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The study compared the contributions of self- and social-oriented personality factors to Chinese adolescents’ career exploration with a longitudinal perspective. The mediation effects of career decision self-efficacy and perceived parental support were also investigated. A total of 488 high school students in Hong Kong took three waves of a questionnaire survey at Grade 10, Grade 11 and Grade 12 respectively. The results indicated that adolescents’ career exploration at Grade 12 could be predicted by both self- and social-oriented personalities at Grade 10. Specifically, both self- and social-oriented personality factors could contribute to adolescents’ environmental exploration, and the effect was mediated by perceived parental support at Grade 11, after controlling for the effect of career exploration at Grade 11; whereas self-oriented personality factor could contribute to self-exploration, and the effect was mediated by career self-efficacy at Grade 11. The implications for career counseling and education for Chinese adolescents are discussed.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
This longitudinal study investigated the contributions of Chinese secondary school students’ meaning in life in Grade 10 to vocational identity in Grade 12 in different Chinese settings. Whether vocational exploration and commitment reported by students (VECS) in Grade 11, and the vocational exploration and commitment reported by parents (VECP) of the students mediate the above link was examined as well. Participants comprised 435 students and their parents/guardians from Hong Kong, 422 students and their parents/guardians from urban Shanghai, and 308 students and their parents/guardians from rural Zhejiang. Partial mediation of the VECS in the relationship between meaning in life and vocational identity was significant in the Shanghai and Zhejiang rural samples. In the Hong Kong sample, the VECP was significantly predicted by meaning in life and could predict vocational identity. Associations between parental perceptions of vocational commitment and adolescents’ own career development might therefore be weaker than previously believed. The pattern of the relationships between meaning in life, vocational commitment and identity, and the influence of parents on adolescents’ career development in different Chinese local contexts are discussed herein.
Palladium (Pd) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) hybridized on two types of carbon supports, graphene and granular activated carbon (GAC), were shown to be promising catalysts for the sustainable hydrodehalogenation of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE). These catalysts are capable of degrading TCE more rapidly than commercial Pd-on-GAC catalysts. The catalysts were synthesized at room temperature without the use of any environmentally unfriendly chemicals. Pd was chosen for its catalytic potency to break down TCE, while Au acts as a strong promoter of the catalytic activity of Pd. The results indicate that both graphene and GAC are favorable supports for the NPs due to high surface-to-volume ratios, unique surface properties, and the prevention of NP aggregation. The properties of NP catalysts were characterized using electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. The TCE degradation results indicate that the GAC-supported catalysts have a higher rate of TCE removal than the commercial Pd-on-GAC catalyst, and the degradation rate is greatly increased when using graphene-supported samples.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
In this paper, bymeans of a new recursive algorithm of non-tensor-product-typed divided differences, bivariate polynomial interpolation schemes are constructed over nonrectangular meshes firstly, which is converted into the study of scattered data interpolation. And the schemes are different as the number of scattered data is odd and even, respectively. Secondly, the corresponding error estimation is worked out, and an equivalence is obtained between high-order non-tensor-product-typed divided differences and high-order partial derivatives in the case of odd and even interpolating nodes, respectively. Thirdly, several numerical examples illustrate the recursive algorithms valid for the non-tensor-product-typed interpolating polynomials, and disclose that these polynomials change as the order of the interpolating nodes, although the node collection is invariant. Finally, from the aspect of computational complexity, the operation count with the bivariate polynomials presented is smaller than that with radial basis functions.
The 14C content in 1961–1967 and 1970–1983 tree rings of a spruce grown in Dailing, China (47°N, 129°E) was measured by liquid scintillation. As a result of USSR bomb tests at Novaya Zemlya (72°N, 53°E), Δ14C values rose dramatically from 250‰ in 1961 to a maximum 909‰ in 1964, and then gradually decreased to 238‰ in 1983. We compared Δ14C values in the rings of an oak tree grown at 43°N, 74°W and that of a pine grown at 49°N, 9°E, and atmospheric Δ14C values in both northern and southern hemispheres. We observe that: 1) annual tree rings grown in the same latitude zone have the same Δ14C values, reflecting rapid longitudinal mixing of the atmosphere; 2) atmospheric 14C concentrations reached a global equilibrium distribution at the end of 1968, and tree ring 14C content reflects atmospheric 14C concentration; 3) 1976–1982 rings of the Dailing spruce show excessive 14C, likely due to the effect of 1976 and 1980 Chinese bomb tests; 4) Δ14C decreases exponentially, halving every 17 yr.
The existence of black holes with masses of about one billion solar masses in quasars at redshifts z > 6 presents significant challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the early Universe. Here we report a recent discovery of an ultra-luminous quasar at redshift z = 6.30, which has an observed optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. With near-infrared spectroscopy, we obtain a black hole mass of about 12 billion solar masses, which is well consistent with the mass derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion. This ultra-luminous quasar with at z > 6 provides a unique laboratory to the study of the mass assembly and galaxy formation around the most massive black holes at cosmic dawn. It raises further challenges to the black hole/galaxy co-evolution in the epoch of cosmic reionization because the black hole needs to grow much faster than the host galaxy.
To describe the Nutrition Improvement Programme for Rural Compulsory Education Students (NIPRCES) in China and to share the experiences of developing and implementing nationwide school meal programmes with other countries.
