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Chinese court cases have attained increasing importance in recent studies of Chinese law, but remain insufficiently understood. In this article, I demonstrate why Chinese court cases should be given more weighty consideration in comparative studies involving Chinese law as a comparator, and how such cases, particularly ‘Guiding Cases’ and ‘Gazette Cases’ (which are published in the official Gazette of the Supreme People's Court), should be properly dealt with and assessed in view of the complexity of the court case system in China.
The continental shelf strata provide information regarding sea-level fluctuation and climate changes in the Quaternary period. A 5831.47-km-long high-resolution seismic profile and borehole core (YS01) were acquired to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the strata in South Yellow Sea (SYS) during the late Pleistocene. The strata recorded three transgression events (HI, HII, and HIII) and three stages of paleochannel development (LI, LII, and LIII). Based on the distribution, thickness, and volume of the strata formed in the three transgressions, we concluded that the scale of the three transgressions during the late Pleistocene was HIII, HI, and HII, in descending order. In addition, our data show that the Yellow River extended to the Yellow Sea Trough during the last glacial maximum. The influence of the tectonic framework on sedimentation in the SYS was completely concealed by sea-level changes and sediment supply in the late Pleistocene (~Marine Isotope Stage 5). Since then, the accommodation space, a crucial prerequisite for sedimentation, has been controlled solely by sea-level changes in the SYS. Furthermore, two “source to sink” models of the neritic shelf in the marine and terrestrial environments were established, including high sea-level and shelf-exposure models.
Image stitching is important for the perception and manipulation of undersea robots. In spite of a well-developed technique, it is still challenging for undersea images because of their inevitable appearance ambiguity caused by the limited light in the undersea environment, and local disturbance caused by moving objects, ocean current, etc. To get a clean and stable background panorama in the undersea environment, this paper proposes an undersea image-stitching method by introducing graph-based registration and blending procedures. Specifically, in the registration procedure, matching the features in each undersea image pair is formulated and solved by graph matching, to incorporate the structural information between features. In the blending procedure, an energy function on the indirect graph Markov random field is proposed, which takes both image consistency and neighboring consistency into consideration. Coincidentally, both graph matching and energy minimization can be mathematically formulated by integer quadratic programming problems with different constraints; the recently proposed graduated nonconvexity and concavity procedure is used to optimize both problems. Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world undersea images witness the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The oxidation behavior of two percentages of TiB + TiC reinforced Ti–6Al–4V composites derived from Ti–B4C–C and Ti–TiB2–TiC systems was investigated at 873–1073 K for 320 h in air. The oxidation weight gain curves of the (TiB + TiC)/Ti–6Al–4V composites at 973 K basically obey parabolic law, while those at 873 and 1073 K mainly follow linear law and parabolic-linear law, respectively. The oxide layers of the composites are predominately found to be rutile TiO2, Al2O3, and the mixture of V2O3 and V2O5. The oxidation layers turn thinner with increasing the nominal volume fraction of reinforcements in the (TiB + TiC)/Ti–6Al–4V composites. Moreover, according to the calculation results of reaction index (n) and effective activation energy (Qeff) and the analyses of cross-sections of the oxidation layers, the oxidation resistance ability of the composites from Ti–TiB2–TiC system is higher than that from Ti–B4C–C system while employing the same sintering temperature and nominal volume fraction of reinforcement.
The timing of the Holocene summer monsoon maximum (HSMM) in northeastern China has been much debated and more quantitative precipitation records are needed to resolve the issue. In the present study, Holocene precipitation and temperature changes were quantitatively reconstructed from a pollen record from the sediments of Tianchi Crater Lake in northeastern China using a plant functional type-modern analogue technique (PFT-MAT). The reconstructed precipitation record indicates a gradual increase during the early to mid-Holocene and a HSMM at ~5500–3100 cal yr BP, while the temperature record exhibits a divergent pattern with a marked rise in the early Holocene and a decline thereafter. The trend of reconstructed precipitation is consistent with that from other pollen records in northeastern China, confirming the relatively late occurrence of the HSMM in the region. However, differences in the onset of the HSMM within northeastern China are also evident. No single factor appears to be responsible for the late occurrence of the HSMM in northeastern China, pointing to a potentially complex forcing mechanism of regional rainfall in the East Asian monsoon region. We suggest that further studies are needed to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of the HSMM in the region.
