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The rapid development of the digital economy has highlighted the crucial role of data in economic growth. This study investigates the impact of two types of innovation on long-term growth by incorporating data into a model of creative destruction and knowledge accumulation. Unlike traditional factors, data exhibit nonrivalry between the two research and development (R&D) sectors, thereby influencing the growth rate of economic outputs simultaneously without interference. Our findings reveal the existence of a balanced growth path (BGP) in both the decentralized economy and the social planner’s economy. In horizontal innovation, data can be transformed into digital knowledge to promote the economic growth [Cong et al. (2021)]. In addition to horizontal innovation, the utilization of data in vertical innovation also enhances the success rate of innovation, with a gradual decrease in per capita data usage on the BGP. Moreover, as agents accumulate human capital, the economy achieves higher output levels, effectively addressing consumer privacy concerns. However, along the transitional path, insufficient data provision by both R&D sectors leads to lower economic growth rates or more intense economic fluctuations, necessitating policy interventions.
Dietary antioxidant indices (DAI) may be potentially associated with relative telomere length (RTL) of leucocytes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DAI and RTL. A cross-sectional study involving 1656 participants was conducted. A generalised linear regression model and a restricted cubic spline model were used to assess the correlation of DAI and its components with RTL. Generalised linear regression analysis revealed that DAI (β = 0·005, P = 0·002) and the intake of its constituents vitamin C (β = 0·043, P = 0·027), vitamin E (β = 0·088, P < 0·001), Se (β = 0·075, P = 0·003), and Zn (β = 0·075, P = 0·023) were significantly and positively correlated with RTL. Sex-stratified analysis showed that DAI (β = 0·006, P = 0·005) and its constituents vitamin E (β = 0·083, P = 0·012), Se (β = 0·093, P = 0·006), and Zn (β = 0·092, P = 0·034) were significantly and positively correlated with RTL among females. Meanwhile, among males, only vitamin E intake (β = 0·089, P = 0·013) was significantly and positively associated with RTL. Restricted cubic spline analysis revealed linear positive associations between DAI and its constituents’ (vitamin E, Se and Zn) intake and RTL in the total population. Sex-stratified analysis revealed a linear positive correlation between DAI and its constituents’ (vitamin E, Se and Zn) intake and RTL in females. Our study found a significant positive correlation between DAI and RTL, with sex differences.
Students’ mental health issues have attracted more attention due to the pressure and challenges they experience in today’s society. This study attempts to include the new era sports ideology and politics into the positive influence of college students’ mental health in an effort to better manage the mental health state of college students.
Subjects and Methods
100 college students with psychological anxiety issues were selected as test subjects. 50 college students were assigned to the experimental group and 50 to the control group. The new era sports ideological and political education was provided to the college students in the experimental group during the course of a six-month psychological intervention. The typical personality education approach was employed to students in the control group for a six-month psychological intervention.
The mental health status of the two groups of college students was evaluated and scored according to the anxiety item in the Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire (SASRQ). Compared with the control group, the anxiety of college students in the experimental group was obviously eliminated, and the emotional regulation was very effective. Their comprehensive score was 10 points, and the control group scored 22 points.
College students’ mental health is greatly benefited from the modern incorporation of sports-related political and ideological education into their mental health education.
2022 Yunnan Open University Scientific Research Group Project (No. 22YNOUTD04).
Parenting is a common and potent environmental factor influencing adolescent anxiety. Yet, the underlying neurobiological susceptibility signatures remain elusive. Here, we used a longitudinal twin neuroimaging study to investigate the brain network integration and its heritable relation to underpin the neural differential susceptibility of adolescent anxiety to parenting environments.
216 twins from the Beijing Twin Study completed the parenting and anxiety assessments and fMRI scanning. We first identified the brain network integration involved in the influences of parenting at age 12 on anxiety symptoms at age 15. We then estimated to what extent heritable sensitive factors are responsible for the susceptibility of brain network integration.
Consistent with the differential susceptibility theory, the results showed that hypo-connectivity within the central executive network amplified the impact of maternal hostility on anxiety symptoms. A high anti-correlation between the anterior salience and default mode networks played a similar modulatory role in the susceptibility of adolescent anxiety to paternal hostility. Genetic influences (21.18%) were observed for the connectivity pattern in the central executive network.
Brain network integration served as a promising neurobiological signature of the differential susceptibility to adolescent anxiety. Our findings deepen the understanding of the neural sensitivity in the developing brain and can inform early identification and personalized interventions for adolescents at risk of anxiety disorders.
This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and prognosis of patients with alcoholic Marchiafava–Bignami disease (MBD), a rare neurological disorder commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, in Chongqing, China.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data from 21 alcoholic MBD patients treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University between 2012 and 2022.
