Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This study investigated the effect of pre-exercise α-lactalbumin ingestion on subsequent endurance exercise performance, muscle pain and mood states. In a two-stage cross-over counterbalance design, eleven male endurance runners (age: 31 (se 2) years, height: 169·5 (se 4·4) cm, weight: 63·6 (se 5·1) kg, V̇O2max: 58·8 (se 6·3) ml/kg per min) consumed two solutions (carbohydrate+α-lactalbumin, CA; carbohydrate+whey protein isolate, CW) 2 h before a self-paced 21-km run. Creatine kinase, IL-6, muscle pain, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and mood states were assessed 2 h before exercise, immediately before exercise (Pre-ex0) and immediately after exercise (Post-ex0). No difference was found in 21-km running performance between two trials (CA v. CW: 115·85 (se 5·20) v. 118·85 (se 5·51) min, P=0·48). Compared with CW, CA led to higher PPT at Pre-ex0 (41·77 (se 2·27) v. 35·56 (se 2·10) N/cm2, P<0·01) and Post-ex0 (38·76 (se 3·23) v. 35·30 (se 3·55) N/cm2, P=0·047). Compared with CW, CA reduced the feeling of fatigue at Post-ex0 (P<0·01); CA also reduced salivary cortisol levels at Post-ex0 (0·72 (se 0·07) v. 0·83 (se 0·13) ng/ml, P<0·01). In conclusion, the ingestion of α-lactalbumin did not improve the 21-km time-trial performance. However, compared with the pre-exercise ingestion of whey protein, that of α-lactalbumin led to superior results during similar levels of endurance exercise: it elevated PPT and reduced the feeling of fatigue and the cortisol levels.
High-entropy ceramic (HEC) films refer to the carbide, boride, oxide, or nitride films of the high-entropy alloy, which have potential applications under high temperatures. In this study, we fabricated the HEC NbTiAlSiZrNx films using magnetron sputtering under various deposition atmospheres. The phase structure evolution and the mechanical properties of three HEC films under high temperatures were investigated. The HEC films demonstrated good thermal stability as well as high hardness. After annealing for 24 h at 700 °C, the films remained in an amorphous phase without obvious crystallization, and the hardness of the films declined. Nanocrystallizations occurred in films deposited at a nitrogen flow rate of 4 sccm and 8 sccm after annealing for 30 min at 900 °C and exhibited an face-centered cubic structure. HEC NbTiAlSiZrNx films have potential applications as protective coatings under high temperatures.
The following paper investigates the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic norovirus infection in the population living around oyster farm sites. Two consecutive surveys were conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 and 4549 stool samples were screened during the same time period. The total asymptomatic infection rate was 4.04% (184/4549). Norovirus infection rate was 5.20% in oyster farming population which was significantly higher compared with non-farming population where the infection rate was 3.65% (χ2 = 5.49, P < 0.05). A total of 184 NoV positive samples were identified by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and semi-nested RT-PCR and 136 sequences were obtained. The sequences were clustered into 14 genotypes. GI strains were clustered into six genotypes, including GI.2, GI.3, GI.5, GI.6, GI.8 and GI.9; while GII strains were clustered into GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.8 and GII.13. GI.9 and GII.17 were the predominant and most prevalent genotypes, respectively. The GII.17 genotype replaced GII.4 becoming the dominant genotype in the oyster farming area in 2014. To sum up, long-term monitoring of asymptomatic infection is crucial for the detection of new variant strains and for identifying outbreaks during the early stage.
General life stress has been associated with altered DNA methylation in individuals of African Ancestry, although the relationship between parenting stress and DNA methylation has not been described. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal parenting stress and DNA methylation among African Ancestry mother-child dyads.
We evaluated epigenome-wide DNA methylation relative to parenting stress in 74 mother-child dyads using linear mixed models.
Significant variation in maternal DNA methylation at 95 CpG sites was associated with level of parenting stress. Notably, we identified a change in DNA methylation associated with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, which plays a key role in stress signaling. We did not identify any significant variation in child DNA methylation related to maternal parenting stress.
