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Severe phase coarsening and separation in Sn–Bi alloys have brought increasing reliability concern in microelectronic packages. In this study, a phase field model is developed to simulate the microstructural evolution and evaluate the change in macroscopic physical properties of the flip chip Cu/Sn58Bi/Cu joint under the conditions of isothermal aging, as well as the coupled loads of elastic stress and electric current stressing. Results show that large-sized Bi-rich phase particles grow up at the expense of small-sized ones. Under the coupled loads, Bi atoms migrate along the electron flow direction, consequently Bi-rich phase segregates to form a Bi-rich phase layer at the anode. The current crowding ratio in the solder decreases rapidly first and then fluctuates slightly with time. Current density and von Mises stress exhibit inhomogeneous distribution, and both of them are higher in the Sn-rich phase than in the Bi-rich phase. Electric current transfers through the Sn-rich phase and detours the Bi-rich phase. As time proceeds, the resistance of the solder joint increases, and the average von Mises stress of the solder joint decreases. The Bi-rich phase coarsens much faster under the coupled loads than under the conditions of isothermal aging.
In this paper, we present a passive lower extremity exoskeleton with a simple structure and a light weight. The exoskeleton does not require any external energy source and can achieve energy transfer only by human body’s own gravity. The exoskeleton is self-adaptive to human gait to achieve basic matching therewith. During walking, pulling forces are generated through Bowden cables by pressing plantar power output devices by feet, and the forces are transmitted to the exoskeleton through a crank-slider mechanism to enable the exoskeleton to provide torques for the ankle and knee joints as required by the human body during the stance phase and the swing phase. Our self-developed gait detection system is used to perform experiments on kinematics, dynamics and metabolic cost during walking of the human body wearing the exoskeleton in different states. The experimental results show that the exoskeleton has the greatest influence on motion of the ankle joint and has the least influence on hip joint. With the increase in elastic coefficient of the spring, the torques generated at the joints by the exoskeleton increase. When walking with wearing k3EF exoskeleton at a speed of 0.5 m/s, it can save the most metabolic cost, reaching 13.63%.
Path planning under 2D map is a key issue in robot applications. However, most related algorithms rely on point-by-point traversal. This causes them usually cannot find the strict shortest path, and their time cost increases dramatically as the map scale increases. So we proposed RimJump to solve the above problem, and it is a new path planning method that generates the strict shortest path for a 2D map. RimJump selects points on the edge of barriers to form the strict shortest path. Simulation and experimentation prove that RimJump meets the expected requirements.
The motion of a free-moving plate atop turbulent thermal convection exhibits diverse dynamics that displays characteristics of both deterministic and chaotic motions. Early experiments performed by Zhong & Zhang (Phys. Rev. E, vol. 75 (5), 2007, 055301) found an oscillatory and a trapped state existing for a plate floating on convective fluid in a rectangular tank. They proposed a piecewise smooth physical model (ZZ model) that successfully captures this transition of states. However, their model was deterministic and therefore could not describe the stochastic behaviours. In this study, we combine the ZZ model with a novel approach that models the stochastic aspects through a variational inequality structure. With the powerful mathematical tools for stochastic variational inequalities, the properties of the Markov process and corresponding Kolmogorov equations could be studied both numerically and analytically. Moreover, this framework also allows one to compute the transition probabilities. Our present work captures the stochastic aspects of the two aforementioned boundary–fluid coupling states, predicts the stochastic behaviours and shows excellent qualitative and quantitative agreements with the experimental data.
Private information imposes a severe trading disadvantage on uninformed traders while at the same time providing firms with valuable signals for investment adjustment. The two forces have opposite impacts on the cost of capital, and the net effect depends on which force dominates. We show that stocks of firms with low flexibility in investment adjustment (“value firms”) command an information premium, whereas stocks of firms with high flexibility in investment adjustment (“growth firms”) deliver an information discount. These results are consistent with the findings that growth firms exhibit stronger investment sensitivity to information in stock prices than value firms.