The study included 21 patients with alcoholic MBD who had a mean age of 59 ± 9.86 years and an average drinking history of 35.48 ± 8.65 years. Acute onset was observed in 14 (66.7%) patients. The primary clinical signs observed were psychiatric disorders (66.7%), altered consciousness (61.9%), cognitive disorders (61.9%), and seizures (42.9%). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed long T1 and long T2 signal changes in the corpus callosum, with lesions predominantly found in the genu (76.2%) and splenium (71.4%) of the corpus callosum. The poor prognosis group demonstrated an increased incidence of altered consciousness (100% vs 50%, P = 0.044), pyramidal signs (80% vs 18.8%, P = 0.011), and pneumonia (100% vs 31.3%, P = 0.007). Patients with a longer drinking history (45.0 ± 10.0 years vs 32.69 ± 5.99 years, p = 0.008) and a lower thiamine dose (p = 0.035) had a poorer prognosis at 1 year.
This study identified altered consciousness, pyramidal signs, and pneumonia as predictors of a poor prognosis in patients with alcoholic MBD. A longer duration of alcohol consumption and inadequate thiamine supplementation were associated with a poorer prognosis.
Insect response to cold stress is often associated with adaptive strategies and chemical variation. However, low-temperature domestication to promote the cold tolerance potential of Bactrocera dorsalis and transformation of main internal substances are not clear. Here, we use a series of low-temperature exposure experiments, supercooling point (SCP) measurement, physiological substances and cryoprotectants detection to reveal that pre-cooling with milder low temperatures (5 and 10°C) for several hours (rapid cold hardening) and days (cold acclimation) can dramatically improve the survival rate of adults and pupae under an extremely low temperature (−6.5°C). Besides, the effect of rapid cold hardening for adults could be maintained even 4 h later with 25°C exposures, and SCP was significantly declined after cold acclimation. Furthermore, content of water, fat, protein, glycogen, sorbitol, glycerol and trehalose in bodies were measured. Results showed that water content was reduced and increased content of proteins, glycogen, glycerol and trehalose after two cold domestications. Our findings suggest that rapid cold hardening and cold acclimation could enhance cold tolerance of B. dorsalis by increasing proteins, glycerol, trehalose and decreasing water content. Conclusively, identifying a physiological variation will be useful for predicting the occurrence and migration trend of B. dorsalis populations.
As the main global terrestrial ecosystem component, grasslands are extremely sensitive to global climate change. With increasing human activities over the last century, grassland ecosystems have been degraded to different degrees. However, the evolution of lake-grassland ecosystems in recent centuries remains unclear due to the dearth of high-resolution records. Here, we present high-resolution lacustrine sediment grain size, pollen (Artemisia, Myriophyllum), Pediastrum, and n-alkane records from Ganggeng Nur Lake to investigate vegetation, lake evolution, and human effects in semiarid northern China. Four stages were identified from the last ca. 150 years: (1) the natural evolution stage (AD 1870–1945), in which there was a wet climate around Ganggeng Nur and the lake level rose from increased runoff; (2) the human disturbance stage (AD 1945–1967), in which the regional climate got drier and human activities began having a detectable effect on the grassland ecosystem; (3) the human transformation stage (AD 1967–2005), in which a completely arid climate coupled with the implementation of a series of land reclamation policies resulted in a large reduction in grassland areas, extensive soil erosion, exacerbated climate change, and shrinking lake areas; and (4) the posttreatment stage (AD 2005–2018), in which soil erosion was alleviated by policy implementation and a favorable humid climate.
In this work, we investigate the characteristics of wind turbine wakes for three different blade designs (i.e. the NREL-Ori, NREL-Root and NREL-Tip designs, where the NREL-Ori refers to the baseline offshore 5 MW wind turbine designed by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory) under turbulent inflows using large-eddy simulations with the actuator surface model. The load on the blade is higher near the blade root/tip for the NREL-Root/NREL-Tip designs when compared with the NREL-Ori design, while their thrust coefficients are the same. The results show that the blade designs influence the velocity deficit in the near wake, turbulence kinetic energy and wake meandering (both amplitude and frequency). In the near-wake region, the magnitude of the velocity deficit from the NREL-Root design is higher. As for the turbulence kinetic energy, its maximum in the near wake is higher for the NREL-Tip design, while in the far wake, it is higher for the NREL-Root design. Analyses of the instantaneous spanwise wake centre positions show higher meandering amplitude for the NREL-Root design, with the magnitudes of the low-frequency components approximately the same as the other two designs under the same inflow. The dominant meandering frequencies from different designs are different, with lower values for the NREL-Root design for which the vortex structures near the hub of low frequency play leading roles, and higher values for the NREL-Tip design for which the flow structures of high frequency in the tip shear layer are more important.
