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Prior data on long-term association between habitual legume consumption and hypertension risk remained sparse. We aimed to evaluate whether total legume and subtype intakes were prospectively related to lower hypertension incidence among 8,758 participants (aged ≥30 years) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011. Dietary intakes were assessed by interviews combining 3-day 24-h food recalls and household food inventory weighing method at each survey round (median dietary assessment times during follow-up was three). Incident hypertension was identified by self-reports or blood pressure measurements. Multivariable Cox regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratio (HR) for hypertension across increasing categories of cumulatively averaged legume intake. For 35,990 person-years (median 6.0 years per person), we documented 944 hypertension cases. After adjustment for covariates, higher consumption of total legumes was significantly associated with a lower hypertension risk, with HR comparing extreme categories being 0.56 (95% CI 0.43-0.71; P for trend <0.001). Then we found that intakes of dried legumes (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.43-0.65; P for trend <0.001) and fresh legumes (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.81; P for trend <0.001) were both related to reduced hypertension risks. However, further classification of dried legumes revealed that the inverse association with hypertension substantially held for higher soybean (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.41-0.62; P for trend <0.001) but not non-soybean intakes. In stratified analyses, the association of interest remained similar within strata defined by gender, body mass index, physical activity, smoking and drinking status; however, significant heterogeneity of results was detected across age strata (P for interaction = 0.02). Total legume intake related to a more pronounced decrease in hypertension risk for the elderly (≥65 years [HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.73; P for trend <0.001]), in contrast to that for the non-elderly. Our findings suggest inverse associations of all kinds of legume but may not non-soybean intakes with risk of developing hypertension.
Whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder are the same or different disorders lacks consistency.
To detect whether grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter density (GMD) alterations show any similarities or differences between BPD and bipolar disorder.
Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all voxel-based studies that compared BPD or bipolar disorder with healthy controls. We included 13 BPD studies (395 patients with BPD and 415 healthy controls) and 47 bipolar disorder studies (2111 patients with bipolar disorder and 3261 healthy controls). Peak coordinates from clusters with significant group differences were extracted. Effect-size signed differential mapping meta-analysis was performed to analyse peak coordinates of clusters and thresholds (P < 0.005, uncorrected). Conjunction analyses identified regions in which disorders showed common patterns of volumetric alteration. Correlation analyses were also performed.
Patients with BPD showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex network (mPFC), bilateral amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus; patients with bipolar disorder showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), right insula and right thalamus, and increased GMV and GMD in the right putamen. Multi-modal analysis indicated smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the right medial orbital frontal cortex. Decreased bilateral mPFC in BPD was partly mediated by patient age. Increased GMV and GMD of the right putamen was positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale scores in bipolar disorder.
Our results show different patterns of GMV and GMD alteration and do not support the hypothesis that bipolar disorder and BPD are on the same affective spectrum.
This paper investigates a wideband and low axial ratio circularly polarized (CP) antenna, which is composed of a monopole on a novel polarization rotating reflective surface (PRRS) based on a corner-truncated artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure. By adjusting the dimensions of truncated corner properly, the PRRS has two polarization rotation (PR) frequency points. Then, a large PR band of 18% (5.55–6.65 GHz) can be achieved with two adjacent PR frequency points coming together. The profile of the newly PRRS is only0.04λ0. With corner-truncated AMC-based PRRS loading, a measured impedance bandwidth of 1.8 GHz (5.4–7.2 GHz) and the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 1 GHz (5.55–6.65 GHz) could be obtained by the monopole antenna and validated by measurements. The values of AR were well below 1 dB at most of the CP region, which show a perfect CP performance. Moreover, the proposed antenna has exhibited a large axial ratio beamwidth in both the xoz- and yoz-planes and a peak gain of 6.1 dBic within the operational bandwidth.
The characteristics and mechanism for unsteady shock train motions were experimentally studied in a constant-area rectangular duct. High-speed Schlieren techniques and high-frequency pressure measurements were utilized in this research. The results show that the shock train undergoes periodical motions in response to downstream periodical excitations. The mechanism for unsteady shock train motions is that the shock train keeps changing its moving speed to change the relative Mach number ahead of shock train to match the varying back-pressure condition. It can be found that the unsteady shock train motion can be predicted well with a theoretical model, which is based on this mechanism. A correlation between the amplitude of shock train motions and some flow parameters was illustrated using an analytical equation, which was confirmed by the experimental results.
