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The periodic dispersal and assembly of continental fragments has been an inherent feature of the continental crust. Based on the discovery of large-scale supercontinent cycle and the theory of plate tectonics, several supercontinents have been identified, such as Columbia/Nuna, Rodinia, Gondwana and Pangaea. Neoproterozoic magmatic events related to the break-up of Rodinia are globally well preserved. Although Neoproterozoic magmatic events were very weak in the North China Craton (NCC), they are crucial in reconstructing the geometries of the NCC and could facilitate the completion of the Neoproterozoic configuration of the supercontinent. In this study, c. 853–835 Ma magmatic rocks are identified in the western margin of the NCC. Precise zircon U–Pb age determination yields 206Pb/238U average ages of 835.5 ± 5.3 Ma (HL-39) and 853.7 ± 4.5 Ma (HL-30). In situ zircon Hf isotope compositions of the samples reveal that their parental magma was formed by the reworking of ancient crust evolved from Mesoproterozoic mantle. In summary, the discovery of Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks in the western margin of the NCC, and reported synchronous rocks in other parts of the NCC indicate that the NCC might be conjoined with the supercontinent Rodinia during the Neoproterozoic. This discovery is of significant help in unravelling the early Neoproterozoic history of the NCC and the evolution of the supercontinent Rodinia.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
The Shen-Guang II Upgrade (SG-II-U) laser facility consists of eight high-power nanosecond laser beams and one short-pulse picosecond petawatt laser. It is designed for the study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for conducting fast ignition (FI) research in China and other basic science experiments. To perform FI successfully with hohlraum targets containing a golden cone, the long-pulse beam and cylindrical hohlraum as well as the short-pulse beam and cone target alignment must satisfy tight specifications (30 and
rms for each case). To explore new ICF ignition targets with six laser entrance holes (LEHs), a rotation sensor was adapted to meet the requirements of a three-dimensional target and correct beam alignment. In this paper, the strategy for aligning the nanosecond beam based on target alignment sensor (TAS) is introduced and improved to meet requirements of the picosecond lasers and the new six LEHs hohlraum targets in the SG-II-U facility. The expected performance of the alignment system is presented, and the alignment error is also discussed.
Auto-alignment is a basic technique for high-power laser systems. Special techniques have been developed for laser systems because of their differing structures. This paper describes a new sensor for auto-alignment in a laser system, which can also serve as a reference in certain applications. The authors prove that all of the beam transfer information (position and pointing) can theoretically be monitored and recorded by the sensor. Furthermore, auto-alignment with a single lens sensor is demonstrated on a simple beam line, and the results indicate that effective auto-alignment is achieved.
This study examined the mediating effects of future social expectations and interpersonal distrust on the relationship between individual relative deprivation and intention to rebel. Data were gathered from 807 people from multiple occupational backgrounds in a municipality in southwest China. Structural equation modelling showed that individual relative deprivation predicted intention to rebel directly and also that it predicted intention to rebel indirectly via negative future social expectations, interpersonal distrust, and a chain mediating effect of negative future social expectations and interpersonal distrust. These results highlight the importance of the associations between future social expectations and interpersonal distrust with intention to rebel in people who report relative deprivation. The findings also indicate that prevention and intervention programs related to relative deprivation and intention to rebel in China are worthy of further research.
Activated carbon (AC) has been widely used as catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Here we demonstrate a new method to improve the AC air-cathode by blending it with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). rGO sheets are first deposited on Ni foam and AC is then brushed onto it with controlled mass loading. rGO sheets not only improve the electrical conductivity of AC, but also provide a large number of ORR areas. Rotating ring disk electrode measurements reveal that the number of transferred electrons at rGO-AC cathode is 3.5, indicating the four-electron pathway is the dominant process. Significantly, the MFC with rGO-AC cathode delivers a maximum power density of 2.25 ± 0.05 W/m2, which is substantially higher than that of plain AC cathode (1.35 ± 0.07 W/m2) and those for other air-cathode MFCs using AC as ORR catalyst under the same mass loading.
