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In this study, the effects of antagonistic muscle actuation on the propulsion of a bilaminar-structure fish fin ray were investigated using a two-dimensional computational flow–structure interaction (FSI) model. The structure and material properties of the model were based on the realistic biological data of the sunfish fin. The effect of muscle actuation was modelled using root displacement offset between the two hemitrichs. Parametric FSI simulations were conducted by assuming a sinusoidal function of the offset over a cycle and varying the amplitude and phase difference between the actuations and pitching/plunging motions. The results show that the phase of muscle actuation is a critical factor affecting its effects. Three performance regions can be identified with different phase ranges, including a thrust-favour region, an efficiency-favour region and a thrust-efficiency-unfavour region. In each region, the relationships among the root actuations, fin-ray kinematics, vortex dynamics and resulting performance are studied and discussed. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation between the trailing–leading amplitude ratio and thrust coefficient as well as a negative relationship between the efficiency and angle of attack at the centre of mass of the fin ray are observed.
Achieving the high-precision control of cable-driven parallel robots (CDPRs) is complex because of their structural properties. In this paper, a quintessential redundant CDPR is designed as the research subject, and a continuous switching sliding mode controller based on workspace vision is implemented to enhance the accuracy and stability of trajectory tracking. In addition, a virtual prototype of the CDPR with uncertainties is created in the simulation analysis software ADAMS, and co-simulation is performed with the control system designed in Simulink to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. Furthermore, a CDPR platform is established for trajectory tracking experiments using the visual-based position feedback method. The trajectory tracking performance with the three control schemes is then evaluated. The experimental results show that the continuous switching sliding mode control algorithm can significantly decrease trajectory tracking errors and exhibit superior trajectory tracking performance compared to the other control strategies.
The alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos Kikuchi and Hashimoto, 2000, is an evolutionarily important deep-sea species in hydrothermal vents of north-western Pacific. A genome survey of S. leurokolos was carried out in order to provide a foundation for its whole-genome sequencing. A total of 599 Gb high-quality sequence data were obtained in the study, representing approximately 118× coverage of the S. leurokolos genome. According to the 17-mer distribution frequency, the estimated genome size was 5.08 Gb, and its heterozygosity ratio and percentage of repeated sequences were 2.85 and 87.03%, respectively, showing a complex genome. The final scaffold assembly accounted for a total size of 9.53 Gb (32,796,062 scaffolds, N50 = 597 bp). Repetitive elements nearly constituted 45% of the nuclear genome, among which the most ubiquitous were long interspersed nuclear elements, DNA transposons and long-terminal repeat elements. A total of 12,121,553 genomic simple sequence repeats were identified, with the most frequent repeat motif being di-nucleotide (70.27%), followed by tri-nucleotide and tetra-nucleotide. From the genome survey sequences, the mitochondrial genome of S. leurokolos was also constructed and 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by comparison with previous published reference. This is the first report of de novo whole-genome sequencing and assembly of S. leurokolos. These newly developed genomic data contribute to a better understanding of genomic characteristics of shrimps from deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems, and provides valuable resources for further molecular marker development.
This study aimed to summarise the findings of the studies assessing the effectiveness of ultraviolet C (UV-C) room disinfection in reducing the incidence rate of healthcare-associated multi-drug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections. A systematic screening was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, and before–after studies, which assessed the efficacy of the UV-C disinfectant system in reducing the incidence of MDRO infections. A random-effects model was used for the analysis. Effect sizes were described as incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Nine studies were included, all of which were conducted in the USA. No statistically significant reduction in Clostridioides difficile (CD) (IRR: 0.90, 95% CI; 0.62–1.32) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection rates (IRR 0.72, 95% CI; 0.38–1.37) was observed with the use of UV-C, but the risk of Gram-negative rod infection was reduced (IRR 0.82, 95% CI; 0.68–0.99).