A blunted hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis response to acute stress is associated with psychiatric symptoms. Although the prefrontal cortex and limbic areas are important regulators of the HPA axis, whether the neural habituation of these regions during stress signals both blunted HPA axis responses and psychiatric symptoms remains unclear. In this study, neural habituation during acute stress and its associations with the stress cortisol response, resilience, and depression were evaluated.
Seventy-seven participants (17–22 years old, 37 women) were recruited for a ScanSTRESS brain imaging study, and the activation changes between the first and last stress blocks were used as the neural habituation index. Meanwhile, participants' salivary cortisol during test was collected. Individual-level resilience and depression were measured using questionnaires. Correlation and moderation analyses were conducted to investigate the association between neural habituation and endocrine data and mental symptoms. Validated analyses were conducted using a Montreal Image Stress Test dataset in another independent sample (48 participants; 17–22 years old, 24 women).
Neural habituation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic area was negatively correlated with cortisol responses in both datasets. In the ScanSTRESS paradigm, neural habituation was both positively correlated with depression and negatively correlated with resilience. Moreover, resilience moderated the relationship between neural habituation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and cortisol response.
This study suggested that neural habituation of the prefrontal cortex and limbic area could reflect motivation dysregulation during repeated failures and negative feedback, which might further lead to maladaptive mental states.
Burn patients are at high risk of central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). However, the diagnosis of such infections is complex, resource-intensive, and often delayed. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of CLABSI and develop a prediction model for the infection in burn patients. The study analysed the infection profiles, clinical epidemiology, and central venous catheter (CVC) management of patients in a large burn centre in China from January 2018 to December 2021. In total, 222 burn patients with a cumulative 630 CVCs and 5,431 line-days were included. The CLABSI rate was 23.02 CVCs per 1000 line-days. The three most common bacterial species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 76.09% of isolates were multidrug resistant. Compared with a non-CLABSI cohort, CLABSI patients were significantly older, with more severe burns, more CVC insertion times, and longer total line-days, as well as higher mortality. Regression analysis found longer line-days, more catheterisation times, and higher burn wounds index to be independent risk factors for CLABSI. A novel nomogram based on three risk factors was constructed with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) value of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.782–0.898) with a mean absolute error of calibration curve of 0.023. The nomogram showed excellent predictive ability and clinical applicability, and provided a simple, practical, and quantitative strategy to predict CLABSI in burn patients.
Cryptosporidium spp. are significant opportunistic pathogens causing diarrhoea in humans and animals. Pigs are one of the most important potential hosts for Cryptosporidium. We evaluated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs globally using published information and a random-effects model. In total, 131 datasets from 36 countries were included in the final quantitative analysis. The global prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs was 16.3% (8560/64 809; 95% confidence interval [CI] 15.0–17.6%). The highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium in pigs was 40.8% (478/1271) in Africa. Post-weaned pigs had a significantly higher prevalence (25.8%; 2739/11 824) than pre-weaned, fattening and adult pigs. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was higher in pigs with no diarrhoea (12.2%; 371/3501) than in pigs that had diarrhoea (8.0%; 348/4874). Seven Cryptosporidium species (Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium muris, Cryptosporidium tyzzeri, Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium struthioni) were detected in pigs globally. The proportion of C. scrofarum was 34.3% (1491/4351); the proportion of C. suis was 31.8% (1385/4351) and the proportion of C. parvum was 2.3% (98/4351). The influence of different geographic factors (latitude, longitude, mean yearly temperature, mean yearly relative humidity and mean yearly precipitation) on the infection rate of Cryptosporidium in pigs was also analysed. The results indicate that C. suis is the dominant species in pre-weaned pigs, while C. scrofarum is the dominant species in fattening and adult pigs. The findings highlight the role of pigs as possible potential hosts of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis and the need for additional studies on the prevalence, transmission and control of Cryptosporidium in pigs.
