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-dimensional holomorphic map defined in a neighborhood of the origin such that the origin is an isolated fixed point of all of its iterates, and let
denote the number of periodic orbits of
hidden at the origin. Gorbovickis gives an efficient way of computing
for a large class of holomorphic maps. Inspired by Gorbovickis’ work, we establish a similar method for computing
for a much larger class of holomorphic germs, in particular, having arbitrary Jordan matrices as their linear parts. Moreover, we also give another proof of the result of Gorbovickis [On multi-dimensional Fatou bifurcation. Bull. Sci. Math.138(3)(2014) 356–375] using our method.
l-Carnitine is essential for mitochondrial β-oxidation and has been used as a lipid-lowering feed additive in humans and farmed animals. d-Carnitine is an optical isomer of l-carnitine and dl-carnitine has been widely used in animal feeds. However, the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine are difficult to study because of the endogenous l-carnitine background. In the present study, we developed a low-carnitine Nile tilapia model by treating fish with a carnitine synthesis inhibitor, and used this model to investigate the functional differences between l- and d-carnitine in nutrient metabolism in fish. l- or d-carnitine (0·4 g/kg diet) was fed to the low-carnitine tilapia for 6 weeks. l-Carnitine feeding increased the acyl-carnitine concentration from 3522 to 10 822 ng/g and alleviated the lipid deposition from 15·89 to 11·97 % in the liver of low-carnitine tilapia. However, as compared with l-carnitine group, d-carnitine feeding reduced the acyl-carnitine concentration from 10 822 to 5482 ng/g, and increased lipid deposition from 11·97 to 20·21 % and the mRNA expression of the genes involved in β-oxidation and detoxification in the liver. d-Carnitine feeding also induced hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. A metabolomic investigation further showed that d-carnitine feeding increased glycolysis, protein metabolism and activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, l-carnitine can be physiologically utilised in fish, whereas d-carnitine is metabolised as a xenobiotic and induces lipotoxicity. d-Carnitine-fed fish demonstrates increases in peroxisomal β-oxidation, glycolysis and amino acid degradation to maintain energy homeostasis. Therefore, d-carnitine is not recommended for use in farmed animals.
Permian faunal affinity in the Lhasa Block plays a critical role in reconstructing its paleogeographic evolution. Cisuralian and Guadalupian faunas have been described from the Lhasa Block, but very few Lopingian (late Permian) brachiopods have been reported so far. In this paper, a new diverse brachiopod fauna consisting of 17 species of 17 genera and an unidentifiable Orthotetoidea is described from the uppermost part of the Xiala Formation at the Aduogabu section in the central part of the Lhasa Block. The age of this fauna can be assigned to the Changhsingian (late Lopingian) as indicated by the associated foraminifers Colaniella parva (Colani, 1924) and Reichelina pulchra Miklukho-Maklay, 1954. Characteristic brachiopods include Spinomarginifera chengyaoyenensis Huang, 1932, Haydenella wenganensis (Huang, 1932), and Araxathyris cf. dilatatus Shen, He, and Zhu, 1992. They also generally suggest a Changhsingian age. Paleobiogeographically, this fauna is uniformly composed of typical Tethyan elements represented by Spinomarginifera Huang, 1932 and Haydenella Reed, 1944, and some cosmopolitan elements, but no typical cold-water taxa of Gondwanan affinity. This is in contrast to the contemporaneous brachiopod faunas from the Tethys Himalayan region that are characterized by typical cold-water taxa of Gondwanan affinity, e.g., Costiferina indica (Waagen, 1884), Retimarginifera xizangensis Shen et al., 2000, Neospirifer (Quadrospina) tibetensis Ding, 1962. Thus, it is strongly indicative that the Lhasa Block had drifted into a relatively warm-water regime during the Changhsingian. An analysis of the paleobiogeographic change of brachiopods in the Lhasa Block throughout the entire Permian further suggests that the Lhasa Block probably had rifted away from the northern peri-Gondwanan margin between the latest Cisuralian and middle Guadalupian, that is, the Neotethys Ocean had opened before middle Guadalupian.