Post-event rumination (PER) has been seen as a key element in the persistence of social anxiety (disorder). Studies on PER-targeted intervention, e.g., cognitive restructuring (CR), has, however, received little attention in adults, not yet in youth. In addition, previous research showed that, compared to interaction, participants reported higher levels of PER after speech task. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CR targeting PER among socially anxious (Chinese) adolescents and also to compare the intervention effect between speech and interaction situations. The present study recruited a sample of 73 high socially anxious adolescents aged 12–16 years and then randomly assigned them into speech (n = 37) or interaction (n = 36) group, without control group. PER and social anxiety (SA) were measured before and after CR. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) results showed that adolescents’ PER and SA symptoms were significantly improved with intervention with moderate to high effect size. Furthermore, the decrease in PER could significantly predict the improvement of SA. However, the intervention effect showed no difference between groups. Although no control group was included, one-session CR still showed its potential to improve participants’ PER and SA. Limitations and future directions were discussed.
The effects of monolaurin (ML) on the health of piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) have not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate its role in blood biochemical profile, intestinal barrier function, antioxidant function and the expression of antiviral genes in piglets infected with PEDV. Thirty-two piglets were randomly divided into four groups: control group, ML group, PEDV group and ML + PEDV group. Piglets were orally administrated with ML at a dose of 100 mg/kg·BW for 7 d before PEDV infection. Results showed that PEDV infection significantly decreased D-xylose content and increased intestinal fatty acid-binding protein content, indicating that PEDV infection destroyed intestinal barrier and absorption function. While it could be repaired by ML administration. Moreover, ML administration significantly decreased plasma blood urea nitrogen and total protein content upon PEDV infection. These results suggested ML may increase protein utilisation efficiency. ML administration significantly decreased the number of large unstained cells and Hb and increased the number of leucocytes and eosinophils in the blood of PEDV-infected piglets, indicating ML could improve the immune defense function of the body. In the presence of PEDV infection, ML administration significantly increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in blood and colon, respectively, indicating ML could improve antioxidant capacity. Besides, ML administration reversed the expression of ISG15, IFIT3 and IL-29 throughout the small intestine and Mx1 in jejunum and ileum, indicating the body was in recovery from PEDV infection. This study suggests that ML could be used as a kind of feed additive to promote swine health upon PEDV infection.
Continuous risky decisions refer to decisions that involve trade-offs among options with persistent risks. People can use the probability of occurrence per unit time (e.g., ‘the probability of occurrence is 1% per month’) or the average time of risk occurrence (e.g., ‘the average occurrence time is 100 months’) to represent continuous risky options. In this study, we examined the effect of the presentation format (i.e., the probability of occurrence per unit time vs. the average time of risk occurrence) on continuous risky decisions in the gain domain and further explored the underlying mechanism. In Study 1 (N = 122), we demonstrated the effect of presentation format on continuous risky decisions and the moderating effect of the magnitude of probabilities. Specifically, when the probabilities were relatively low, compared with the probability of occurrence per unit time, using the average time of risk occurrence to present the continuous risky options led to more risk-averse decisions. However, when the probabilities were relatively high, compared with the probability of occurrence per unit time, the presentation format of the average time occurrence led to more risk-seeking decisions. In Study 2 (N = 136), we found that the moderating effect of the option probabilities on continuous risky decisions was mediated by the subjective attribute-wise difference judgment. In Study 3 (N = 221), we replicated the effect of presentation format on continuous risky decisions in more natural scenarios. The study offered a deep understanding of the mechanism of continuous risky decision-making, and the results were conducive to further developing theories in relevant fields.
