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Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
This paper studies the parameter estimation for Ornstein–Uhlenbeck stochastic volatility models driven by Lévy processes. We propose computationally efficient estimators based on the method of moments that are robust to model misspecification. We develop an analytical framework that enables closed-form representation of model parameters in terms of the moments and autocorrelations of observed underlying processes. Under moderate assumptions, which are typically much weaker than those for likelihood methods, we prove large-sample behaviors for our proposed estimators, including strong consistency and asymptotic normality. Our estimators obtain the canonical square-root convergence rate and are shown through numerical experiments to outperform likelihood-based methods.
Iron carbide (Fe1−xCx) thin films were successfully grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using bis(N,N′-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)iron(II) as a precursor and H2 plasma as a reactant. Smooth and pure Fe1−xCx thin films were obtained by the PEALD process in a layer-by-layer film growth fashion, and the x in the nominal formula of Fe1−xCx is approximately 0.26. For the wide PEALD temperature window from 80 to 210 °C, a saturated film growth rate of 0.04 nm/cycle was achieved. X-ray diffraction and transition electron microscope measurements show that the films grown at deposition temperature 80–170 °C are amorphous; however, at 210 °C, the crystal structure of Fe7C3 is formed. The conformality and resistivity of the deposited films have also been studied. At last, the PEALD Fe1−xCx on carbon cloth shows excellent electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen evolution.
A supercapacitor electrode featured with a voltage self-stabilizing capability is demonstrated by growing indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires on Ni foam. The ITO nanowires with a single crystal structure are prepared by using magnetron sputtering technique, and they can act as an active electrode material. Charging–discharging experiments are performed under different current densities, demonstrating a good rate capability. Using properly designing top and bottom double connection circuits, part of the electrode can be used as a resistance switch. An electrode that can function as a supercapacitor and a resistance switch is fabricated. Detailed characteristics confirm that the device not only exhibits high performance as a supercapacitor but also has good characteristics of resistance switching (RS). The specific capacitance is 956 F/g at the scanning rate of 10 mV/s, and the switching ratio as a bipolar resistance switch is as high as 102. The stabilization time of discharging voltage is nearly doubled longer than that without any RS function, revealing the potential application of our devices, which can be used as a supercapacitor with voltage self-stabilizing.
Laser pulses of 200 ps with extremely high intensities and high energies are sufficient to satisfy the demand of shock ignition, which is an alternative path to ignition in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). This paper reports a type of Brillouin scheme to obtain high-intensity 200-ps laser pulses, where the pulse durations are a challenge for conventional pulsed laser amplification systems. In the amplification process, excited Brillouin acoustic waves fulfill the nonlinear optical effect through which the high energy of a long pump pulse is entirely transferred to a 200-ps laser pulse. This method was introduced and achieved within the SG-III prototype system in China. Compared favorably with the intensity of
in existing ICF laser drivers, a 6.96-
pulse with a width of 170 ps was obtained in our experiment. The practical scalability of the results to larger ICF laser drivers is discussed.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
Monosized spherical Cu–20% Sn (wt%) alloy particles with diameter ranging from 70.6 to 334.0 μm were prepared by the pulsated orifice ejection method (termed “POEM”). Fully dense without pores and bulk inclusions, the cross-sectional micrographs of the spherical alloy particles indicate an even distribution of Cu and Sn. These spherical Cu–Sn alloy particles exhibit a good spherical shape and a narrow size distribution, suggesting that the liquid Cu–Sn alloy can completely break the balance between the surface tension and the liquid static pressure in the crucible micropores and accurately control the volume of the droplets. Furthermore, the cooling rate of spherical Cu–20% Sn alloy particles is estimated by a Newton’s cooling model. The cooling rate of the Cu–20% Sn alloy particle decreases gradually with the particle diameter increasing. Smaller particles have higher cooling rates and when the particle diameter is less than 70 μm, the cooling rate of particles can reach more than 3.3 × 104 K/s. The secondary dendrite arm spacing has strong dependence on particle diameter which increases gradually with the increase of particle diameter. The results demonstrate that POEM is an effective route for fabrication of high-quality monosized Cu–20% Sn alloy particles.
Optics surface phase defects induced intensity modulation in high-power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research is studied. Calculations and experiments reveal an exact mapping of the modulation patterns and the optics damage spot distributions from the surface phase defects. Origins are discussed during the processes of optics manufacturing and diagnostics, revealing potential improvements for future optics manufacturing techniques and diagnostic index, which is meaningful for fusion level laser facility construction and its operation safety.
We aimed to compare injury characteristics and the timing of admissions and surgeries in the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and the Lushan earthquake in 2013.
We retrospectively compared the admission and operating times and injury profiles of patients admitted to our medical center during both earthquakes. We also explored the relationship between seismic intensity and injury type.