This paper focuses on the problem of robust time-optimal trajectory planning of robotic manipulators to track a given path under a probabilistic limited actuation, that is, the probability for the actuation to be limited is no less than a given bound κ. We give a general and practical method to reduce the probabilistic constraints to a set of deterministic constraints and show that the deterministic constraints are equivalent to a set of linear constraints under certain conditions. As a result, the original problem is reduced to a linear optimal control problem which can be solved with linear programming in polynomial time. In the case of κ = 1, the original problem is proved to be equivalent to the linear optimal control problem. Overall, a very general, practical, and efficient algorithm is given to solve the above problem and numerical simulation results are used to show the effectiveness of the method.
An effective multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of three major pathogens, Nosema bombycis Nägeli (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (Baculoviridae: genus Alphabaculovirus) (NPV), and Bombyx mori densovirus (Parvoviridae: genus Iteravirus) (DNV), in silkworms (Bombyx mori (Linnaeus); Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was developed in this study. Polymerase chain reaction and real-time PCR tests and basic local alignment search tool searches revealed that the primers and probes used in this study had high specificities for their target species. The ability of each primer/probe set to detect pure pathogen DNA was determined using a plasmid dilution panel, in which under optimal conditions the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed high efficiency in the detection of three mixed target plasmids with a detection limit of 8.5×103 copies for N. bombycis and Bombyx mori NPV (BmNPV) and 8.5×104 copies for Bombyx mori DNV (BmDNV). When the ability to detect these three pathogens was examined in artificially inoculated silkworms, our method presented a number of advantages over traditional microscopy, including specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capabilities. Under the optimal volume ratio for the three primer/probe sets (3:2:2=N. bombycis:BmNPV:BmDNV), the multiplex real-time PCR assay showed early detection of BmNPV and BmDNV by day 1 post inoculation using DNA templates of the three pathogens in various combinations from individually infected silkworms; the early detection of N. bombycis was possible by day 3 post inoculation using the DNA isolated from the midgut of N. bombycis-infected silkworms.
This study examines the usage of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire in Chinese students aged from 10 to 25 within four age groups (N = 5,510): early adolescence (10–13 years old, n = 1,258), middle adolescence (14–17 years old, n = 1,987), late adolescence (18–21 years old, n = 1,950) and early adulthood (22–25 years old, n = 315); and analyses the structure and levels of meaning in life, as well as the relationship between meaning in life and mental health. Results showed that: (1) the Meaning in Life Questionnaire in the four age groups of Chinese students had good construct validity and internal consistency reliability; (2) the average levels of the presence of meaning and search for meaning of Chinese students were moderate or above, and had obvious differences according to gender and family location (i.e., urban vs. rural); (3) the level of presence of meaning showed a trend of rising rapidly in middle adolescence and the level of search for meaning continued to rise in early adolescence and fell rapidly towards the end of adolescence; (4) presence of meaning was positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect and negatively related to depression and negative affect, and the same correlations were found with search for meaning.
Accurate navigation systems are required for future pinpoint Mars landing missions. A radio ranging augmented Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) integrated navigation system concept is considered for the Mars entry navigation. The uncertain system parameters associated with the Three Degree-Of-Freedom (3-DOF) dynamic model, and the measurement systematic errors are considered. In order to improve entry navigation accuracy, this paper presents the Multiple Model Adaptive Rank Estimation (MMARE) filter of radio beacons/IMU integrated navigation system. 3-DOF simulation results show that the performances of the proposed navigation filter method, 70·39 m estimated altitude error and 15·74 m/s estimated velocity error, fulfill the need of future pinpoint Mars landing missions.