Placental trophoblastic cells play important roles in placental development and fetal health. However, the mechanism of trophoblastic cell fusion is still not entirely clear. The level of Tspan5 in the embryo culture medium was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fusion of BeWo cells was observed by immunofluorescence. Cell fusion-related factors and EMT-related factors were identified by qRT-PCR and western blotting. Notch protein repressor DAPT was used to verify the role of Tspan5 in BeWo cells. The expression of Tspan5 was significantly increased in embryo culture medium. The fusion of BeWo cells was observed after treatment with forskolin (FSK). Cell fusion-related factors (i.e. β-hCG and syncytin 1/2) and Tspan5 were significantly increased after FSK treatment. In addition, FSK treatment promoted EMT-related protein expression in BeWo cells. Knockdown of Tspan5 inhibited cell fusion and EMT-related protein levels. Notch-1 and Jagged-1 protein levels were significantly upregulated, and the EMT process was activated by overexpression of Tspan5 in FSK-treated BeWo cells. Interestingly, blocking the Notch pathway by the repressor DAPT had the opposite results. These results indicated that Tspan5 could promote the EMT process by activating the Notch pathway, thereby causing cell fusion. These findings contribute to a better understanding of trophoblast cell syncytialization and embryonic development. Tspan5 may be used as a therapeutic target for normal placental development.
Previous observational studies have reported potential associations among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obesity, and diabetes (including type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus [T1DM/T2DM]). However, whether the association between ADHD and diabetes is mediated by obesity is unknown.
With two-sample Mendelian randomization, we analysed the causal effect of ADHD on T1DM and T2DM and six obesity-related traits [including body mass index, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percentage and basal metabolic rate] and the causal effect of these obesity-related traits on T1DM/T2DM. Finally, with multivariable Mendelian randomization, we explored and quantified the possible mediation effects of obesity-related traits on the causal effect of ADHD on T1DM/T2DM.
Our results showed that ADHD increased the risk of T2DM by 14% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.140, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.005–1.293] but with no evidence of an effect on T1DM (OR = 0.916, 95% CI = 0.735–1.141, P = 0.433.). In addition, ADHD had a 6.1% increased causal effect on high WC (OR = 1.061, 95% CI = 1.024–1.099, P = 0.001) and an 8.2% increased causal effect on high WHR (OR = 1.082, 95% CI = 1.035–1.131, P = 0.001). In addition, a causal effect of genetically predicted high WC (OR = 1.870, 95% CI = 1.594–2.192, P < 0.001) on a higher risk of T2DM was found. In further analysis, WC mediated approximately 26.75% (95% CI = 24.20%–29.30%) of the causal association between ADHD and T2DM.
WC mediates a substantial proportion of the causal effect of ADHD on the risk of T2DM, which indicated that the risk of T2DM induced by ADHD could be indirectly reduced by controlling WC as a main risk factor.
In this study, aluminium fluoride trihydrate (AlF3⋅3H2O) was used to inhibit the sintering of calcined coal-series kaolin (CCSK). In addition, the oil absorption properties of CCSK were studied. The particle-size distribution, specific surface area and porosity of the samples were investigated as a function of calcination temperature and the addition of AlF3⋅3H2O. Moreover, the ability of AlF3⋅3H2O to improve the oil absorption of CCSK was explored. The morphology, structure and phase composition of the specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The phase transition during heating of the samples was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The preparation with 10 wt.% AlF3⋅3H2O had the optimal sintering inhibition effect on CCSK at 1000°C. The release of SiF4 gas during heating and the formation of mullite whiskers on the particle surface caused by AlF3⋅3H2O moderated the formation of molten-phase liquid bridges between particles and inhibited sintering of the raw material powder. Furthermore, the formation of submicron mullite whiskers on the surface of the CCSK particles enhanced the oil-absorption properties of the sample significantly.
