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Severe phase coarsening and separation in Sn–Bi alloys have brought increasing reliability concern in microelectronic packages. In this study, a phase field model is developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and evaluate the change in macroscopic physical properties of the flip chip Cu/Sn58Bi/Cu joint under the conditions of isothermal aging, as well as the coupled loads of elastic stress and electric current stressing. Results show that large-sized Bi-rich phase particles grow up at the expense of small-sized ones. Under the coupled loads, Bi atoms migrate along the electron flow direction, consequently Bi-rich phase segregates to form a Bi-rich phase layer at the anode. The current crowding ratio in the solder decreases rapidly first and then fluctuates slightly with time. Current density and von Mises stress exhibit inhomogeneous distribution, and both of them are higher in the Sn-rich phase than in the Bi-rich phase. Electric current transfers through the Sn-rich phase and detours the Bi-rich phase. As time proceeds, the resistance of the solder joint increases, and the average von Mises stress of the solder joint decreases. The Bi-rich phase coarsens much faster under the coupled loads than under the conditions of isothermal aging.
Arid central Asia plays an important role in global climate dynamics, but large uncertainties remain in our understanding of the region's hydroclimate variability during the Late Quaternary. Here we present a new, high-resolution record of lacustrine sediment grain-size and element chemistry from Ebinur Lake, which was used to infer lake conditions and related climate changes in the study region between ca. 39.2 and 3.6 ka. End-member modeling analysis of grain-size data and PCA of elemental data show that lake level fluctuated dramatically from 39.2 to 34.0 ka. Subsequently, Ebinur Lake experienced a high stand from 34.0 to 28.0 ka, under humid climate conditions. The subsequent period, from 28.0 to 12.0 ka, was characterized by lake regression under dry climate conditions, whereas afterward (12.0–3.6 ka), considerably higher lake levels and humid conditions again prevailed. Millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, such as Heinrich events (H3 and H1) and the Younger Dryas, which are documented in the North Atlantic region, are also detected in the sediment record from Ebinur Lake. Comparisons with other sediment records from arid central Asia generally support the claim that climate change in this region was influenced mainly by variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, through the westerlies.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
The Shen-Guang II Upgrade (SG-II-U) laser facility consists of eight high-power nanosecond laser beams and one short-pulse picosecond petawatt laser. It is designed for the study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for conducting fast ignition (FI) research in China and other basic science experiments. To perform FI successfully with hohlraum targets containing a golden cone, the long-pulse beam and cylindrical hohlraum as well as the short-pulse beam and cone target alignment must satisfy tight specifications (30 and
rms for each case). To explore new ICF ignition targets with six laser entrance holes (LEHs), a rotation sensor was adapted to meet the requirements of a three-dimensional target and correct beam alignment. In this paper, the strategy for aligning the nanosecond beam based on target alignment sensor (TAS) is introduced and improved to meet requirements of the picosecond lasers and the new six LEHs hohlraum targets in the SG-II-U facility. The expected performance of the alignment system is presented, and the alignment error is also discussed.
Terrestrial plant remains in the sediments of lakes from semi-arid and arid regions are rare and therefore the establishment of a sediment chronology depends on accurate assessment of the reservoir effect of the lake water. In a study of Genggahai Lake in the Gonghe Basin, northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we used accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dating to determine the age of (1) dissolved inorganic carbon in the water (DICLW), (2) macrophyte remains in the uppermost samples of core sediments, (3) living P. pectinatus in the lake, and (4) dissolved inorganic carbon of spring water in the catchment. The results show that the ages of the DICLW (910 14C yr BP on average) were much younger than the ages of the groundwater (6330 14C yr BP on average), which may result mainly from CO2 exchange between the lake water and the atmosphere. In addition, the 14C ages of DICLW and macrophyte remains in the uppermost core sediments varied from site to site within the lake, which we ascribe to the different photosynthesis rates of Chara spp. and vascular plants. The higher photosynthesis rate of Chara spp. decreases lake-water pCO2, which leads to more atmospheric CO2 being absorbed by the lake water, and thereby greatly reducing the age of carbon species in areas dominated by Chara spp. Although Genggahai Lake is well mixed, the differences between the apparent ages of the lake water are significantly modulated by the photosynthesis intensity of submerged plants.