This work was to evaluate the differences of soil and plant analysis development (SPAD) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) readings and their relationship with leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA). The study explored new indices to diagnose nitrogen (N) status. These indices were obtained by multiplying SPAD readings and leaf area index (LAI). Linear regression relationships between Chlorophyll values and N indicators showed the SPAD readings (Chl: LNA=0.0546×Chl-0.479, R2=0.94***, P<0.001). The projected results suggested that Chl values could play an important role for improving N status diagnosis from stem elongation to heading stages in paddy rice.
A series of oxidation experiments were carried out on these novel γ/γ′-strengthened cobalt-based alloys of the systems Co–9Al–10W and Co–9Al–10W–0.02X (X = La, Ce, Dy, Y) at 900 °C. The appropriate amounts’ addition of rare earth elements leads to improved oxidation properties at 900 °C, especially La elements show the best oxidation resistance (129.008 mg/cm2). However, the base Co–9Al–10W alloy shows the worst oxidation performance (151.544 mg/cm2). Multilayer oxide layers formed during the oxidation process, the outer were mainly CoO and Co3O4 oxides, and the middle layer contained complex oxides (containing Co, Al, and W). The inner layer consists of little discontinuous oxides, included few Al2O3 oxides. There existed a different crack width and the base alloy had the widest crack. Moreover, there exists a phase transformation (γ/γ′ to γ/Co3W) at the interface between oxide film and substrate.
The isothermal oxidation experiments were carried out on several new γ/γ′-strengthened cobalt-base alloys Co–Al–W–4Cr–0.02X (X = La, Ce, Dy, Y) at 900 and 800 °C. Due to an appropriate content of additional elements, the change in the morphology occurred and it significantly improved the oxidation resistance compared with those without Cr, among which the one with La elements shows the best oxidation resistance. Multiple oxide layers are also formed during the oxidation process, with CoWO4 and CoAl2O4 phases in the outer layer, and Cr, Al, W, and Co (e.g., Cr2O3) in the middle layer. The inner layer consists of some Al2O3 oxides, while more protective Al2O3 oxide was formed, esp. at the temperature of 800 °C. Both Cr2O3 and Al2O3 oxides were effectively protective oxides, which can prevent the intrusion of oxygen into the alloy substrate. Moreover, a phase transformation (γ/γ′ to γ/Co3W) was observed at the interface between oxide layer and substrate.
A finite difference method which is second-order accurate in time and in space is proposed for two-dimensional fractional percolation equations. Using the Fourier transform, a general approximation for the mixed fractional derivatives is analyzed. An approach based on the classical Crank-Nicolson scheme combined with the Richardson extrapolation is used to obtain temporally and spatially second-order accurate numerical estimates. Consistency, stability and convergence of the method are established. Numerical experiments illustrating the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis are provided.
The effect of Zn, as an adjunct to antibiotics, on the treatment of severe pneumonia in young children is still under debate; therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the therapeutic role of Zn for severe pneumonia in children younger than 5 years. PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase databases were systematically searched from inception until October 2015 for randomised-controlled trials (RCT) that assessed the effect of Zn as an adjunct to antibiotics for severe pneumonia. Random-effects model was used for calculating the pooled estimates, and intention-to-treat principle was also applied. Nine RCT involving 2926 children were included. Overall, the pooled results showed that adjunct treatment with Zn failed to reduce the time to recovery from severe pneumonia (hazard ratios (HR)=1·04; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·19; I2=39 %; P=0·58), hospital length of stay (HR=1·04; 95 % CI 0·83, 1·33; I2=57 %; P=0·74), treatment failure (relative risk (RR)=0·95; 95 % CI 0·79, 1·14; I2=20 %; P=0·58) or change of antibiotics (RR=1·07; 95 % CI 0·79, 1·45; I2=44 %; P=0·67). In addition, continuous outcomes were consistent while meta-analysed with standard mean difference, and all outcomes remained stable in intention-to-treat analysis. No significant differences were observed in the two groups between death rate, adverse events or recovery times of severe pneumonia indicators. Our results suggested that adjunct treatment with Zn failed to benefit young children in the treatment of severe pneumonia. Considering the clinical heterogeneity, baseline characteristics of children, definition of severe pneumonia and Zn supplement way should be taken into consideration in future research. This study was registered at PRESPERO as CRD42015019798.