Lift alleviation by a mini-spoiler on aerofoils, unswept and swept wings encountering an isolated counter-clockwise vortical gust was investigated by means of force and velocity measurements. The flow separation region behind the spoiler remains little affected during the gust encounter. The maximum lift reduction is found for the static stall angle of attack. The change in the maximum lift during the gust encounter is approximately equal to that in steady freestream. The comparison with plunging aerofoils reveals that, for the same maximum gust and plunge velocity, the effectiveness of the mini-spoiler is much better in travelling gusts. This reveals the importance of the streamwise length scale of the incident gust. For the unswept wing, there is some three-dimensionality of the flow separation induced by the mini-spoiler near the wing tip. The magnitude of the lift reduction can be estimated using the aerofoil data and by making an aspect ratio correction for the reduced effective angle of attack. For the swept wing, the mini-spoiler can disrupt the formation of a leading-edge vortex induced by the incident vortex on the clean wing and can still reduce the maximum lift.
Osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee joint is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Symptoms include pain, swelling, snapping, stiffness, and joint effusion. At present, there are many ways to treat osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee joint, and most people adopt conservative treatment. However, for patients with more serious conditions, conservative treatment cannot achieve obvious results, but surgical treatment is required. However, surgical treatment often causes psychological stress on patients, especially elderly patients. Therefore, the study focused on the occurrence and prevention of psychological diseases in patients with lateral knee osteoarthritis after postoperative care programs including psychological treatment.
Subjects and Methods
A total of 110 patients with osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee admitted to a hospital from July 2020 to January 2022 were selected as the research objects. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups, the control group and the observation group, with 55 cases in each group. In the control group, there were 29 males and 26 females, aged 37-79 years, with an average of (60.22 ± 14.15) years old. In the observation group, there were 32 males and 23 females, aged from 35 to 80 years old, with an average of (60.83 ± 14.34) years old. There was no significant difference in general data between the two groups (P > 0.05), which were comparable. The control group was given routine postoperative care, and the observation group was given experimental nursing program including psychotherapy.
From the perspective of coping style, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the scores of positive and negative coping styles between the two groups before nursing. After nursing, the positive coping style of the observation group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), and the score of negative coping style was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In terms of anxiety and depression scores, there was no significant difference in SAS (Self-Rating Anxiety Scale) and SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale) scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). After nursing, the SAS and SDS scores of the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05), as shown in Table 1.Table 1.
Comparison of SAS and SDS scores before and after group care
Observation group (n = 55)
Control group (n = 55)
The coping style and psychological state of patients with osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment of the knee have a greater impact on postoperative recovery, and individualized nursing including psychotherapy can help improve their coping style and psychological state.
The research is supported by: The Eighth Batch of Gansu Science and Technology Program Funding Projects (Key R&D Program) in 2020+Clinical research and application of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the treatment of middle-aged and elderly patients with unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis in Hexi Corridor+20YF8FG066; The Fifth Batch of Gansu Science and Technology Program Funding Projects (Basic Research Program-Natural Science Foundation) in 2022+ To investigate the molecular mechanism of LncRNA PVT1 regulating osteosarcoma ferroptosis through miRNA-106a-5p/MDM4 pathway +22JR5RG570; 2022 Innovation Fund Project of Gansu Provincial Department of Education+ To study the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma combined with arthroscopic surgery in the treatment of early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis+2022B-189.
Parametric interaction allows both forward and backward energy transfers among the three interacting waves. The back-conversion effect is usually detrimental when unidirectional energy transfer is desired. In this theoretical work, we manifest that the back-conversion effect underpins the direct generation of the picosecond pulse train without the need for a laser resonator. The research scenario is an optical parametric amplification (OPA) that consists of a second-order nonlinear medium, a quasi-continuous pump laser and a sinusoidal amplitude-modulated seed signal. The back-conversion of OPA can transfer the modulation peaks (valleys) of the incident signal into output valleys (peaks), which inherently induces spectral sidebands. The generation of each sideband is naturally accompanied with a phase shift of ±π. In the regime of full-back-conversion, the amount and amplitude of the sidebands reach the maximum simultaneously, and their phase constitutes an arithmetic sequence, leading to the production of a picosecond pulse train. The generated picosecond pulse train can have an ultrahigh repetition rate of 40 GHz or higher, which may facilitate ultrafast applications with ultrahigh speed.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder defined by characteristic behavioral and cognitive features. Abnormal brain dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) has been associated with the disorder. The full spectrum of ADHD-related variation of brain dynamics and its association with behavioral and cognitive features remain to be established.