This investigation addresses the dynamics of annular viscoelastic films flowing down a flexible tube. The fluid viscoelasticity is assumed to be weak in order to obtain approximate explicit expressions for the stresses. Based on Shkadov’s integral boundary layer method (Fluid Dyn., vol. 2(1), 1967, pp. 29–34), a set of nonlinear evolution equations is derived that is valid for flows with moderate Reynolds numbers. The linear stability property of the system is examined by using normal-mode analysis, which is verified by comparing the results with those resulting from the linearization of the full Navier–Stokes equations. The results indicate that the fluid viscoelasticity plays an unstable role in the stability of the annular film flow. The tube flexibility, which includes wall damping and wall tension, plays a dual role. A bifurcation analysis is performed, and the families of steady travelling waves are catalogued. It is found that the stiffness of the tube tends to stimulate the interfacial capillary ripples. The fluid viscoelasticity acts to strengthen the dispersion of the interfacial waves but weakens the interfacial capillary ripples. The spatio-temporal evolutions of the system are also solved numerically. When the tube radius is small enough, tube closure can be observed due to the Plateau–Rayleigh instability. The fluid viscoelasticity acts to promote tube closure while the tube radius is relatively small. However, it plays a role in postponing the closure of the tube with a large radius.
Many lacustrine chronology records suffer from radiocarbon reservoir effects. A continuous, accurate varve chronology, in conjunction with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating, was used to determine the age of lacustrine sediment and to quantify the past 14C reservoir effect in Sugan Lake (China). Reservoir age varied from 4340 to 2590 yr due to 14C-depleted water in the late Holocene. However, during the Little Ice Age (LIA), 14C reservoir age was relatively stable. According to this study, 14C reservoir age in the late Holocene may be driven by hydrological and climatic changes of this period. Therefore, special caution should be paid to the correction of the 14C reservoir effect by a unique 14C reservoir age in paleoclimatic and paleolimnological study of northwest China.
Optics surface phase defects induced intensity modulation in high-power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research is studied. Calculations and experiments reveal an exact mapping of the modulation patterns and the optics damage spot distributions from the surface phase defects. Origins are discussed during the processes of optics manufacturing and diagnostics, revealing potential improvements for future optics manufacturing techniques and diagnostic index, which is meaningful for fusion level laser facility construction and its operation safety.
Because space manipulators must satisfy the law of conservation of momentum, any motion of a manipulator within a space-manipulator system disturbs the position and attitude of its free-floating base. In this study, the authors have designed a multi-swarm particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to address the motion planning problem and so minimize base disturbances for 6-DOF space manipulators. First, the equation of kinematics for space manipulators in the form of a generalized Jacobian matrix (GJM) is introduced. Second, sinusoidal and polynomial functions are used to parameterize joint motion, and a quaternion representation is used to represent the attitude of the base. Moreover, by transforming the planning problem into an optimization problem, the objective function is analyzed and the proposed algorithm explained in detail. Finally, numerical simulation results are used to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm.
Prior studies on linoleic acid, the predominant n-6 fatty acid, and breast cancer risk have generated inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence regarding the relationship of dietary and serum linoleic acid with breast cancer risk.
Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and EMBASE. The fixed- or random-effect pooled measure was selected based on between-study heterogeneity.
Eight prospective cohort studies and four prospective nested case–control studies, involving 10 410 breast cancer events from 358 955 adult females across different countries, were included in present study. Compared with the lowest level of linoleic acid, the pooled relative risk (RR; 95 % CI) of breast cancer was 0·98 (0·93, 1·04) for the highest level of linoleic acid. The pooled RR (95 % CI) for dietary and serum linoleic acid were 0·99 (0·92, 1·06) and 0·98 (0·88, 1·08), respectively. The RR (95 % CI) of breast cancer was 0·97 (0·91, 1·04), 0·95 (0·85, 1·07), 0·96 (0·86, 1·07), 0·98 (0·87, 1·10) and 0·99 (0·85, 1·14) for linoleic acid intake of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g/d, respectively. The risk of breast cancer decreased by 1 % (RR=0·99; 95 % CI 0·93, 1·05) for every 10 g/d increment in linoleic acid intake.
This meta-analysis indicated that both dietary linoleic acid intake and serum linoleic acid level were associated with decreased risk of breast cancer, although none of the associations were statistically significant. Further investigations are warranted.