The wetting of Cu–19Ni–5Al alloy on Ni-coated WC–8Co substrates with different coating thicknesses was investigated, and the brazing of Ni-coated WC–8Co to SAE1045 steel was performed by using the Cu–19Ni–5Al alloy as the filler metal. All the Cu–19Ni–5Al/Ni-coated WC–8Co systems present excellent wettability with a final contact angle of ∼10°. The thicknesses of the β + γ phase enriched with Co, Ni, and Al at the two joint interfaces increase and decrease with the Ni coating thickness, brazing temperature, and holding time increasing, respectively. The joint shear strength increases first and then decreases with the increase of Ni coating thickness, brazing temperature, or holding time. The maximum joint shear strength of ∼328 MPa is obtained while Ni plating for 90 min and brazing at 1210 °C × 5 min.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
The assessment and calibration of representational bias in modern soil phytolith assemblages provide the basis for improving interpretation of fossil phytolith assemblages. We studied soil phytolith representation by comparing phytoliths from living plant communities with those from paired surface soils, representing 39 plant communities in Northeast China. Together with the use of representation indices, the 34 and 30 soil morphotypes observed in forest and grassland samples, respectively, were both classified into the following four groups: “Associated types” were similarly represented in soils and in the corresponding species inventory data; “Over-represented types” and “Under-represented types” were respectively over- and under-represented in soils compared to the inventory data; and, in the case of “Special types,” the relationship with the parent plants was unclear. In addition, the diagnostic types exhibited different degrees of representation, while the most common morphotypes were equally represented between grassland samples and forest samples. On this basis, a comparison between the original and corrected soil phytolith indices of the additional 29 soil samples was conducted. The soil phytoliths frequencies corrected by R-values differed between plots with differing plant compositions, and were moderately consistent with actual plant richness in the plot inventory data. We therefore confirmed that R-values are a promising means of correcting soil phytoliths for representational bias in temperate regions. The corrected soil phytoliths can be used to reliably reflect vegetation variability. Overall, our study provides an improved understanding of soil phytolith representation and offers a potential method for improving the accuracy of paleovegetation reconstruction.
The Shen-Guang II Upgrade (SG-II-U) laser facility consists of eight high-power nanosecond laser beams and one short-pulse picosecond petawatt laser. It is designed for the study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for conducting fast ignition (FI) research in China and other basic science experiments. To perform FI successfully with hohlraum targets containing a golden cone, the long-pulse beam and cylindrical hohlraum as well as the short-pulse beam and cone target alignment must satisfy tight specifications (30 and
rms for each case). To explore new ICF ignition targets with six laser entrance holes (LEHs), a rotation sensor was adapted to meet the requirements of a three-dimensional target and correct beam alignment. In this paper, the strategy for aligning the nanosecond beam based on target alignment sensor (TAS) is introduced and improved to meet requirements of the picosecond lasers and the new six LEHs hohlraum targets in the SG-II-U facility. The expected performance of the alignment system is presented, and the alignment error is also discussed.
A glacier system is regarded as the ensemble of many glaciers sharing the same region, influenced by a similar climate and organized by certain intrinsic laws. It can be either ‘sensitive’ or ‘steady’. On the basis of the structure of the glacier system and the nature of the equilibrium-line altitudes at the steady state, functional models of a glacier system responding to climate warming were established, using the Kotlyakov–Krenke equation relating annual glacier ablation and mean summer temperature and the glacier system’s median size. The modeling results under the climatic scenarios with a rate of temperature increase of 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05 K a-1 indicate that by the end of this century the glacial area of China will be reduced by –14%, –40%and –60% respectively. However, model results show distinct differences between the sensitive glacier system and the steady glacier system.
Digital elevation models (DEMs) of the ablation area of Hailuogou glacier, China, produced from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data obtained in 2009, differential GPS (DGPS) data surveyed in 2008 and aerial photographs acquired in 1966 and 1989 are differenced to estimate long- and short-term glacier surface elevation change (dh/dt). The mean dh/dt of the ablation area over 43 years (1966–2009) is −1.1 ± 0.4 m a−1. Since 1989 the thinning has accelerated significantly. Ice velocities measured by DGPS at 28 fixed stakes implanted in the ablation area increase with distance from the glacier terminus, ranging from 41.0 m a−1 approaching the glacier terminus to a maximum of 205.0 m a−1 at the base of an icefall. Our results reveal that the overall average ice velocity in the ablation area has undergone significant temporal variability over the past several decades. Changes in glacier surface elevation in the ablation area result from the combined effects of climate change and glacier dynamics, which are driven by different factors for different regions and periods.
Debris cover is widely present in glacier ablation areas of the Tibetan Plateau, and its spatial distribution greatly affects glacier melt rates. High-resolution in situ measurements of debris thickness on Hailuogou glacier, Mount Gongga, southeastern Tibetan Plateau, show pronounced inhomogeneous debris distribution. An analysis of transverse and longitudinal profiles indicates that the ground-surveyed debris thicknesses and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)-derived thermal resistances of debris layers correlate strongly over the entire ablation area. Across- and along-glacier patterns of ASTER-derived thermal resistance correspond well with spatial patterns of debris thickness, which may reflect large-scale variations in the extent and thickness of the debris cover. The ice melt rate variability over the ablation area simulated by a surface energy-balance model that considered thermal resistance of the debris layer indicates clearly the crucial role of debris and its spatial continuity in modifying the spatial characteristics of melt rates. Because of the inhomogeneous distribution of debris thickness, about 67% of the ablation area on Hailuogou glacier has undergone accelerated melting, whereas about 19% of the ablation area has experienced inhibited melting, and the sub-debris melt rate equals the bare-ice melt rate in only 14% of the ablation area.