In this paper, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major and trace elements, and Sr–Nd isotope geochemistry of the Baiyanghe dolerites in northern West Junggar of NW China are presented. The U–Pb dating of zircons from the dolerites yielded ages of 272.2±4 Ma and 276.7±6.2 Ma, which indicate the emplacement times. The dolerites are characterized by minor variations in SiO2 (46.89 to 49.07 wt%), high contents of Al2O3 (13.60 to 13.92 wt%) and total Fe2O3 (11.14 to 11.70 wt%), and low contents of MgO (2.67 to 3.64 wt%) and total alkalis (Na2O+K2O, 5.1 to 5.97 wt%, K2O/Na2O = 0.37–0.94), which indicate affinities to metaluminous tholeiite basalt. The REE pattern ((La/Sm)N = 2.25–2.34, (La/Yb)N = 7.42–8.36), V–Ti/1000 and 50*Zr–Ti/50–Sm discrimination diagrams show that these rocks are OIB-type. The high contents of Zr and Ti indicate a within-plate tectonic setting, and samples plot in the ‘plume source’ field shown on the Dy/Yb(N) versus Ce/Yb(N) diagram. The positive εNd(t) values (+7.09 to +7.48), high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70442 to 0.70682) and depletions of Nb and Ta elements in the samples can be explained by the involvement of subducted sediments. In summary, it is possible that the Baiyanghe dolerites were derived from an OIB-like mantle source and associated with a mantle plume tectonic setting. Therefore, our samples provide the youngest evidence for the existence of a mantle plume, which may provide new insights into the Late Palaeozoic tectonic setting of West Junggar.
The CMP challenges for advanced technology nodes are discussed. Global and local uniformity challenges and their cumulative effects are presented. Uniformity improvements for advanced node integration were achieved through slurry, pad and platen optimization, innovative integration schemes, the reduction of incoming variation and the reduction of cumulative effects. We discuss reduction of typical CMP defect types. Defects resulting from simple mechanisms (foreign material, polish residues) and those resulting from chemical and physical interactions (corrosion, chemical attack, scratches, physical migration) and strategies for control are studied. Defectivity reduction measures include new post-CMP clean chemicals, new slurries and pads and reduction of incoming defectivity. Finally we discuss an observed tradeoff between good defectivity and good uniformity.
Choline and betaine are essential nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and have been hypothesised to affect breast cancer risk. Functional polymorphisms in genes encoding choline-related one-carbon metabolism enzymes, including phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), have important roles in choline metabolism and may thus interact with dietary choline and betaine intake to modify breast cancer risk. This study aimed to investigate the interactive effect of polymorphisms in PEMT, BHMT and CHDH genes with choline/betaine intake on breast cancer risk among Chinese women. This hospital-based case–control study consecutively recruited 570 cases with histologically confirmed breast cancer and 576 age-matched (5-year interval) controls. Choline and betaine intakes were assessed by a validated FFQ, and genotyping was conducted for PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Compared with the highest quartile of choline intake, the lowest intake quartile showed a significant increased risk of breast cancer. The SNP PEMT rs7946, CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 had no overall association with breast cancer, but a significant risk reduction was observed among postmenopausal women with AA genotype of BHMT rs3733890 (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·98). Significant interactions were observed between choline intake and SNP PEMT rs7946 (Pinteraction=0·029) and BHMT rs3733890 (Pinteraction=0·006) in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results suggest that SNP PEMT rs7946 and BHMT rs3733890 may interact with choline intake on breast cancer risk.
Optics surface phase defects induced intensity modulation in high-power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research is studied. Calculations and experiments reveal an exact mapping of the modulation patterns and the optics damage spot distributions from the surface phase defects. Origins are discussed during the processes of optics manufacturing and diagnostics, revealing potential improvements for future optics manufacturing techniques and diagnostic index, which is meaningful for fusion level laser facility construction and its operation safety.