We studied the tank treading motion of an erythrocyte (red blood cell, or RBC) in linear shear flows by using a boundary-element fluid-dynamics model coupled with a multiscale structural model of the cell. The purpose was to investigate the correlation between the reference (stress-free) state of the cytoskeleton and the cell dynamics in shear flows with relatively high capillary numbers. We discovered that there exist two distinctive modes of tank treading, mode 1 and mode 2. In mode 1 the membrane elements originating from the dimple areas keep close to the central plane, whereas in mode 2 these elements remain near the farthermost locations from the central plane. Mode 1 is also characterized by significantly higher breathing and swinging oscillations. During tank treading one mode may become unstable and switch to the other. Their stability depends on the viscosity ratio and the capillary number. At a fixed viscosity ratio, when the capillary number is increased the cell experiences sequentially a region dominated by mode 2, a mode 1/mode 2 bistable region and a region dominated by mode 1. More profoundly, these regions are highly sensitive to the reference state of the cytoskeleton. For example, compared with a cell with a biconcave reference state, a cell with a spheroidal reference state features a much smaller region dominated by mode 2. This finding may guide experiments to identify the actual reference state of these cells.
Sn–Ag–Cu solder interconnects were made by solidifying the solder balls in a magnetic field and subsequently tested for their electromigration behavior. The orientation of the tin grains was analyzed by electron backscattered diffraction. It was found that the c-axis of Sn grain tended to rotate away from the direction of the magnetic field during solidification, resulting in an enhanced electromigration resistance for the solder joint when the current was applied along the direction of the magnetic field, as evidenced by a smaller electromigration-induced polarity effect in the growth of the interfacial intermetallic compound. Such a reduced polarity-effect of electromigration is shown to agree well with the anisotropy in the diffusivity of the active diffusion species, Cu, in the tetragonal Sn. The difference of free energy change caused by the anisotropy in the magnetic susceptibility of the tetragonal Sn during solidification is suggested to be the main factor for this phenomenon.
Inspired by the recent experiment on erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) in weak shear flows by Dupire et al. (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 109, 2012, pp. 20808–20813), we conduct a numerical investigation to study the dynamics of RBCs in low-shear-rate flows by applying a multiscale fluid–structure interaction model. By employing a spheroidal stress-free state in the cytoskeleton, we are able to numerically predict an important feature, namely that the cell maintains its biconcave shape during tank-treading motions. Furthermore, we numerically confirm the hypothesis that, as the stress-free state approaches a sphere, the threshold shear rates corresponding to the establishment of tank treading decrease. By comparing with the experimental measurements, our study suggests that the stress-free state of RBCs is a spheroid that is close to a sphere, rather than the biconcave shape applied in existing models (the implication is that the RBC skeleton is pre-stressed in its natural biconcave state). It also suggests that the response of RBCs in low-shear-rate flows may provide a measure to quantitatively determine the distribution of shear stress in the RBC cytoskeleton in the natural state.