The time from earthquake onset to the peak in patient admissions and surgeries differed between the 2 earthquakes. In the Wenchuan earthquake, injuries due to being struck by objects or being buried were more frequent than other types of injuries, and more patients suffered injuries of the extremities than thoracic injuries or brain trauma. In the Lushan earthquake, falls were the most common injury, and more patients suffered thoracic trauma or brain injuries. The types of injury seemed to vary with seismic intensity, whereas the anatomical location of the injury did not.
Greater seismic intensity of an earthquake is associated with longer delay between the event and the peak in patient admissions and surgeries, higher frequencies of injuries due to being struck or buried, and lower frequencies of injuries due to falls and injuries to the chest and brain. These insights may prove useful for planning rescue interventions in trauma centers near the epicenter. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:541-547)
The goal of machining scheme selection (MSS) is to select the most appropriate machining scheme for a previously designed part, for which the decision maker must take several aspects into consideration. Because many of these aspects may be conflicting, such as time, cost, quality, profit, resource utilization, and so on, the problem is rendered as a multiobjective one. Consequently, we consider a multiobjective optimization problem of MSS in this study, where production profit and machining quality are to be maximized while production cost and production time must be minimized, simultaneously. This paper presents a new discrete method for particle swarm optimization, which can be widely applied in MSS to find out the set of Pareto-optimal solutions for multiobjective optimization. To deal with multiple objectives and enable the decision maker to make decisions according to different demands on each evaluation index, an analytic hierarchy process is implemented to determine the weight value of evaluation indices. Case study is included to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the hybrid algorithm. It is shown from the case study that the multiobjective optimization model can simply, effectively, and objectively select the optimal machining scheme according to the different demands on evaluation indices.
This article comments on the results of a new, rapid, and flexible manual method to map on-disk individual coronal loops of a two-dimensional EUV image into the three-dimensional coronal loops. The method by Gary, Hu, and Lee (2013) employs cubic Bézier splines to map coronal loops using only four free parameters per loop. A set of 2D splines for coronal loops is transformed to the best 3D pseudo-magnetic field lines for a particular coronal model. The results restrict the magnetic field models derived from extrapolations of magnetograms to those admissible and inadmissible via a fitness parameter. This method uses the minimization of the misalignment angles between the magnetic field model and the best set of 3D field lines that match a set of closed coronal loops. We comment on the implication of the fitness parameter in connection with the magnetic free energy and comment on extensions of our earlier work by considering the issues of employing open coronal loops or employing partial coronal loop.
This paper describes an MHD simulation of an observed Sigmoid in AR 11283 from its formation to eruption. The Non-linear Force Free MHD model (Jiang and Feng, 2012) and the data-driven active region evolution model (Wu et al., 2006; Jiang et al. 2013) together with the SDO/HMI magnetograms are used. We show the successful simulation results of the eruption of a flux-rope structure.
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that originate, propagate away from the Sun, and carry along solar material with embedded solar magnetic field. Some are accompanied by prominence eruptions. A subset of the interplanetary counterparts of CMEs (ICMEs), so-called Magnetic Clouds (MCs) can be characterized by magnetic flux-rope structures. We apply the Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction technique to examine the configuration of MCs and to derive relevant physical quantities, such as magnetic flux content, relative magnetic helicity, and the field-line twist, etc. Both observational analyses of solar source region characteristics including flaring and associated magnetic reconnection process, and the corresponding MC structures were carried out. We summarize the main properties of selected events with and without associated prominence eruptions. In particular, we show the field-line twist distribution and the intercomparison of magnetic flux for these flux-rope structures.
On 5 January 2005, SoHO/LASCO observed two CMEs associated with eruptive filaments with different initial velocities and acceleration. The second CME accelerates much faster than the previous and the resulting interaction has been revealed in in-situ spacecraft measurements by the presence of magnetic holes at the border of the two distinct magnetic clouds. At their interface region, these magnetic clouds have embedded filament plasma that shows complex magnetic structures with a distinct magnetic flux rope configuration; these have been modeled by the Grad - Shafranov reconstruction technique. The geomagnetic consequences of these structures have been associated with substorms in recovery phase of a storm and detailed analysis is presented in Sharma et al. (2013). In the present paper, we highlight the comparison of shape and extent of two filament plasma remnants in magnetic clouds as revealed by three - dimensional (3D) reconstruction and analysis from the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) data. The results provide an overview of the two eruptive filaments on 5 January 2005 and their interplanetary propagation.
This paper investigates the modulational instability of a linearly polarized ultra-intense laser pulse propagating in electron–positron plasmas. Based on the wave equation, which contains vacuum polarization and magnetization effects, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the growth rate of instability are obtained and the effects of plasma number density and laser intensity on the growth rate are analyzed. Numerical results show that if the laser intensity is high enough, the modulational instability growth rate induced by vacuum polarization and magnetization nonlinearity can dominate the modulational instability growth rate induced by the nonlinearity associated with a relativistic effect and ponderomotive force.