We sought to identify patterns of brain dynamics linked to specific behavioral and cognitive dimensions using sparse canonical correlation analysis across a cohort of children with and without ADHD (122 children in total, 63 with ADHD). Then, using mediation analysis, we tested the hypothesis that cognitive deficits mediate the relationship between brain dynamics and ADHD-associated behaviors.
We identified four distinct patterns of dFC, each corresponding to a specific dimension of behavioral or cognitive function (r = 0.811–0.879). Specifically, the inattention/hyperactivity dimension was positively associated with dFC within the default mode network (DMN) and negatively associated with dFC between DMN and the sensorimotor network (SMN); the somatization dimension was positively associated with dFC within DMN and SMN; the inhibition and flexibility dimension and fluency and memory dimensions were both positively associated with dFC within DMN and between DMN and SMN, and negatively associated with dFC between DMN and the fronto-parietal network. Furthermore, we observed that cognitive functions of inhibition and flexibility mediated the relationship between brain dynamics and behavioral manifestations of inattention and hyperactivity.
These findings document the importance of distinct patterns of dynamic functional brain activity for different cardinal behavioral and cognitive features related to ADHD.
We demonstrate an ultra-broadband high temporal contrast infrared laser source based on cascaded optical parametric amplification, hollow-core fiber (HCF) and second harmonic generation processes. In this setup, the spectrum of an approximately 1.8 μm laser pulse has near 1 μm full bandwidth by employing an argon gas-filled HCF. Subsequently, after frequency doubling with cascaded crystals and dispersion compensation by a fused silica wedge pair, 9.6 fs (~3 cycles) and 150 μJ pulses centered at 910 nm with full bandwidth of over 300 nm can be generated. The energy stability of the output laser pulse is excellent with 0.8% (root mean square) over 20 min, and the temporal contrast is >1012 at –10 ps before the main pulse. The excellent temporal and spatial characteristics and stability make this laser able to be used as a good seed source for ultra-intense and ultrafast laser systems.
Extensive research has shown abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) that is a heritable disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms of CBF abnormalities in MDD.
To achieve a more thorough characterization of CBF changes in MDD, we performed a comprehensive neuroimaging meta-analysis of previous literature as well as examined group CBF differences in an independent sample of 133 MDD patients and 133 controls. In combination with the Allen Human Brain Atlas, transcriptome-neuroimaging spatial association analyses were conducted to identify genes whose expression correlated with CBF changes in MDD, followed by a set of gene functional feature analyses.
We found increased CBF in the reward circuitry and default-mode network and decreased CBF in the visual system in MDD patients. Moreover, these CBF changes were spatially associated with expression of 1532 genes, which were enriched for important molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components of the cerebral cortex as well as several common mental disorders. Concurrently, these genes were specifically expressed in the brain tissue, in immune cells and neurons, and during nearly all developmental stages. Regarding behavioral relevance, these genes were associated with domains involving emotion and sensation. In addition, these genes could construct a protein-protein interaction network supported by 60 putative hub genes with functional significance.
Our findings suggest a cerebral perfusion redistribution in MDD, which may be a consequence of complex interactions of a wide range of genes with diverse functional features.