The non-market values of changes in grassland management stimulated by changes in policies were estimated by choice modeling. Four-hundred twenty-seven residents of Hohhot city in Inner Mongolia were selected using the popular mobile phone application WeChat. Conditional logit (CL) and random parameter logit (RPL) models were estimated to analyze the preference of respondents for environmental and social attributes. Based on the preferred RPL model, the average per household willingness to pay over 10 years for the best policy outcome scenarios was estimated to be CNY892 (US$141). The total willingness to pay for this policy change, extrapolated to the population of Hohhot, was CNY208 million (US$33 million). The findings suggest that environmental and social outcomes are valuable to Chinese residents of a regional urban center. Such values should be viewed as a public financial base for market-based mechanisms for grassland protection both in China and internationally. WeChat proved to be convenient but required the application of extrapolation caveats relating to sample representation.
The oxidation behavior of two percentages of TiB + TiC reinforced Ti–6Al–4V composites derived from Ti–B4C–C and Ti–TiB2–TiC systems was investigated at 873–1073 K for 320 h in air. The oxidation weight gain curves of the (TiB + TiC)/Ti–6Al–4V composites at 973 K basically obey parabolic law, while those at 873 and 1073 K mainly follow linear law and parabolic-linear law, respectively. The oxide layers of the composites are predominately found to be rutile TiO2, Al2O3, and the mixture of V2O3 and V2O5. The oxidation layers turn thinner with increasing the nominal volume fraction of reinforcements in the (TiB + TiC)/Ti–6Al–4V composites. Moreover, according to the calculation results of reaction index (n) and effective activation energy (Qeff) and the analyses of cross-sections of the oxidation layers, the oxidation resistance ability of the composites from Ti–TiB2–TiC system is higher than that from Ti–B4C–C system while employing the same sintering temperature and nominal volume fraction of reinforcement.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
The giant panda, native to mountains of south-west China, is one of the world's rarest bear species and is subject to considerable conservation effort. In captivity, the proportion of twins accounts for 54% of the total number of births. To date, little is known about zygosity in panda populations — specifically, the proportion of monozygotic and dizygotic twins. In this study, we used 10 microsatellite markers for reliable zygosity testing, and the probability of monozygotic twins was 99.963% when all 10 markers were concordant. Out of 43 studied twin pairs, no MZ twins were found, indicating that there may be no identical panda twins (or the incidence is very low). We speculate that the fertilized eggs of giant pandas do not have the capability to split into two identical embryos, or that this ability is very poor, which is likely due to delayed implantation that is common in bear species. The results of this study deepen our understanding of giant panda breeding, yield insight into panda twins’ likely mechanism of formation, and reduce the uncertainty of individual identity in wild population surveys.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are multi-functional foods and nutrients and environmentally friendly biological abiotic-resistance inducing agents for plants. In the current study, the effects and possible mechanisms of COS on improving the cold resistance of rice (II YOU 1259) seedlings were investigated. Compared with the control, a COS pre-soaking treatment enhanced photosynthesis, reduced oxidation damage and led to accumulation of more osmotic regulation substances under chilling treatment. In addition, a novel Deg/HtrA family serine endopeptidase (DegQ) gene, related to COS enhanced rice cold resistance, was identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that transcription of DegQ and psbA (D1 protein encoding gene) were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner by COS treatment under cold stress. With increasing expression of the D1 protein, chlorophyll b content was enhanced correspondingly. The current results suggest that COS could enhance cold stress tolerance of rice by repairing the photodamaged photosystem II, altering osmotic regulation and reducing oxidation damage.
A high power laser system was used to drive the ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), of which the high energy, the uniform focal spot, the accurate laser waveform, and the synchronization between the laser beams are key parameters. To accomplish this, global laser characteristics control should be assured, which was the main purpose of the injection laser system. In this paper, the key technological progress involved in the improvement of the performance of the injection laser of SG-II is reported, including frequency domain control, time domain control, near-field spatial shaping, pre-amplifier technology, and the optical parametric chirped pulse amplification pump source.