Se is an essential trace element associated with animal growth and antioxidant and metabolic processes. However, whether Se, especially organic Se with higher bioavailability, can alleviate the adverse effects of low salinity stress on marine economic crustacean species has not been investigated. Accordingly, juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were reared in two culture conditions (low and standard salinity) fed diets supplemented with increasing levels of l-selenomethionine (0·41, 0·84 and 1·14 mg/kg Se) for 56 d, resulting in four treatments: 0·41 mg/kg under standard seawater (salinity 31) and 0·41, 0·84 and 1·14 mg/kg Se under low salinity (salinity 3). The diet containing 0·84 mg/kg Se significantly improved the survival and weight gain of shrimp under low salinity stress and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the hepatopancreas. The increased numbers of B and R cells may be a passive change in hepatopancreas histology in the 1·14 mg/kg Se group. Transcriptomic analysis found that l-selenomethionine was involved in the regulatory pathways of energy metabolism, retinol metabolism and steroid hormones. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0·84 mg/kg Se (twice the recommended level) effectively alleviated the effects of low salinity stress on L. vannamei by regulating antioxidant capacity, hormone regulation and energy metabolism.
We build a novel comprehensive data set of new product trademarks as an output measure of product development innovation. We show that risk-taking incentives in CEO compensation motivate this type of innovation and that this innovation improves firm performance. Using an exogenous shock to executive compensation, we find that reductions in stock option compensation cause reductions in new product development. We also find that firms undertaking new product development experience increases in future cash flow from operations and return on assets. These findings suggest the importance of product development innovation to firms and new trademarks as a novel innovation measure.
Despite increasing knowledge on the neuroimaging patterns of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in non-clinical populations, studies using whole-brain machine learning to identify connectome-based neuromarkers of ED symptomatology are absent. This study examined the association of connectivity within and between large-scale functional networks with specific symptomatic behaviors and cognitions using connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM).
CPM with ten-fold cross-validation was carried out to probe functional networks that were predictive of ED-associated symptomatology, including body image concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors, within the discovery sample of 660 participants. The predictive ability of the identified networks was validated using an independent sample of 821 participants.
The connectivity predictive of body image concerns was identified within and between networks implicated in cognitive control (frontoparietal and medial frontal), reward sensitivity (subcortical), and visual perception (visual). Crucially, the set of connections in the positive network related to body image concerns identified in one sample was generalized to predict body image concerns in an independent sample, suggesting the replicability of this effect.
These findings point to the feasibility of using the functional connectome to predict ED symptomatology in the general population and provide the first evidence that functional interplay among distributed networks predicts body shape/weight concerns.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
The association between dietary Cu intake and mortality risk remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the relationship of dietary Cu intake with all-cause mortality among Chinese adults. A total of 17 310 participants from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a national ongoing open cohort of Chinese participants, were included in the analysis. Dietary intake was measured by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls in combination with a weighing inventory over the same 3 d. The average intakes of the 3-d dietary macronutrients and micronutrients were calculated. The study outcome was all-cause mortality. During a median follow-up of 9·0 years, 1324 (7·6 %) participants died. After adjusting for sex, age, BMI, ever alcohol drinking, ever smoking, education levels, occupations, urban or rural residents, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and the intakes of fat, protein and carbohydrate, the association between dietary Cu intake and all-cause mortality followed a J-shape (Pfor nonlinearity = 0·047). When dietary Cu intake was assessed as quartiles, compared with those in the first quartile (<1·60 mg/d), the adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0·87 (95 % CI (0·71, 1·07)), 0·98 (95 % CI (0·79, 1·21)) and 1·49 (95 % CI (1·19, 1·86)), respectively, in participants in the second (1·60–<1·83 mg/d), third (1·83–<2·09 mg/d) and fourth (≥2·09 mg/d) quartiles. A series of subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Overall, our findings emphasised the importance of maintaining optimal dietary Cu intake levels for prevention of premature death.
Cryptosporidium spp. are important pathogens with some species causing diarrhoea in humans and animals. Sheep are one of the most common potential hosts for various Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep globally was evaluated from published information including molecular data via meta-analysis. In total, 126 datasets from 41 countries were included for final quantitative analysis. Sheep aged <3 months had a significantly higher prevalence (27.8%; 3284/11 938) than those at the age of 3–12 and >12 months. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in sheep with diarrhoea of 35.4% (844/1915) was higher than in sheep that did not show diarrhoea (11.3%; 176/1691). Fourteen Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were detected in sheep globally. The proportion of subgenotype family XIIa of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum was 90.0% (216/240); the proportions of subgenotypes IIdA20G1 and IIaA15G2R1 of Cryptosporidium parvum were 15.4% (62/402) and 19.7% (79/402). The results indicate that C. parvum is the dominant species in Europe while Cryptosporidium xiaoi is the dominant species in Oceania, Asia and Africa and C. ubiquitum is the dominant species in North America and South America. Subgenotype family IIa of C. parvum is particularly widespread among sheep worldwide. The results highlight the role of sheep as a reservoir host for zoonotic cryptosporidia and the need for further study of prevalence, transmission and control of this pathogen in sheep.