However, DNA methylation patterns observed in children mirrored patterns observed in their mothers. The results suggest that differential maternal DNA methylation is associated with higher levels of parenting stress.
A 43 year oxalate record has been recovered in a 14.08m ice core from Ürümqi glacier No. 1 (43˚06’N, 86˚49’ E), a mid-latitude glacier at Ürümqi river head, Tien Shan, western China. Averaging 3.6±9.2 ng g–1
the oxalate has a background level <2 ng g–1 with sporadic concentration enhancements. Most of the spikes reach beyond 10 ng g–1 and have durations 51 year. the oxalate variation correlates with that in Far East Rongbuk Glacier (27˚59’N, 86˚55’ E), Qomolangma (Mount Everest), which is located 1600 kmawayacross the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau and Taklimakandesert. Although the concentration enhancement in the latter is much higher, and lasts longer, oxalate reaches its highest concentration in both cores at the same time, during winter. the correlation of oxalate records suggests that the two areas may have had the same kind of local sources, but with a much larger (COO)22– flux in the Qomolangma area, or that they may have had a common source in the Indian subcontinent through the longitudinal atmospheric circulation. the concentration variation in the past 40 years coincides with industrial/economic development in southern Asia, and is mainly due to anthropogenic pollution.
Ice cores recovered for paleoclimatic and/or paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the Tien Shan and Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau often encounter cracks. Although we expect that cracks opened to surface meltwater will inevitably change ice-core records, we do not know how and to what extent records are influenced. An ice core retrieved from glacier No. 1 at Ürümqi river head, Tien Shan, China, exhibits a crack nearly 2.5 m long that has admitted meltwater, forming secondary ice within the fracture. A small inclusion of the infiltrated ice in sampling is shown to reduce δ18O by an extent of Holocene vs Last Glacial Maximum while enhancing significantly the pH, conductivity and the following ionic species: CH3COO–, and CO(COO)22–. of the parameters increased, and HCOO– are the most affected, being enhanced nearly six-fold in the fractured section compared to the non-fractured sections, followed by CO(COO)22– and electrical conductivity measurement (ECM). Despite the alteration, primary fluctuations of some parameters are still recognizable. This suggests that if the infiltrated ice can be avoided in the sampling operation, ice cores with cracks may still provide authentic records. This shows the need to pay close attention to physical characteristics of ice cores in order to identify such secondary ice.
In this paper, field effect transistors (FET) based on different kinds of non-graphene materials are introduced, which are MoS2, WSe2 and black phosphorus (BP). Those devices have their unique features in fabrication process compared with conventional FETs. Among them, MoS2 FET shows better electrical characteristics by applying a SiO2 protective layer; WSe2 FET is fabricated based on a new low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method; BP FET acquires high on/off ratio and high hole mobility by using a simple dry transfer method. Those novel non-graphene materials inspire new design and fabrication process of basic logic device.
Although many studies worldwide have focused on the relationship between vitamin D and insulin resistance, results remain controversial. Furthermore, concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the Chinese population are unclear. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status and its correlation with insulin resistance among a Chinese adult population.
Serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and other metabolic parameters were assessed. Neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight and height were also measured. Lifestyle factors including smoking and drinking status were obtained. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by HbA1c according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria.
Of 7200 residents included, 6597 individuals were ultimately analysed.
We enrolled 2813 males (mean age 52·7 (sd 13·5) years) and 3784 females (52·3 (sd 13·5) years); mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 43·1 (sd 11·6) and 39·6 (sd 9·8) nmol/l, respectively. Additionally, 83·3 % of participants were 25(OH)D deficient. A significant difference in 25(OH)D was observed between males and females in winter and spring (P<0·001). Furthermore, 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. After adjusting for several variables, 25(OH)D was significantly associated with HOMA-IR in winter. When 25(OH)D values were categorized into quartiles, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with decreasing 25(OH)D.