Biped walking can be regarded as a global limit cycle whose stability is difficult to verify by only local sensory feedback. This paper presents a control strategy combining global sensory reflex and leg synchronization. The inverted pendulum angle is utilized as global motion feedback to ensure global stability, and joint synchronization between legs is designed to stabilize bifurcations. The proposed strategy can achieve a stable gait and stabilize bifurcations. The robustness of this approach was evaluated against external disturbances. Walking experiments of a biped actuated by pneumatic muscles were conducted to confirm the validity of the proposed method. Instead of tracking predetermined trajectories, this method uses sensory reflexes to activate motor neurons and coincides with the biological idea wherein inessential degrees-of-freedom are barely controlled rather than strictly controlled.
This paper presents a method to improve the speed and accuracy rate for space robot visual target recognition based on illumination and affine invariant feature extraction. The method takes illumination changes, strong nonlinear light due to refraction and reflection, target affine transformation and occlusion into consideration, all of which occur on the cabin target surface and affect the target recognition accuracy seriously. In this paper, a method is proposed to capture a same target at multi-viewpoints to establish feature library for high recognition accuracy and speed at any viewpoint. By using an analysis of the light intensity and gray level transformation, we obtain the corrected image which reduce the influence of illumination change. Then the affine moment invariants features of the correction images at multi-viewpoints were extracted and the average feature datum were stored in the library. To verify the validity of the method, a robot vision system provided images, followed by image preprocessing, dynamic local threshold segmentation and feature extraction. These methods were verified on a target recognition system of space robot built for this research. The experimental results showed that the methods were feasible and effective.
Previous research has revealed that foot rotation of the supporting foot in a single support phase could increase walking speed. This paper presents a method for force-controlled bipeds to realize foot rotation by breaking the kinematic contact constraint between the supporting foot and the ground. An inverse dynamics controller is proposed to make the biped model controllable even when the constraint is broken. In addition, a linear inverted pendulum model is extended to make its ZMP adjustable so that the ZMP can be predefined as required. When the planned ZMP is in the toe, the kinematic contact constraint will be broken and foot rotation can be achieved. A walking simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.
A crucial problem is the risk that a manipulator arm would be damaged by twisting or bending during and after contacting a target satellite. This paper presents a solution to minimize the risk of damage to the arm and thereby enhance contact performance. First, a hand-eye servo controller is proposed as a method for accurately tracking and capturing a target satellite. Next, a motion planning strategy is employed to obtain the best-fit contacting moments. Also, an impedance control law is implemented to increase protection during operation and to ensure more accurate compliance. Finally, to overcome the challenge of verifying algorithms for a space manipulator while on the ground, a novel experimental system with a 6-DOF (degree of freedom) manipulator on a chaser field robot is presented and implemented to capture a target field robot; the proposed methods are then validated using the experimental platform.
For reproducing the manipulation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) remedial massage and meanwhile guaranteeing safety, a 4-degree-of-freedom anthropomorphic robotic arm with integrated elastic joints is developed, and a passivity-based impedance control is used. Due to the series elasticity, integrated joints may minimize large forces that occur during accidental impacts, and, further, may offer more accurate and stable force control and a capacity for energy storage. Human expert's fingertip force curve in the process of massage therapy is acquired in vivo by a dedicated measurement device. Then three massage techniques, pressing, kneading, and plucking, are implemented by the soft arm, respectively, on torso model in vitro and on human body in vivo. Experimental results show that the developed robotic arm can effectively replicate the TCM remedial massage techniques.
This paper presents a whole-body dynamics controller for robust push recovery on a force-controlled bipedal robot. Featherstone's spatial vector method is used to deduce dynamics formulas. We reveal a relationship between the accelerations of the floating base and the desired external forces needed for those accelerations. Introducing constraints on the desired external forces causes corresponding constraints on the accelerations. Quadratic programming is applied to find the extremal accelerations, which recover the robot from pushes as best as possible. A robustness criterion is proposed based on the linear inverted pendulum model to evaluate the performance of push recovery methods quantitatively. We evaluate four typical push recovery methods and the results show that our method is more robust than these. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by push recovery in simulations.