This article argues that the effect of economic crises on democratic transition is contingent on economic structure. Specifically, a high level of state engagement in the economy makes social forces dependent on the ruling elites for patrimonial interests and, therefore, the authoritarian regime liable for economic failure. Moreover, when authoritarian elites own a high share of economic assets, this aggravates the economic loss of both the business class and the masses when economic crises occur, which in turn makes defection of the business class, the revolt of the masses and the alliance of the two social classes more likely. Cross-national analyses show that economic crises trigger democratic transition only when state engagement in the economy is above a certain level.
NRGN is one of the most promising candidate genes for schizophrenia based on function and position. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the genetic association of this polymorphism with schizophrenia in the Zhuang and Han populations of south China.
Subjects and methods
A total of 282 patients (188 Han and 94 Zhuang) and 282 healthy subjects (188 Han and 94 Zhuang) were recruited. Of these, 246 schizophrenia patients underwent an assessment of psychotic symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). A TaqMan genotyping assay method was used to determine the genotypes.
We did not find a significant association of rs12807809 polymorphism with schizophrenia in the total pooled samples, or in the separate ethnic groups. However, in Han schizophrenia patients, quantitative data analyses showed that the CC genotype of the rs12807809 polymorphism was associated with PANSS aggression subscale score and activation subscale score. Furthermore, carriers of the C allele of rs12807809 polymorphism among Han schizophrenia patients had higher scores of general, activation, depression, aggression, and global symptoms than the T allele carriers.
In conclusion rs12807809 polymorphism may not contribute to the risk of schizophrenia but influence the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia in the Han population.
Immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann simulations are used to examine the effects of particle rotation, at low particle Reynolds numbers, on flows in ordered and random arrays of mono-disperse spheres. The drag force, the Magnus lift force and the torque on the spheres, are determined at solid volume fractions up to the close-packed limits of the arrays. The rotational Reynolds number based on the angular velocity and the diameter of the spheres is used to characterize the rotational movement of spheres. The results show that the normalized Magnus lift force produced by particle rotation is approximately in direct proportion to the rotational Reynolds number, while the normalized drag force and torque acting on spheres are barely affected by this number. The Magnus lift force is negligible relative to the magnitude of the drag force when the rotational Reynolds number is low. However, it can be very significant, and even larger than the drag force, as the rotational Reynolds number increases up to
, especially for low solid volume fractions. Based on the simulation results, relations for the Magnus lift force and the torque for both ordered arrays and random arrays of rotating spheres at solid volume fractions from zero to close-packed limits are formulated. Further, the drag force relations in the literature are revised based on existing theories and the present simulation results for both arrays of spheres.
Nosema bombycis, a pathogen of silkworm pebrine, is an obligate unicellular eukaryotic parasite. It is reported that the spore wall proteins have essential functions in the adherence and infection process of microsporidia. To date, the information related to spore wall proteins from microsporidia is still limited. Here, a 44 kDa spore wall protein NbSWP16 was characterized in N. bombycis. In NbSWP16, a 25 amino acids signal peptide and 3 heparin binding motifs were predicted. Interestingly, a region that contains 3 proline-rich tandem repeats lacking homology to any known protein was also present in this protein. The immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) demonstrated that distinct fluorescent signals were detected both on the surface of mature spores and the germinated spore coats. Immunolocation by electron microscopy revealed that NbSWP16 localized on the exospore regions. Finally, spore adherence analysis indicated that spore adherence to host cell was decreased more than 20% by anti-NbSWP16 blocking compared with the negative control in vitro. In contrast with anti-NbSWP16, no remarkable decrement inhibition was detected when antibodies of NbSWP16 and NbSWP5 were used simultaneously. Collectively, these results suggest that NbSWP16 is a new exospore protein and probably be involved in spore adherence of N. bombycis.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a common severe psychiatric disorder and a complex polygenic inherited disease that has not yet been fully interpreted. Heredity was proven to play an important role in the development of SZ. The association between the NOTCH4 gene rs3131296 polymorphism and SZ was reported to reach significance at the genome-wide level; therefore, it is necessary to replicate this association in other different populations.
To evaluate the association of the NOTCH4 gene rs3131296 polymorphism with the risk for SZ, and to explore whether a significant association could be replicated in different ethnic groups of China, we conducted this case–control study on 282 SZ cases (188 Han and 94 Zhuang) and 282 controls (188 Han and 94 Zhuang) among the Chinese Zhuang and Han populations.