Most statistical machine translation systems typically rely on word alignments to extract translation rules. This approach would suffer from a practical problem that even one spurious word alignment link can prevent some desirable translation rules from being extracted. To address this issue, this paper presents two approaches, referred to as sub-tree alignment and phrase-based forced decoding methods, to automatically learn translation span alignments from parallel data. Then, we improve the translation rule extraction by deleting spurious links and inserting new links based on bilingual translation span correspondences. Some comparison experiments are designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
Cu0.62Zn0.38 foil was subjected to surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) processing first. Growth behavior of ZnO nanostructure on the SMAT Cu0.62Zn0.38 surface during thermal oxidation was investigated in this paper. The original and SMAT Cu0.62Zn0.38 foils were thermally oxidized at 400 ~ 700 °C under various gaseous environments, including nitrogen and mixture of N2-O2 at a pressure of 1 atm. for 3 h. The oxidized specimens were characterized with a scanning electron microscope, an X-ray diffractometer and a transmission electron microscope. It is found that nanosheets are easily formed on the SMAT specimen surface. The favorable formation of nanosheets relates to twin lamellae structure of Cu0.62Zn0.38 formed during SMAT processing.
From theoretical analysis and site testing work for 4 years on Dome A, Antarctica, we can reasonably predict that it is a very good astronomical site, as good as or even better than Dome C and suitable for observations ranging from optical to infrared & sub-mm wavelengths. After the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR), which was composed of four small fixed telescopes with diameter of 145mm and the three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) with 500mm entrance diameter, the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope (KDUST) with diameter of 2.5m is proposed. KDUST will adopt an innovative optical system which can deliver very good image quality over a 2 square degree flat field of view. Some other features are: a fixed focus suitable for different instruments, active optics for miscollimation correction, a lens-prisms that can be used as an atmospheric dispersion corrector or as a very low-dispersion spectrometer when moved in / out of the main optical path without changing the performance of the system, and a compact structure to make easier transportation to Dome A. KDUST will be mounted on a tower with height 15m in order to make a full use of the superb free atmospheric seeing.
A numerical model based on a boundary-element method is developed to predict the performance of flapping foils for the general cases where vorticities are shed near the leading edge as well as from the trailing edge. The shed vorticities are modelled as desingularized thin shear layers which propagate with the local flow velocity. Special treatments are developed to model the unsteady and alternating leading-edge separation (LES), which is a main element of difficulty for theoretical and numerical analyses of general flapping foils. The present method is compared with existing experiments where it is shown that the inclusion of LES significantly improves the prediction of thrust and efficiency, obtaining excellent agreement with measurements over a broad range of flapping frequencies (Strouhal number) and motion amplitudes (maximum angle of attack). It is found that the neglect of LES leads to substantial over-prediction of the thrust (and efficiency). The effects of LES on thrust generation in terms of the circulation around the foil, the steady and unsteady thrust components, and the vortex-induced pressure on the foil are elucidated. The efficiency and robustness of the method render it suitable for design optimization which generally requires large numbers of performance evaluations. To illustrate this, we present a sample problem of designing the flapping motion, with the inclusion of higher harmonic components, to maximize the efficiency under specified thrust. When optimal higher harmonic motions are included, the performance of the flapping foil is appreciably improved, mitigating the adverse effects of LES vortex on the performance.
In this study, crystal orientation and polymorphism formation in electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blend fibers after melt-recrystallization were studied. To achieve uniform alignment of electrospun fibers, mechanical stretching was applied to the as-spun nonwoven fibers at 110 °C. Pure ferroelectric β-PVDF crystals in the PAN matrix were achieved, and both polar β-PVDF and polar PAN crystals oriented with their chain axes parallel to the fiber axes. After melt-recrystallization of PVDF, a significant amount of ferroelectric β crystals was retained in addition to the formation of nonpolar α crystals. A polarized Fourier transform infrared study showed that the degree of orientation of ferroelectric β-PVDF crystals was higher than that of nonpolar α crystals, suggesting that the β-PVDF crystals should form at the PVDF/PAN interfaces because of strong dipolar and hydrogen bonding interactions between vinylidene fluoride and acrylonitrile units. The nonpolar α-PVDF crystals should form in the center of PVDF domains.