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We evaluate the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and kidney stones.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary intake information was assessed using first 24-HR dietary recall interviews, and the Kidney Conditions was presented by questionnaire. The primary outcome was to investigate the association between DII and incidence of kidney stones, and the secondary outcome was to assess the association between DII and nephrolithiasis recurrence.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2016.
The study included 25984 NHANES participants, whose data on DII and kidney stones were available, of whom 2439 reported a history of kidney stones.
For the primary outcome, after fully multivariate adjustment, DII score is positively associated with the risk of kidney stones (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: [1.04–1.10]). Then, compared Q4 with Q1, a significant 38% increased likelihood of nephrolithiasis was observed. (OR=1.38; 95% CI: [1.19–1.60]). For the secondary outcome, the multivariate regression analysis showed that DII score is positively correlated with nephrolithiasis recurrence (OR=1.07; 95% CI: [1.00–1.15]). The results noted that higher DII scores (Q3 and Q4) are positively associated with a significant 48% and 61% increased risk of nephrolithiasis recurrence compared with the reference after fully multivariate adjustment. (OR=1.48; 95% CI: [1.07–2.05]; OR=1.61; 95% CI: [1.12–2.31]).
Our findings revealed that increased intake of pro-inflammatory diet, as a higher DII score, is correlated with increased odds of kidney stones incidence and recurrence.
In this paper, we report the study of degradation for a kind of ideal mandrel material called poly-α-methylstyrene based on theoretical and experimental methods. First-principles calculations reveal two types of process: depolymerization and hydrogen-transfer-induced chain scission. The energy barrier for the former (0.68–0.82 eV) is smaller than that for most of the latter (1.39–4.23 eV). More importantly, reaction rates suggest that the former is fast whereas the latter is mostly slow, which can result in a difference of 5–31 orders of magnitude at 550 K. Furthermore, a thermogravimetric experiment shows that the activation energy of 2.53 eV for degradation is between those of fast and slow processes, corresponding to the theoretical average value of multiple reaction paths. Thus, a mandrel degradation model combining fast and slow processes is established at the atomic level. Our work provides a direction for research into the key technology of target fabrication in inertial confinement fusion.
This paper studies the parameter estimation for Ornstein–Uhlenbeck stochastic volatility models driven by Lévy processes. We propose computationally efficient estimators based on the method of moments that are robust to model misspecification. We develop an analytical framework that enables closed-form representation of model parameters in terms of the moments and autocorrelations of observed underlying processes. Under moderate assumptions, which are typically much weaker than those for likelihood methods, we prove large-sample behaviors for our proposed estimators, including strong consistency and asymptotic normality. Our estimators obtain the canonical square-root convergence rate and are shown through numerical experiments to outperform likelihood-based methods.
Early maturity allows weedy rice (Oryza sativa L. f. spontanea) to persist by escaping harvest in paddy fields. A shorter grain-filling period contributes to the early maturity of weedy rice. However, the differences in morphology and endosperm development in the caryopsis between weedy and cultivated rice are largely unexplored. Here, we selected four biotypes of weedy rice and associated cultivated rice (ACR; Oryza sativa) from different latitudes to conduct a common garden experiment. The endosperm development process of the caryopsis was observed by optical microscopy and electron microscopy. Endosperm cell division and starch accumulation rate during grain filling were also measured. The grain development progress in weedy rice was more rapid and earlier than that in ACR. The endosperm development progress of weedy rice was 6 to 8 d earlier than that of ACR. The endosperm cells of weedy rice cellularized earlier and more rapidly than those of ACR, and the starch grains of weedy rice were more sharply polygonal and compactly arranged than those of ACR. The active endosperm cell division period in weedy rice was 4 to 7 d shorter than that in ACR, while the active starch accumulation period of weedy rice was 2 to 8 d shorter than that of ACR. The rapid development of endosperm cells and starch grains leads to the shorter grain-filling period of weedy rice. weedy rice.
In this paper, a new path-loss model for electromagnetic wave in an indoor multipath environment is proposed based on matching coefficient, polarization matching factor, and normalized field intensity direction function. This model is called the Friis-extension (Friis-EXT) model, because it operates as the Friis model under certain conditions. In addition, in the modeling process of the path-loss in an indoor environment, the reflective surfaces in the environment and form of the antenna are considered. Afterwards, the path-loss data in an indoor corridor environment are measured, and the maximum error between the theoretical value and the measured data is <7.5 dB. Finally, the Friis-EXT model is compared with some other traditional models, and the results show that the Friis-EXT model is the best one that matches the measurement data.