Two new species of the lichenized genus Lasioloma are described from Asia: Lasioloma longiramosum W. C. Wang & A. Abas (collected from Malaysia), is characterized by a distinct woolly prothallus between dispersed thallus patches, comparatively small, muriform ascospores, long filiform conidia (main branch 22–28 μm in length, the other three branches 65–80 μm) and a foliicolous habitat; L. verrucosum W. C. Wang & X. L. Wei (collected from China), is characterized by a warted thallus, filiform conidia (main branch 22–32 μm in length, the other three branches 50–65 μm) and a corticolous habitat. The placement of both new species was confirmed by a molecular phylogenetic approach based on combined ITS, mtSSU and mtLSU sequences, and both are compared in detail to other similar species of the genus. Our study also revealed that the length of the conidial branches, which has not been explored in previous studies, should be regarded as an important feature for species delimitation in Lasioloma.
Industrial robots are widely used in the painting industry, such as automobile manufacturing and solid wood furniture industry. An important problem is how to improve the efficiency of robot programming, especially in the current furniture industry with multiple products, small batches and increasingly high demand for customization. In this work, we propose an outer loop adaptive control scheme, which allow users to realize the practical application of the zero-moment lead-through teaching method based on dynamic model without opening the inner torque control interface of robots. In order to accurately estimate the influence of joint friction, a friction model is established based on static, Coulomb and viscous friction characteristics, and the Sigmoid function is used to represent the transition between motion states. An identification method is used to quickly identify the dynamic parameters of the robot. The joint position/speed command of the robot’s inner joint servo loop is dynamically generated based on the user-designed adaptive control law. In addition, the zero-moment lead-through teaching scheme based on the dynamic model is applied to a spray-painting robot with closed control system. In order to verify our method, CMA GR630ST is used to conduct experiments. We identified the parameters of the dynamic model and carried out the zero-moment lead-through teaching experiment to track the target trajectory. The results show that the proposed method can realize the application of modern control methods in industrial robot with closed control systems, and achieve a preliminary exploration to improve the application scenarios of spray-painting robots.
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is one of the rate-determining enzymes in the hydrolysis of TAG, playing a crucial role in lipid metabolism. However, the role of HSL-mediated lipolysis in systemic nutrient homoeostasis has not been intensively understood. Therefore, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technique and Hsl inhibitor (HSL-IN-1) to establish hsla-deficient (hsla-/-) and Hsl-inhibited zebrafish models, respectively. As a result, the hsla-/- zebrafish showed retarded growth and reduced oxygen consumption rate, accompanied with higher mRNA expression of the genes related to inflammation and apoptosis in liver and muscle. Furthermore, hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish both exhibited severe fat deposition, whereas their expressions of the genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation were markedly reduced. The TLC results also showed that the dysfunction of Hsl changed the whole-body lipid profile, including increasing the content of TG and decreasing the proportion of phospholipids. In addition, the systemic metabolic pattern was remodelled in hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish. The dysfunction of Hsl lowered the glycogen content in liver and muscle and enhanced the utilisation of glucose plus the expressions of glucose transporter and glycolysis genes. Besides, the whole-body protein content had significantly decreased in the hsla-/- and HSL-IN-1-treated zebrafish, accompanied with the lower activation of the mTOR pathway and enhanced protein and amino acid catabolism. Taken together, Hsl plays an essential role in energy homoeostasis, and its dysfunction would cause the disturbance of lipid catabolism but enhanced breakdown of glycogen and protein for energy compensation.
In strong-field physics experiments with ultraintense lasers, a single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) is essential for fast optimization of the pulse contrast and meaningful comparison with theory for each pulse shot. To simultaneously characterize an ultrashort pulse and its long pedestal, the SSCC device must have both a high resolution and a large temporal window. However, the resolution and window in all kinds of single-shot measurement contradict each other in principle. Here we propose and demonstrate a novel SSCC device with two separate measurement channels: channel-1 for the large-window pedestal measurement has a moderate resolution but a large window, while channel-2 for the ultrashort pulse measurement has a small window but a high resolution; this allows the accurate characterization of the pulse contrast in a single shot. A two-channel SSCC device with a 200-fs resolution and 114-ps window has been developed and tested for its application in ultraintense lasers at 800 nm.