The majority of the Chinese population was vitamin D deficient and this deficiency was negatively associated with insulin resistance, particularly in the overweight and pre-diabetic populations. Moreover, these associations might be more evident in the winter.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for thiamphenicol, C12H15Cl2NO5S, are reported [a = 17.346(3), b = 15.341(0), c = 5.790 (2) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1540.8(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
The long-term outcome of never-treated patients with schizophrenia is
To compare the 14-year outcomes of never-treated and treated patients
with schizophrenia and to establish predictors for never being
All participants with schizophrenia (n = 510) in Xinjin,
Chengdu, China were identified in an epidemiological investigation of 123
572 people and followed up from 1994 to 2008.
The results showed that there were 30.6%, 25.0% and 20.4% of patients who
received no antipsychotic medication in 1994, 2004 and 2008 respectively.
Compared with treated patients, those who were never treated in 2008 were
significantly older, had significantly fewer family members, had higher
rates of homelessness, death from other causes, being unmarried, living
alone, being without a caregiver and poor family attitudes. Partial and
complete remission in treated patients (57.3%) was significantly higher
than that in the never-treated group (29.8%). Predictors of being in the
never-treated group in 2008 encompassed baseline never-treated status,
being without a caregiver and poor mental health status in 1994.
Many patients with schizophrenia still do not receive antipsychotic
medication in rural areas of China. The 14-year follow-up showed that
outcomes for the untreated group were worse. Community-based mental
healthcare, health insurance and family intervention are crucial for
earlier diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation in the community.
Most long QT syndrome patients are associated with genetic mutations. We aimed to investigate the clinical and biochemical characteristics and look for genotype-based preventive implications in Chinese long QT syndrome patients.
Methods and results
We identified two missense mutations of the KCNQ1 gene in two independent Chinese families, including a previously reported mutation R380S in the C-terminus and a novel mutation W305L in the P-loop domain of the Kv7.1 channel, respectively. The proband with R380S was an 11-year-old girl who suffered a prolonged corrected QT interval of 660 ms, recurrent syncope, and sudden cardiac death, whose father was an asymptomatic carrier. The mutation W305L was detected in a 36-year-old woman with long QT syndrome and her immediate family members including the proband’s younger sister with an unexplained syncope, her son, and her elder daughter without symptoms. Metoprolol appeared to be effective in preventing arrhythmias and syncope in long QT syndrome patients with mutation W305L. Both R380S and W305L mutations led to “loss-of-function” of the Kv7.1 channel accounting for the clinical phenotypes.
We first show two missense KCNQ1 mutations – R380S and W305L – in Chinese long QT syndrome patients, resulting in the loss of protein function. Mutation W305L in the P-loop domain of the Kv7.1 may derive a pronounced benefit from β-blocker therapy in symptomatic long QT syndrome patients, whereas mutation R380S located in the C-terminus may be associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for letrozole, C17H11N5, are reported [a = 7.034(0) Å, b = 16.177(5) Å, c = 13.411(3) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 105.71(9)°, unit-cell volume V = 1469.0(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
Grain boundary engineering (GBE) has been carried out in nickel-based Alloy 690 with different initial grain sizes. The microstructure evolution during GBE-processing is characterized using electron backscatter diffraction to study the initial grain size effects on the grain boundary network (GBN). The microstructures of the partially recrystallized samples revealed that the GBE-processing is a strain-recrystallization process, during which each grain-cluster is formed by “multiple twinning” starting from a single recrystallization nucleus. Taking into consideration the coincidence site lattices (CSLs) and ∑, which is defined as the reciprocal density of coincidence sites, a high proportion of low-∑ CSL grain boundaries (GBs) and large grain-clusters are found to be the features of GBE-processed GBN. The initial grain size has a combined effect on the low-∑ CSL GBs proportion. A large initial grain size reduces the number of recrystallization nuclei that form, increasing the cluster size, but decreasing twin boundary density. On the other hand, smaller initial grain sizes increase the density of twin boundary after recrystallization, while decreasing grain-cluster size. Neither the grain-cluster size nor the twin boundary density is the sole factor influencing the proportion of low-∑ CSL GBs. The ratio of the grain cluster size over the grain size governs the proportion of low-∑ CSL GBs.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