We report a roll-to-roll dry processing for making low cost and high performance electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Currently, the electrodes for LIBs are made with a slurry casting procedure (wet method). The dry electrode fabrication is a three-step process including: step 1 of uniformly mixing electrode materials powders comprising an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and the soft polymer binder; step 2 of forming a free-standing, continuous electrode film by pressing the mixed powders together through the gap between two rolls of a roll-mill; and step 3 of roll-to-roll laminating the electrode film onto a substrate such as a current collector. Compared with the conventional wet slurry electrode manufacturing method, the dry manufactural procedure and infrastructure are simpler, the production cost is lower, and the process eliminates volatile organic compound emission and is more environmentally friendly, and the ability of making thick (>120µm) electrodes with high tap density results in high energy density of final energy storage device. A prototype LIBs of LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622)/graphite also has 230 Wh/ kg energy density.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
In this paper, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major and trace elements, and Sr–Nd isotope geochemistry of the Baiyanghe dolerites in northern West Junggar of NW China are presented. The U–Pb dating of zircons from the dolerites yielded ages of 272.2±4 Ma and 276.7±6.2 Ma, which indicate the emplacement times. The dolerites are characterized by minor variations in SiO2 (46.89 to 49.07 wt%), high contents of Al2O3 (13.60 to 13.92 wt%) and total Fe2O3 (11.14 to 11.70 wt%), and low contents of MgO (2.67 to 3.64 wt%) and total alkalis (Na2O+K2O, 5.1 to 5.97 wt%, K2O/Na2O = 0.37–0.94), which indicate affinities to metaluminous tholeiite basalt. The REE pattern ((La/Sm)N = 2.25–2.34, (La/Yb)N = 7.42–8.36), V–Ti/1000 and 50*Zr–Ti/50–Sm discrimination diagrams show that these rocks are OIB-type. The high contents of Zr and Ti indicate a within-plate tectonic setting, and samples plot in the ‘plume source’ field shown on the Dy/Yb(N) versus Ce/Yb(N) diagram. The positive εNd(t) values (+7.09 to +7.48), high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70442 to 0.70682) and depletions of Nb and Ta elements in the samples can be explained by the involvement of subducted sediments. In summary, it is possible that the Baiyanghe dolerites were derived from an OIB-like mantle source and associated with a mantle plume tectonic setting. Therefore, our samples provide the youngest evidence for the existence of a mantle plume, which may provide new insights into the Late Palaeozoic tectonic setting of West Junggar.
We report a new pulsed chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) process to deposit nickel (Ni) and nickel carbide (Ni3Cx) thin films, using bis(1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,3-diazabutadienyl)nickel(II) precursor and either H2 gas or H2 plasma as the coreactant, at a temperature from 140 to 250 °C. All the PCVD films are fairly pure with low levels of N and O impurities. The films deposited with H2 gas at ≤200 °C are faced centered cubic-phase Ni metal films with low C content; but at ≥220 °C, another phase of rhombohedral Ni3C is formed and the C content increases. However, when H2 plasma is used, the films are always in rhombohedral Ni3C phase for the entire temperature range.
We aimed to compare injury characteristics and the timing of admissions and surgeries in the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and the Lushan earthquake in 2013.
We retrospectively compared the admission and operating times and injury profiles of patients admitted to our medical center during both earthquakes. We also explored the relationship between seismic intensity and injury type.
The time from earthquake onset to the peak in patient admissions and surgeries differed between the 2 earthquakes. In the Wenchuan earthquake, injuries due to being struck by objects or being buried were more frequent than other types of injuries, and more patients suffered injuries of the extremities than thoracic injuries or brain trauma. In the Lushan earthquake, falls were the most common injury, and more patients suffered thoracic trauma or brain injuries. The types of injury seemed to vary with seismic intensity, whereas the anatomical location of the injury did not.