Using advanced first-principles calculations, we have studied the structural and electronic properties of graphene/α-Al2O3 interfaces and show that α -Al2O3 is an ideal gate dielectric material for graphene transistors. Clean interface exists between graphene and Al-terminated (or hydroxylated) Al2O3 and the valence band offsets for these systems are large enough to create injection barrier. Remarkably, a band gap of ~180 meV can be induced in graphene layer adsorbed on Al-terminated surface, which is significantly larger than graphene on other popular substrates.
We present a novel adaptive finite element method (AFEM) for elliptic equations which is based upon the Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) and superconvergent gradient recovery. The constructions of CVT and its dual Centroidal Voronoi Delaunay Triangulation (CVDT) are facilitated by a localized Lloyd iteration to produce almost equilateral two dimensional meshes. Working with finite element solutions on such high quality triangulations, superconvergent recovery methods become particularly effective so that asymptotically exact a posteriori error estimations can be obtained. Through a seamless integration of these techniques, a convergent adaptive procedure is developed. As demonstrated by the numerical examples, the new AFEM is capable of solving a variety of model problems and has great potential in practical applications.
Based on atomistic simulations, the nonlinear elastic properties of monolayer graphene nanoribbons under quasistatic uniaxial tension are predicted, emphasizing the effect of edge structures (armchair and zigzag, without and with hydrogen passivation). The results of atomistic simulations are interpreted using a theoretical model of thermodynamics, which enables determination of the nonlinear functions for the strain-dependent edge energy and the hydrogen adsorption energy, for both zigzag and armchair edges. Due to the edge effects, the initial Young’s modulus of graphene nanoribbons under infinitesimal strain varies with the edge chirality and the ribbon width. Furthermore, it is found that the nominal strain to fracture is considerably lower for armchair graphene nanoribbons than for zigzag ribbons. Two distinct fracture mechanisms are identified, with homogeneous nucleation for zigzag ribbons and edge-controlled heterogeneous nucleation for armchair ribbons.
Ge nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous SiO2 film on Si matrix were prepared by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique was used for doping Ge nanocrystals with As impurities. The microstructure, phase and photoluminescence of NTDed Ge nanocrystals were analyzed and compared with undoped Ge nanocrystals. A new photoluminescence peak related to As impurities was found. It is discovered that impurities are expelled from larger clusters resulted from Ge nanocrystal aggregation on the sample surface. To prevent nanocrystal aggregation and assure uniform doping of As, it is necessary to adopt appropriate implantation and annealing conditions.
To investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican population.
Cross-sectional study. Plasma concentrations of Hcy, folate, vitamin B12 and pyridoxal phosphate were measured, and genetic polymorphisms were determined. Data on lifestyle factors were collected in interviews.
A population survey of health and nutritional measures.
A total of 994 Puerto Rican men and women residing in the Boston metropolitan area.
Smoking status was positively associated with plasma Hcy. Genetic polymorphisms MTHFR 677C→T, FOLH1 1561C→T, FOLH1 rs647370 and PCFT 928A→G interacted significantly with smoking for Hcy. MTHFR 1298A→C (P = 0·040) and PCFT 928A→G (P = 0·002) displayed significant interactions with alcohol intake in determining plasma Hcy. Subjects with PCFT928GG genotype had significantly higher plasma Hcy concentrations compared with carriers of the A allele (AA+AG; P = 0·030) among non-drinking subjects. When consuming alcohol, GG subjects had lower plasma Hcy levels compared with AA+AG subjects. Physical activity interacted significantly with MTR 2756A→G in determining plasma Hcy (P for interaction = 0·002). Smoking interacted with physical activity for plasma Hcy (P for interaction = 0·023).
Smoking and drinking were associated plasma Hcy concentrations. Genetic variants involved in folate metabolism further modify the effects of lifestyle on plasma Hcy.