The wetting of Cu–19Ni–5Al alloy on Ni-coated WC–8Co substrates with different coating thicknesses was investigated, and the brazing of Ni-coated WC–8Co to SAE1045 steel was performed by using the Cu–19Ni–5Al alloy as the filler metal. All the Cu–19Ni–5Al/Ni-coated WC–8Co systems present excellent wettability with a final contact angle of ∼10°. The thicknesses of the β + γ phase enriched with Co, Ni, and Al at the two joint interfaces increase and decrease with the Ni coating thickness, brazing temperature, and holding time increasing, respectively. The joint shear strength increases first and then decreases with the increase of Ni coating thickness, brazing temperature, or holding time. The maximum joint shear strength of ∼328 MPa is obtained while Ni plating for 90 min and brazing at 1210 °C × 5 min.
Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the ablation area of Hailuogou glacier, China, produced from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data obtained in 2009, differential GPS (DGPS) data surveyed in 2008 and aerial photographs acquired in 1966 and 1989 are differenced to estimate long- and short-term glacier surface elevation change (dh/dt). The mean dh/dt of the ablation area over 43 years (1966–2009) is −1.1 ± 0.4 m a−1. Since 1989 the thinning has accelerated significantly. Ice velocities measured by DGPS at 28 fixed stakes implanted in the ablation area increase with distance from the glacier terminus, ranging from 41.0 m a−1 approaching the glacier terminus to a maximum of 205.0 m a−1 at the base of an icefall. Our results reveal that the overall average ice velocity in the ablation area has undergone significant temporal variability over the past several decades. Changes in glacier surface elevation in the ablation area result from the combined effects of climate change and glacier dynamics, which are driven by different factors for different regions and periods.
Debris cover is widely present in glacier ablation areas of the Tibetan Plateau, and its spatial distribution greatly affects glacier melt rates. High-resolution in situ measurements of debris thickness on Hailuogou glacier, Mount Gongga, southeastern Tibetan Plateau, show pronounced inhomogeneous debris distribution. An analysis of transverse and longitudinal profiles indicates that the ground-surveyed debris thicknesses and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)-derived thermal resistances of debris layers correlate strongly over the entire ablation area. Across- and along-glacier patterns of ASTER-derived thermal resistance correspond well with spatial patterns of debris thickness, which may reflect large-scale variations in the extent and thickness of the debris cover. The ice melt rate variability over the ablation area simulated by a surface energy-balance model that considered thermal resistance of the debris layer indicates clearly the crucial role of debris and its spatial continuity in modifying the spatial characteristics of melt rates. Because of the inhomogeneous distribution of debris thickness, about 67% of the ablation area on Hailuogou glacier has undergone accelerated melting, whereas about 19% of the ablation area has experienced inhibited melting, and the sub-debris melt rate equals the bare-ice melt rate in only 14% of the ablation area.
Temperate glaciers are more sensitive to climate changes than polar or continental glaciers, and can drive remarkable runoff variation in local water catchments. Here we present recent glacier shrinkage and runoff change for Hailuogou glacier, a typical monsoon temperate glacier on the east slope of Mount Gongga (Minya Konga), China. The surface area of Hailuogou glacier has decreased by 3.5% (0.92 km2) between 1966 (aerial photographs) and 2007 (ASTER images). Flow measurements at a stream gauge about 500 m down-glacier commencing in 1994 display a remarkable increase in annual runoff (mostly during July–September) since 1999. Annual runoff over the same period in a nonglacierized but forested subcatchment (9.17 km2) did not experience significant change. By separating the daily rainfall component from the daily total discharge, monthly catchment water-balance series were calculated for the period 1994–2005, which shows an increasing trend of glacier storage loss. We concluded that air-temperature rise (with a trend of +0.2°C (10 a)−1 between 1988 and 2005, recorded at nearby weather stations) has had an increased effect on glacier mass loss and river runoff change during the past 20 years.