Greater seismic intensity of an earthquake is associated with longer delay between the event and the peak in patient admissions and surgeries, higher frequencies of injuries due to being struck or buried, and lower frequencies of injuries due to falls and injuries to the chest and brain. These insights may prove useful for planning rescue interventions in trauma centers near the epicenter. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:541-547)
Considerable controversy exists regarding the associations of dietary patterns with the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to elucidate the potential associations between dietary patterns and the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. The PubMed database was searched for prospective cohort studies on the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality published until February 2014. Random-effects models were used to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on the highest v. the lowest category of dietary pattern scores. Stratified analyses were conducted based on sex, geographical region, follow-up duration, and adjustment/non-adjustment for energy intake. A total of thirteen prospective cohort studies involving 338 787 participants were included in the meta-analysis. There was evidence of inverse associations between the prudent/healthy dietary pattern and the risk of all-cause (SRRE = 0·76, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·86) and CVD (SRRE = 0·81, 95 % CI 0·75, 0·87) mortality and an absence of association between this dietary pattern and stroke mortality (SRRE = 0·89, 95 % CI 0·77, 1·02). However, no significant associations were observed between the Western/unhealthy dietary pattern and the risk of all-cause (SRRE = 1·07, 95 % CI 0·96, 1·20), CVD (SRRE = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·91, 1·08) and stroke (SRRE = 0·94, 95 % CI 0·81, 1·10) mortality. In conclusion, the findings provide evidence that greater adherence to a prudent/healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality and not significantly associated with stroke mortality and that the Western/unhealthy dietary pattern is not associated with all-cause, CVD and stroke mortality. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
The present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from Costus speciosus against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from C. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin. In-vitro assays revealed that Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis at concentrations of 0·8 and 4·5 mg L−1, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0·53 and 3·2 mg L−1, respectively. All protomonts and encysted tomonts were killed when the concentrations of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin were 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that fish treated with Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin at concentrations of 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1 carried significantly fewer parasites than the control (P<0·05). Mortality of fish did not occur in the treatment group (Zingibernsis newsaponin at 5·0 mg L−1) during the trial, although 100% of untreated fish died. Acute toxicities (LD50) of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin for grass carp were 1·64 and 20·7 mg L−1, respectively. These results provided evidence that the 2 compounds can be selected as lead compounds for the development of new drugs against I. multifiliis.
The current study explored the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on functional recovery and hippocampal phospho-NR2B (p-NR2B) expression in cerebral ischemic rats, induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, including sham, no exercise (NE), low intensity training (LIT, v = 15 m/min), and moderate intensity training groups (MIT, v = 20 m/min). At different time points, the hippocampal expressions of p-NR2B and total NR2B were examined. In addition, neurological deficit score (NDS), body weight, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were used to evaluate brain infarct volume as assessments of post-stroke functional recovery. In order to investigate the effect of exercise on survival, the mortality rate was also recorded.
The results showed that treadmill exercise significantly decreased hippocampal expression of p-NR2B but didn't change the total NR2B, compared to the NE group on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days following MCAO surgery. The effect on changes in p-NR2B levels, body weight, and brain infarct volume were more significant in the LIT compared to the MIT group.
Discussion and Conclusion:
The current findings demonstrate that physical exercise can produce neuroprotective effects, in part by down-regulating p-NR2B expression. Furthermore, the appropriate intensity of physical exercise is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation.
Using advanced first-principles calculations, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of graphene/α-Al2O3 interfaces and show that α -Al2O3 is an ideal gate dielectric material for graphene transistors. Clean interface exists between graphene and Al-terminated (or hydroxylated) Al2O3 and the valence band offsets for these systems are large enough to create injection barrier. Remarkably, a band gap of ~180 meV can be induced in graphene layer adsorbed on Al-terminated surface, which is significantly larger than graphene on other popular substrates.
The challenges associated with meeting 20nm technology requirements for better Cu CMP process uniformity and lower defectivity have been studied. Required improvements in uniformity were obtained through platen process optimization along with evaluation & selection of specific Cu slurries and pads and their performance reported. The principal factors influencing defect formation, including Cu barrier metallurgy, interconnect pattern density and process queue times were studied. Specific new post CMP clean chemistries were evaluated to assess their capability to suppress defect formation and their performance reported. The trade off between uniformity and defect suppression as a function slurry, pad and post Cu CMP clean chemistry is described.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of the addition of fibre and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to fat-rich diets on fetal intrauterine development in rats. A total of eighty virgin female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a control diet, a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat and high-fibre diet (HFF) or a high-fat NAC diet until day 19·5 of gestation. Maternal HFF consumption resulted in a significantly higher mean fetal number and placental weight than in the other groups (P < 0·05). The HFF diet significantly abrogated HF-induced decreases in maternal serum and placental superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacities (P < 0·05); partially abrogated HF-induced increases in maternal serum and placental malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl concentrations (maternal serum MDA and placental protein carbonyl, P < 0·05); resulted in significantly higher fetal liver total superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cu- and Zn-containing SOD and Mn-containing SOD (Mn-SOD) activities than in the HF group (P < 0·05). Furthermore, mRNA expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α, thioredoxin 2 and Mn-SOD in fetal liver and Mn-SOD in fetal heart and placental GLUT3 in the HFF group were higher than those in the other groups (P < 0·05). The inclusion of dietary fibre in the HF diet was more effective than NAC supplementation in maintaining maternal serum and placental superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacities close to those of the control. These results suggest that maternal fibre intake during pregnancy is beneficial for fetal intrauterine development possibly through the improvement of maternal, placental and fetal antioxidant capacities and placental nutrient transfer capacity.