the schizophrenia spectrum.
High fibre intake is associated with reduced mortality risk in both general and chronic kidney disease populations. However, in dialysis patients, such data are limited. Therefore, the association between dietary fibre intake (DFI) and the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was examined in this study. A total of 1044 maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients from eight outpatient dialysis centres in China were included in this study. Data on DFI were collected using 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d in a week and were normalised to actual dry weight. The study outcomes included all-cause and CVD mortality. Over a median of 46 months of follow-up, 354 deaths were recorded, of which 210 (59 %) were due to CVD. On assessing DFI as tertiles, the CVD mortality risk was significantly lower in patients in tertiles 2–3 (≥0·13 g/kg per d; hazard ratio (HR) 0·71; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·97) compared with those in tertile 1 (<0·13 g/kg per d). A similar but non-significant trend was found for the association between DFI (tertiles 2–3 v. tertile 1; HR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·64, 1·07) and all-cause mortality. In summary, higher DFI was associated with lower CVD mortality risk among Chinese MHD patients. This study emphasises the significance of DFI in MHD patients and provides information that is critical for the improvement of dietary guidelines for dialysis patients.
The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is one of the most dynamic components of the global climate system. Although poorly understood, knowledge of long-term spatial differences in EAWM variability during the glacial–interglacial cycles is important for understanding the dynamic processes of the EAWM. We reconstructed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the EAWM since the last glacial maximum (LGM) using a comparison of proxy records and long-term transient simulations. A loess grain-size record from northern China (a sensitive EAWM proxy) and the sea surface temperature gradient of an EAWM index in sediments of the southern South China Sea were compared. The data–model comparison indicates pronounced spatial differences in EAWM evolution, with a weakened EAWM since the LGM in northern China but a strengthened EAWM from the LGM to the early Holocene, followed by a weakening trend, in southern China. The model results suggest that variations in the EAWM in northern China were driven mainly by changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, whereas orbital insolation and ice sheets were important drivers in southern China. We propose that the relative importance of insolation, ice sheets, and atmospheric CO2 for EAWM evolution varied spatially within East Asia.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between daily Se intake and postpartum weight retention (PPWR) among Chinese lactating women, and the impact of their Se nutritional status on infants’ physical development. Se contents in breast milk and plasma collected from 264 lactating Chinese women at the 42nd day postpartum were analysed with inductively coupled plasma MS. Daily Se intake was calculated based on plasma Se concentration. The dietary data of 24-h records on three consecutive days were collected. Infant growth status was evaluated with WHO standards by Z-scores. Linear regression analyses and multinomial logistic regression were conducted to examine the impact of Se disequilibrium (including other factors) on PPWR and growth of infants, respectively. The results indicated that: (1) the daily Se intake of the subjects was negatively associated with their PPWR (B = −0·002, 95 % CI − 0·003, 0·000, P = 0·039); (2) both insufficient Se daily intake (B = −0·001, OR 0·999, 95 % CI 0·998, 1·000, P = 0·014) and low level of Se in milk (B = −0·025, OR 0·975, 95 % CI 0·951, 0·999, P = 0·021) had potential associations with their infants’ wasting, and low level of Se in milk (B = −0·159, OR 0·853, 95 % CI 0·743, 0·980, P = 0·024) had a significant association with their infants’ overweight. In conclusion, the insufficient Se nutritional status of lactating Chinese women was first found as one possible influencing factor of their PPWR as well as low physical development of their offspring.
In this research, a dynamic model is first established based on screw theory and the principle of virtual work for a bilaterally symmetrical hybrid robot. By combining a novel composite error (NCE) with second-order nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode (SONFTSM) control method, a NCE-based SONFTSM dynamic control method is further presented to guarantee better trajectory tracking performance and synchronization performance simultaneously. The asymptotic convergence of proposed errors and the stability of the proposed control method have been proved theoretically. Finally, the simulation and experiment are implemented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.