Temperate glaciers are more sensitive to climate changes than polar or continental glaciers, and can drive remarkable runoff variation in local water catchments. Here we present recent glacier shrinkage and runoff change for Hailuogou glacier, a typical monsoon temperate glacier on the east slope of Mount Gongga (Minya Konga), China. The surface area of Hailuogou glacier has decreased by 3.5% (0.92 km2) between 1966 (aerial photographs) and 2007 (ASTER images). Flow measurements at a stream gauge about 500 m down-glacier commencing in 1994 display a remarkable increase in annual runoff (mostly during July–September) since 1999. Annual runoff over the same period in a nonglacierized but forested subcatchment (9.17 km2) did not experience significant change. By separating the daily rainfall component from the daily total discharge, monthly catchment water-balance series were calculated for the period 1994–2005, which shows an increasing trend of glacier storage loss. We concluded that air-temperature rise (with a trend of +0.2°C (10 a)−1 between 1988 and 2005, recorded at nearby weather stations) has had an increased effect on glacier mass loss and river runoff change during the past 20 years.
The second Chinese glacier inventory was compiled based on 218 Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes acquired mainly during 2006–10. The widely used band ratio segmentation method was applied as the first step in delineating glacier outlines, and then intensive manual improvements were performed. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model was used to derive altitudinal attributes of glaciers. The boundaries of some glaciers measured by real-time kinematic differential GPS or digitized from high-resolution images were used as references to validate the accuracy of the methods used to delineate glaciers, which resulted in positioning errors of ±10 m for manually improved clean-ice outlines and ±30 m for manually digitized outlines of debris-covered parts. The glacier area error of the compiled inventory, evaluated using these two positioning accuracies, was ±3.2%. The compiled parts of the new inventory have a total area of 43 087 km2, in which 1723 glaciers were covered by debris, with a total debris-covered area of 1494 km2. The area of uncompiled glaciers from the digitized first Chinese glacier inventory is ∼8753 km2, mainly distributed in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, where no images of acceptable quality for glacier outline delineation can be found during 2006–10.
We investigate past and future trends in glacier runoff and the associated hydrological impacts on river runoff in the Hailuogou catchment, a highly glacierized catchment with extensive debris cover in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau, using a catchment-scale glacio-hydrological model. Past trends in various runoff components of the catchment indicate that glacier runoff has been a large component of total runoff, contributing ∼53.4% of total runoff during the period 1952–2013. Future changes in runoff calculated using the outputs of ten global climate models for representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 reveal that glacier runoff plays different roles in the water supply of the catchment for the two RCPs, and the discrepancies between the two RCPs increase in the second half of this century, leading to a considerable difference in the hydrological regime of the catchment. In particular, changes are more remarkable under RCP8.5, under which all glaciers are projected to retreat dramatically and total runoff to decrease slightly by the end of this century. An experimental analysis, in which no debris cover is assumed on glacier ablation zones, indicates that excess meltwater from the debris-covered area provides an 8.1% increase in total runoff relative to the no-debris assumption case.
We carried out the Gaussian fitting to the profile of PSR B1237+25 and found that six components rather than five are necessary to make a good fit. In the central part, we found that the core emission is not filled pencil beam but is a small hollow cone. This implies that the impact angle could be β < 0.5°. The “hollow core” is in agreement with Inverse Compton Scattering model of radio pulsars.
Many theoretical efforts were made to understand the core and conal emission identified from observations by Rankin (1983) and Lyne and Manchester (1988). One of them, named as inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model (Qiao & Lin 1998), has been proposed. It is found in the model that: there are central or ‘core’ emission beam, and one or two hollow conical emission beams; the different emission components are emitted at different heights; owing to different radiation components emitted from different height, the observed emission beams can be shifted from each other due to retardation and aberration effects; the sizes of emission components change with frequencies. Recent developments of the model include: simulations of pulse profiles at different frequencies; studying the basic polarization properties of inverse Compton scattering in strong magnetic fields; computing the polarizations and spectrum of core and cones. A new classification system was also proposed. The main results calculated from the model are consistent with the observations.
Glaciers in the Bugyai Kangri are located in a transition zone from southeast Tibet, where monsoonal temperate glaciers dominate, to inner Tibet, where continental glaciers dominate. Here we analyze glacier and glacial lake changes in this region using multi-year inventories based on Landsat images from 1981–2013. Results show that the total area of 141 glaciers in the region decreased by 30.44 ±0.89 km2 from 198.35 ±9.54 km2 (1980s) to 167.93 ±4.52 km2 (2010s). The annual area shrinkage rate (–0.48% a–1) is lower than that reported for southeastern Tibet but higher than that of inner Tibet. Both the number and total area of glacial lakes increased between 1981 and 2013. Among all lakes, proglacial lakes contribute most (~81 %) to the expansion. The total area of ten proglacial lakes increased by 150.3 ± 13.17% and of these ten lakes the four that expanded most sharply showed increased calving at their upper margins, resulting in more rapid retreat of lake-terminating glaciers than land-terminating glaciers. Owing to rapid calving, several lakes may undergo further growth in the near future, increasing the potential risk of glacial lake outburst floods.