Industry-generated trans-fatty acids (TFA) are detrimental to risk of CHD, but ruminant-originated TFA have been reported as neutral or equivocal. Therefore, the total TFA amount should not be the only factor considered when measuring the effects of TFA. In the present study, we addressed whether a version of the TFA index that unifies the effects of different TFA isomers into one equation could be used to reflect CHD risk probability (RP). The present cross-sectional study involved 2713 individuals divided into four groups that represented different pathological severities and potential risks of CHD: acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n 581); chronic coronary artery disease (CCAD, n 631); high-risk population (HRP, n 659); healthy volunteers (HV, n 842). A 10-year CHD RP was calculated. Meanwhile, the equation of the TFA index was derived using five TFA isomers (trans-16 : 1n-7, trans-16 : 1n-9, trans-18 : 1n-7, trans-18 : 1n-9 and trans-18 : 2n-6n-9), which were detected in the whole blood, serum and erythrocyte membranes of each subject. The TFA index and the 10-year CHD RP were compared by linear models. It was shown that only in the erythrocyte membrane, the TFA isomers were significantly different between the groups. In the ACS group, industry-generated TFA (trans-16 : 1n-9, trans-18 : 1n-9 and trans-18 : 2n-6n-9) were the highest, whereas ruminant-originated TFA (trans-16 : 1n-7 and trans-18 : 1n-7), which manifested an inverse relationship with CHD, were the lowest, and vice versa in the HV group. The TFA index decreased progressively from 7·12 to 5·06, 3·11 and 1·92 in the ACS, CCAD, HRP and HV groups, respectively. The erythrocyte membrane TFA index was positively associated with the 10-year CHD RP (R2 0·9981) and manifested a strong linear correlation, which might reflect the true pathological severity of CHD.
The current study explored the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on functional recovery and hippocampal phospho-NR2B (p-NR2B) expression in cerebral ischemic rats, induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, including sham, no exercise (NE), low intensity training (LIT, v = 15 m/min), and moderate intensity training groups (MIT, v = 20 m/min). At different time points, the hippocampal expressions of p-NR2B and total NR2B were examined. In addition, neurological deficit score (NDS), body weight, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining were used to evaluate brain infarct volume as assessments of post-stroke functional recovery. In order to investigate the effect of exercise on survival, the mortality rate was also recorded.
The results showed that treadmill exercise significantly decreased hippocampal expression of p-NR2B but didn't change the total NR2B, compared to the NE group on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days following MCAO surgery. The effect on changes in p-NR2B levels, body weight, and brain infarct volume were more significant in the LIT compared to the MIT group.
Discussion and Conclusion:
The current findings demonstrate that physical exercise can produce neuroprotective effects, in part by down-regulating p-NR2B expression. Furthermore, the appropriate intensity of physical exercise is critical for post-stroke rehabilitation.
Energy metabolism, insulin resistance and adiposity have been implicated in breast cancer, but dietary interventions to reduce breast cancer morbidity and mortality have had limited success. MicroRNA (miRNA) are short, non-coding RNA that participate in the control of metabolic processes through the post-transcriptional modification of RNA. We investigated the effect of a low-glycaemic load dietary intervention on miRNA expression, with subsequent bioinformatics pathway analyses to explore metabolic pathways potentially affected by the diet. Total RNA, including miRNA, was isolated from the serum of fourteen otherwise healthy pre-menopausal women with a high breast cancer risk participating in a 12-month dietary intervention designed to lower glycaemic load by at least 15 % from baseline. Genome-wide miRNA expression was conducted using Illumina BeadChips. In the intervention subjects, three differentially expressed miRNA were validated by real-time (RT)-PCR, and in the twenty control participants, four top differentially expressed miRNA were evaluated to confirm a diet effect. In post-intervention v. baseline serum, twenty miRNA were found to be differentially expressed, with twelve up-regulated and eight down-regulated. These differentially expressed miRNA were predicted to be potentially associated with energy balance and cancer pathways based on exploratory enrichment analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR validations in the controls confirmed that the observed miRNA differential expression was dietary intervention induced. Manipulation of dietary glycaemic load has the potential to modify the expression of multiple miRNA predicted to be involved in energy balance and cancer pathways. Further research is necessary to confirm the role of these miRNA in the control of energy metabolism and relationships with cancer-related processes.
A coupled model, capable of simulating transonic flow, solid heat conduction, species transport, and gas radiation, is developed that provides better computational treatment of infrared radiation from hot exhaust nozzles. The modeling of gas radiation is based on a statistical narrow-band correlated-k analysis, whose parameters are deduced from the HITEMP line-by-line database. To improve computational efficiency, several methods are employed. A mixed analytical-numerical algorithm is described for the stiffness of the two-equation turbulence model and an alternating direction implicit pretreatment for the ill-conditioned matrix appearing in the coupled problem of flow and solid heat conduction. Moreover, an improved multigrid method and a symmetry plane treatment of the radiation transfer-energy equations are also introduced. Four numerical simulations are given to confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the numerical method. Finally, an account of the aerothermodynamics and infrared characteristics for two types of nozzles are presented. The infrared radiation intensity of the Chevron ejecting nozzle is clearly smaller than that of the common axisymmetric ejecting nozzle. All computations can be performed on a personal computer.