The results showed no statistically significant difference in the genotype or allele frequencies of the NOTCH4 gene variant rs3131296 between SZ patients and healthy controls in either the Zhuang or Han samples (p > 0.05). In addition, no significant difference was found in genotype or allele frequencies of the NOTCH4 gene variant rs3131296 between cases and controls in the combined samples including Zhuang and Han samples.
Our study failed to replicate the significant association between the NOTCH4 gene rs3131296 polymorphism and the risk for SZ.
Recent evidence shows that excess nicotinamide can cause epigenetic changes in developing rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotinamide supplementation on the fetus. Female rats were randomised into four groups fed a standard chow diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 g/kg of nicotinamide (low-dose group), 4 g/kg of nicotinamide (high-dose group) or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide plus 2 g/kg of betaine (betaine group) for 14–16 d before mating and throughout the study. Fetal tissue samples were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy. Compared with the control group, the high-dose group had a higher fetal death rate, and the average fetal body weight was higher in the low-dose group but lower in the high-dose group. Nicotinamide supplementation led to a decrease in placental and fetal hepatic genomic DNA methylation and genomic uracil contents (a factor modifying DNA for diversity) in the placenta and fetal liver and brain, which could be completely or partially prevented by betaine. Moreover, nicotinamide supplementation induced tissue-specific alterations in the mRNA expression of the genes encoding nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, DNA methyltransferase 1, catalase and tumour protein p53 in the placenta and fetal liver. High-dose nicotinamide supplementation increased fetal hepatic α-fetoprotein mRNA level, which was prevented by betaine supplementation. It is concluded that maternal nicotinamide supplementation can induce changes in fetal epigenetic modification and DNA base composition. The present study raises the concern that maternal nicotinamide supplementation may play a role in the development of epigenetic-related diseases in the offspring.
The spatially developing compressible plane mixing layer with a convective Mach number of 0.7 is investigated by direct numerical simulation. A pair of equal and opposite oblique instability waves is introduced to perturb the mixing layer at the inlet. The full evolution process of instability, including formation of -vortices and hairpin vortices, breakdown of large structures and establishment of self-similar turbulence, is presented clearly in the simulation. In the transition process, the flow fields are populated sequentially by -vortices, hairpin vortices and ‘flower’ structures. This is the first direct evidence showing the dominance of these structures in the spatially developing mixing layer. Hairpin vortices are found to play an important role in the breakdown of the flow. The legs of hairpin vortices first evolve into sheaths with intense vorticity then break up into small slender vortices. The later flower structures are produced by the instability of the heads of the hairpin vortices. They prevail for a long distance in the mixing layer until the flow starts to settle down into its self-similar state. The preponderance of slender inclined streamwise vortices is observed in the transversal middle zone of the transition region after the breakup of the hairpin legs. This predominance of streamwise vortices also persists in the self-similar turbulent region, though the vortices there are found to be relatively very weak. The evolution of both the mean streamwise velocity profile and the Reynolds stresses is found to have close connection to the behaviour of the large vortex structures. High growth rates of the momentum and vorticity thicknesses are observed in the transition region of the flow. The growth rates in the self-similar turbulence region decay to a value that agrees well with previous experimental and numerical studies. Shocklets occur in the simulation, and their formation mechanisms are elaborated and categorized. This is the first three-dimensional simulation that captures shocklets at this low convective Mach number.
Based on 187 galaxy clusters identified from the photometric redshifts of galaxies in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field(Wen & Han 2011), cluster galaxies brighter than MV = -20.5 are classified into four categories according to their best-fitting templates of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) provided by Ilbert et al. (2009): early-type (including elliptical and lenticular) galaxies (E+S0), spiral galaxies (S), irregular galaxies (Irr), and starbursts (SB). The fractions of these four SED types are presented as the functions of redshift in Figure 1. Fraction of each category varies remarkably with cluster redshift: fractions of normal galaxies (E+S0+S+Irr) tend to decrease with redshift, whilst the starburst proportion tends to increase with redshift. For the normal galaxies, there exists a sequence for the decreasing slopes of morphological fractions. Majority of the galaxies in high-redshift clusters (z > 1.0) are experiencing strong star-formation activities, which leads to a very high proportion of starburst.