To fully utilize the dynamic performance of robotic manipulators and enforce minimum motion time in path tracking, the problem of minimum time path tracking for robotic manipulators under confined torque, change rate of the torque, and voltage of the DC motor is considered. The main contribution is the introduction of the concepts of virtual change rate of the torque and the virtual voltage, which are linear functions in the state and control variables and are shown to be very tight approximation to the real ones. As a result, the computationally challenging non-convex minimum time path tracking problem is reduced to a convex optimization problem which can be solved efficiently. It is also shown that introducing dynamics constraints can significantly improve the motion precision without costing much in motion time, especially in the case of high speed motion. Extensive simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Experimental X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for norethindrone, C20H26O2, are reported [a = 20.7484(12) Å, b = 12.1678(9) Å, c = 6.5561(2) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1655.17(16) Å3, Z = 4 and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
Most statistical machine translation systems typically rely on word alignments to extract translation rules. This approach would suffer from a practical problem that even one spurious word alignment link can prevent some desirable translation rules from being extracted. To address this issue, this paper presents two approaches, referred to as sub-tree alignment and phrase-based forced decoding methods, to automatically learn translation span alignments from parallel data. Then, we improve the translation rule extraction by deleting spurious links and inserting new links based on bilingual translation span correspondences. Some comparison experiments are designed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for norandrostenedione, C18H24O2, are reported [a = 26.3955(15) Å, b = 8.0476(4) Å, c = 7.3002(3) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1550.71 Å3, Z = 4, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
This paper investigates the modulational instability of a linearly polarized ultra-intense laser pulse propagating in electron–positron plasmas. Based on the wave equation, which contains vacuum polarization and magnetization effects, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the growth rate of instability are obtained and the effects of plasma number density and laser intensity on the growth rate are analyzed. Numerical results show that if the laser intensity is high enough, the modulational instability growth rate induced by vacuum polarization and magnetization nonlinearity can dominate the modulational instability growth rate induced by the nonlinearity associated with a relativistic effect and ponderomotive force.
Industry-generated trans-fatty acids (TFA) are detrimental to risk of CHD, but ruminant-originated TFA have been reported as neutral or equivocal. Therefore, the total TFA amount should not be the only factor considered when measuring the effects of TFA. In the present study, we addressed whether a version of the TFA index that unifies the effects of different TFA isomers into one equation could be used to reflect CHD risk probability (RP). The present cross-sectional study involved 2713 individuals divided into four groups that represented different pathological severities and potential risks of CHD: acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n 581); chronic coronary artery disease (CCAD, n 631); high-risk population (HRP, n 659); healthy volunteers (HV, n 842). A 10-year CHD RP was calculated. Meanwhile, the equation of the TFA index was derived using five TFA isomers (trans-16 : 1n-7, trans-16 : 1n-9, trans-18 : 1n-7, trans-18 : 1n-9 and trans-18 : 2n-6n-9), which were detected in the whole blood, serum and erythrocyte membranes of each subject. The TFA index and the 10-year CHD RP were compared by linear models. It was shown that only in the erythrocyte membrane, the TFA isomers were significantly different between the groups. In the ACS group, industry-generated TFA (trans-16 : 1n-9, trans-18 : 1n-9 and trans-18 : 2n-6n-9) were the highest, whereas ruminant-originated TFA (trans-16 : 1n-7 and trans-18 : 1n-7), which manifested an inverse relationship with CHD, were the lowest, and vice versa in the HV group. The TFA index decreased progressively from 7·12 to 5·06, 3·11 and 1·92 in the ACS, CCAD, HRP and HV groups, respectively. The erythrocyte membrane TFA index was positively associated with the 10-year CHD RP (R2 0·9981) and manifested a strong linear correlation, which might reflect the true pathological severity of CHD.
The I-V characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors in the temperature range between 100 K and 300 K are studied. It is found that both the maximum drain-source current and transconductance decrease with the increase of temperature. Decrease of the electron mobility with increasing temperature is considered to be the main cause for that condition. The threshold voltage shows a forward shift, which can be explained by the increase of Schottky barrier with increasing temperature. It is found that at VGS = 0 V the drain-source current reduces with the ascending temperature, which should be due to the variation of the electron mobility with the temperature. While at VGS = −5 V the drain-source current is found to increase with the ascending temperature, it is suggested to be caused by the positive temperature coefficient of the electron transport in the depleted region.
Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcriptional factor activated during cerebral ischemia, which regulates a great number of downstream genes, including those associated with cell death. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that post-ischemic HIF-1α up-regulation might promote autophagy activation; thereby, HIF-1α inhibitor 2ME2 might prevent neurons from ischemic injury through inhibiting autophagy.
Global ischemia was induced using the four-vessel occlusion model (4-VO) in Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 250-280g). 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, 5mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated to down-regulate HIF-1α expression. Post-ischemic beclin-1 and LC3 protein expression was determined at different time points through Western blot assay. Neuronal injury was determined by cresyl violet staining and TUNEL staining in coronal histological sections.
The expression of beclin-1 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I increased significantly at 12 and 24 h after ischemia. 2ME2 could remarkably inhibit the up-regulation of beclin-1 and the increase of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio during reperfusion. Moreover, 2ME2 and 3-MA exhibited powerful protective effects against ischemic/reperfusion induced neuronal injury.
This study confirmed that autophagy participated in post-ischemic neuronal injury. 2ME2, a HIF-1α inhibitor, might significantly decrease autophagy activation after cerebral ischemia and relieve post-ischemic neuronal injury. Our findings demonstrate that autophagy could be a potential target for neuronal protection after cerebral ischemia.
Habitat change has major effects on wildlife and it is important to understand how wild animals respond to changing habitats. Dashanbao National Nature Reserve, in north-east Yunnan, China, which was established for the protection of the black-necked crane Grus nigricollis, other wintering waterbirds and the upland wetland ecosystem, recently began converting farmland to grassland and woodland. With respect to this policy we studied habitat selection by black-necked cranes in the Reserve from November 2006 to April 2007. Farmland, grassland, marsh and water were used by black-necked cranes but no cranes occurred in man-made woodland. Black-necked cranes showed the least preference for grassland and no significant differences were detected in the species’ preference for the other three habitats. However, black-necked cranes exhibited different behavioural responses to the four habitats: farmland and grassland were their main foraging sites. Principle component analysis verified that a foraging-related component was the first factor determining habitat selection. Cranes used habitat close to their roosts with short grass, shallow water and less disturbance by human activity. Our results indicate that the policy of converting farmland and grassland to woodland is not beneficial for conservation of the crane. For effective conservation of the black-necked crane scientific habitat management that takes into account habitat selection by the species is required, with the retention of some farmland and restoration of wetlands.
To investigate the effects of partially substitution of lanthanum for bismuth in the BiScO3-PbTiO3 (BSPT) ceramics, the 0.38(Bi1−xLax)ScO3-0.62PbTiO3 (BLSPTx) ceramics were prepared by using conventional solid state process. It was found that the partial replacement of lanthanum for bismuth do not affects the crystalline structure of the BSPT ceramics. With increasing of the lanthanum content, the grains of BLSPTx ceramics grown much bigger than those of BSPT ceramics when BLSPTx and BSPT ceramics were sintered at the same temperature. The temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity of BLSPTx ceramics shows that the Curie temperature (Tc) shifts toward lower temperature with the increasing of lanthanum content, and the BLSPTx samples for x=0.02 show the highest value of the dielectric constant at Tc.
Pb(Sc1/2Ta1/2)O3 (PST) relaxor ferroelectric ceramics were investigated widely in the past decades for their excellent pyroelectric, ferroelectric and dielectric properties and comprehensive applications in uncooled focal plane arrays infrared detectors and other electronic devices. However, some other ferroelectrics could be added into the PST ceramics to form the complex perovskite ferroelectrics with better electric properties. In this paper, (1-x)PST-xPZT(PSTZT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by wolframite precursor process (named two-step -sintering method, TSSM). The experiment results showed that the PSTZT ceramics with pure perovskite structure could be prepared by using TSSM. The temperature dependence of permittivity and dielectric loss of PSTZT ceramics were investigated in detail, which indicated that PSTZT ceramics showed partly diffusive phase transition with little frequency dispersion. The dielectric and pyroelectric properties of PSTZT ceramics were also investigated and discussed.