We investigate the cytoprotective effects and the molecular mechanism of genistein in oxidative stress-induced injury using an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). An oxidative stress model was established by incubating endothelial cells with H2O2. According to the present results, genistein pretreatment protected endothelial cells against H2O2-induced decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Genistein also prevented the inhibition of B-cell lymphoma 2 and the activation of caspase-3 induced by H2O2. Genistein increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels and attenuated the decrease in these antioxidants during oxidative stress. We also found that genistein induced the promoter activity of both nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and PPARγ. Additionally, genistein induced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and PPARγ. While genistein caused the up-regulation of both Nrf2 and PPARγ, it also activated and up-regulated the protein expression and transcription of a downstream protein, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Moreover, the use of Nrf2 small interfering RNA transfection and HO-1- or PPARγ-specific antagonists (Znpp and GW9662, respectively) blocked the protective effects of genistein on endothelial cell viability during oxidative stress. Therefore, we conclude that oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell injury can be attenuated by treatment with genistein, which functions via the regulation of the Nrf2 and PPARγ signalling pathway. Additionally, the endogenous antioxidants SOD, CAT and GSH appear to play a role in the antioxidant activity of genistein. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of genistein involving the activation of cytoprotective antioxidant genes may represent a novel strategy in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular endothelial damage.
In this paper, we first summarise the progress for the famous Chern conjecture, and then we consider n-dimensional closed hypersurfaces with constant mean curvature H in the unit sphere n+1 with n ≤ 8 and generalise the result of Cheng et al. (Q. M. Cheng, Y. J. He and H. Z. Li, Scalar curvature of hypersurfaces with constant mean curvature in a sphere, Glasg. Math. J. 51(2) (2009), 413–423). In order to be precise, we prove that if |H| ≤ ϵ(n), then there exists a constant δ(n, H) > 0, which depends only on n and H, such that if S0 ≤ S ≤ S0 + δ(n, H), then S = S0 and M is isometric to the Clifford hypersurface, where ϵ(n) is a sufficiently small constant depending on n.
Amorphous CoMnNiO film is doposited on oxidized Si substrate by RF sputtering equipment. Structure relaxation occurs in the amorphous CoMnNiO film when it is annealed below 550°C. Annealed in the range from 600°C to 1000°C, the amorphous film is converted into the polycrystal. After annealing in rich oxygen atmosphere, the amorphous film is transformed into spinel solid solution with stable structure and good electrical properties. The electrical conductivity will be reduced due to formation of low valence oxides when annealed without oxygen. As annealing temperature is higher than 1000°C, some spinel solid solutions will be resolved into low valence oxides CoO and NiO, reducing the conductivity of the CoMnNiO film.
Prophylaxis and treatment with oseltamivir effectively controlled a community outbreak of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in China. The genetic makeup of strains of different generations seemed to be stable. Travel in confined settings might accelerate the transmission of pandemic influenza in a community outbreak.
The volatile compounds of crofton weed infested by cotton aphids and sprayed with MeJA were collected and analyzed by the TCT-GC/MS technique. The healthy weeds were controls. Seventeen volatiles identified from crofton weed included green leaf odors, monoterpenes and sequiterpenes, and oxo-compounds. Camphene, 2-carene, α-phellandrene, ρ-cymene, and caryophyllene were the major volatiles and constituted about 77% of the total volatile emissions from the control. In the aphid-infested weeds, no new induced component was found. Among the terpenes, ρ-cymene increased markedly in the infested weeds compared with the control, whereas all sesquiterpenes decreased markedly. Levels of endogenous JA in leaves and young stems of the aphid-infested weeds were markedly higher than in the control, whereas both endogenous SA level and ABA level were not significantly different. MeJA sprayed on crofton weed with the aphid infestation had a similar effect on volatile emissions. It is suggested that JA was one of the most important signals in crofton weed and could regulate the emission of volatile compounds.