We investigate past and future trends in glacier runoff and the associated hydrological impacts on river runoff in the Hailuogou catchment, a highly glacierized catchment with extensive debris cover in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, using a catchment-scale glacio-hydrological model. Past trends in various runoff components of the catchment indicate that glacier runoff has been a large component of total runoff, contributing ∼53.4% of total runoff during the period 1952–2013. Future changes in runoff calculated using the outputs of ten global climate models for representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 reveal that glacier runoff plays different roles in the water supply of the catchment for the two RCPs, and the discrepancies between the two RCPs increase in the second half of this century, leading to a considerable difference in the hydrological regime of the catchment. In particular, changes are more remarkable under RCP8.5, under which all glaciers are projected to retreat dramatically and total runoff to decrease slightly by the end of this century. An experimental analysis, in which no debris cover is assumed on glacier ablation zones, indicates that excess meltwater from the debris-covered area provides an 8.1% increase in total runoff relative to the no-debris assumption case.
Twinned silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires (NWs) reinforced Si3N4–SiOC composites were successfully fabricated through a joint process of three-dimensional printing (3DP), direct nitridation, and polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP). 3DP and PIP were both addictive manufacturing processes, enabling the near net shape fabrication and microstructure designing of Si3N4–SiOC. With the increase of the PIP cycle number, the pores of Si3N4 were mostly filled with polymer-derived ceramics-silicon oxycarbide (containing SiC NWs and free carbons), which led to the increase of electrical conductivity of Si3N4–SiOC composites. With the increase of SiOC ceramics, the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of Si3N4–SiOC composites increased from 2 dB to 35 dB, in which the absorption shielding effectiveness increased to 27 dB. The flexural strength of Si3N4–SiOC composites reached 63 MPa when the content of SiOC ceramics was 50.1 wt%. It is indicated that Si3N4–SiOC ceramics are a promising electromagnetic shielding and structural material.
Knowledge of regulation of glucose transport contributes to our understanding of whole-body glucose homoeostasis and human metabolic diseases. Isoleucine has been reported to participate in regulation of glucose levels in many studies; therefore, this study was designed to examine the effect of isoleucine on intestinal and muscular GLUT expressions. In an animal experiment, muscular GLUT and intestinal GLUT were determined in weaning pigs fed control or isoleucine-supplemented diets. Supplementation of isoleucine in the diet significantly increased piglet average daily gain, enhanced GLUT1 expression in red muscle and GLUT4 expression in red muscle, white muscle and intermediate muscle (P<0·05). In additional, expressions of Na+/glucose co-transporter 1 and GLUT2 were up-regulated in the small intestine when pigs were fed isoleucine-supplemented diets (P<0·05). C2C12 cells were used to examine the expressions of muscular GLUT and glucose uptake in vitro. In C2C12 cells supplemented with isoleucine in the medium, cellular 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased (P<0·05) through enhancement of the expressions of GLUT4 and GLUT1 (P<0·05). The effect of isoleucine was greater than that of leucine on glucose uptake (P<0·05). Compared with newborn piglets, 35-d-old piglets have comparatively higher GLUT4, GLUT2 and GLUT5 expressions. The results of this study demonstrated that isoleucine supplementation enhanced the intestinal and muscular GLUT expressions, which have important implications that suggest that isoleucine could potentially increase muscle growth and intestinal development by enhancing local glucose uptake in animals and human beings.
A new death line for radio pulsars is presented in this paper within the framework of vacuum gap and inverse Compton scattering (ICS) induced pair production process. The 8.5s period pulsar PSR J2144-3933 is located above the death line without any additional assumptions. An “appearance line” instead of the so-called “Hubble line”, is also presented in this paper. Both of those two lines fit observations well.
We propose that the violent breakdown of the Ruderman-Sutherland type vacuum gap above the pulsar polar cap region may produce copious primary particles and make the charge density above the gap in excess of the Goldreich-Julian density. Such an excess residue of charge density may arise some re-acceleration regions above the gap due to the space-charge-limited flow mechanism. Such re-acceleration regions, if exist, may accelerate particles to carry away more spin-down energy, and may have some implications for pulsar γ-ray emission.
It is believed that pulsars are neutron stars or strange stars with crusts. However we suggest here that pulsars may be bare strange stars (i.e., strange stars without crust). Due to rapid rotation and strong emission, young strange stars produced in supernova explosions should be bare when they act as radio pulsars. Because of strong magnetic field, two polar-crusts would shield the polar caps of an accreting strange star. Such a suggestion can be checked by further observations.