The article is based on a literature review of technical documents and reports of NIPRCES and relevant national legislation, technical reports and studies on school nutrition, minutes of meetings and national conferences, and official documents of the National Office of Student Nutrition and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
People’s Republic of China.
Published papers, national policies, legislation and unpublished official documents.
A total of 23 million rural compulsory education students were covered by NIPRCES. In the development and implementation process of NIPRCES, fifteen ministries and national committees were involved and an efficient collaborative mechanism was established. All NIPRCES-covered schools were required to serve meals on a daily basis. By the end of June 2012, the proportions of students choosing ‘school feeding’, ‘food package’ and ‘family feeding’ modes were respectively 64·0 %, 32·0 % and 4·0 %. The central government subsidized school meals annually by more than $US 2·5 billion and invested $US 4·8 billion on school kitchens to support this programme.
The NIPRCES is a significant movement of governmental nutritional intervention in China. Food safety, financial security, decentralization and other potential concerns should be considered and lessons can be learned from other countries. Further relevant research and a nationwide monitoring and evaluation programme are needed.
In this paper, based on the basis composed of two sets of splines with distinct local supports, cubic spline quasi-interpolating operators are reviewed on nonuniform type-2 triangulation. The variation diminishing operator is defined by discrete linear functionals based on a fixed number of triangular mesh-points, which can reproduce any polynomial of nearly best degrees. And by means of the modulus of continuity, the estimation of the operator approximating a real sufficiently smooth function is reviewed as well. Moreover, the derivatives of the nearly optimal variation diminishing operator can approximate that of the real sufficiently smooth function uniformly over quasi-uniform type-2 triangulation. And then the convergence results are worked out.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
We investigate the cytoprotective effects and the molecular mechanism of genistein in oxidative stress-induced injury using an endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). An oxidative stress model was established by incubating endothelial cells with H2O2. According to the present results, genistein pretreatment protected endothelial cells against H2O2-induced decreases in cell viability and increases in apoptosis. Genistein also prevented the inhibition of B-cell lymphoma 2 and the activation of caspase-3 induced by H2O2. Genistein increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels and attenuated the decrease in these antioxidants during oxidative stress. We also found that genistein induced the promoter activity of both nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and PPARγ. Additionally, genistein induced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and PPARγ. While genistein caused the up-regulation of both Nrf2 and PPARγ, it also activated and up-regulated the protein expression and transcription of a downstream protein, haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Moreover, the use of Nrf2 small interfering RNA transfection and HO-1- or PPARγ-specific antagonists (Znpp and GW9662, respectively) blocked the protective effects of genistein on endothelial cell viability during oxidative stress. Therefore, we conclude that oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell injury can be attenuated by treatment with genistein, which functions via the regulation of the Nrf2 and PPARγ signalling pathway. Additionally, the endogenous antioxidants SOD, CAT and GSH appear to play a role in the antioxidant activity of genistein. The present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of genistein involving the activation of cytoprotective antioxidant genes may represent a novel strategy in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular endothelial damage.
Allelic expression of the rice yield-related gene, leucine-rich receptor-like kinase 6 (LRK6), in the hybrid of 93-11 (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Indica var. 93-11) and Nipponbare (O. sativa L. subsp. Japonica var. Nipponbare) is determined by allelic promoter cis-elements. Using deletion analysis of the LRK6 promoter, we identified two distinct regions that might contribute to LRK6 expression. Sequence alignment revealed differences in these LRK6 promoter regions in 93-11 and Nipponbare. One of the segments, named differential sequence of LRK6 promoter 2 (DSLP2), contains potential transcription factor binding sites. Using a yeast one-hybrid assay, we isolated an ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) protein that binds to DSLP2. Sequence analysis and a GCC-box assay showed that the ERF gene, O. sativa ERF 3 (OsERF3), which belongs to ERF subfamily class II, has a conserved ERF domain and an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression repressor motif. We used an in vivo mutation assay to identify a new motif (5′-TAA(A)GT-3′) located in DSLP2, which interacts with OsERF3. These results suggest that OsERF3, an AP2 (APETALA 2 Gene)/ERF transcription factor, binds the LRK6 promoter at this new motif, which might cause differential expression of LRK6 in the 93-11/Nipponbare hybrid.
Both fish oil (FO) and curcumin have potential as anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory agents. To further explore their combined effects on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis, C57BL/6 mice were randomised to four diets (2 × 2 design) differing in fatty acid content with or without curcumin supplementation (FO, FO+2 % curcumin, maize oil (control, MO) or MO+2 % curcumin). Mice were exposed to one or two cycles of DSS in the drinking-water to induce either acute or chronic intestinal inflammation, respectively. FO-fed mice exposed to the single-cycle DSS treatment exhibited the highest mortality (40 %, seventeen of forty-three) compared with MO with the lowest mortality (3 %, one of twenty-nine) (P = 0·0008). Addition of curcumin to MO increased (P = 0·003) mortality to 37 % compared with the control. Consistent with animal survival data, following the one- or two-cycle DSS treatment, both dietary FO and curcumin promoted mucosal injury/ulceration compared with MO. In contrast, compared with other diets, combined FO and curcumin feeding enhanced the resolution of chronic inflammation and suppressed (P < 0·05) a key inflammatory mediator, NF-κB, in the colon mucosa. Mucosal microarray analysis revealed that dietary FO, curcumin and FO plus curcumin combination differentially modulated the expression of genes induced by DSS treatment. These results suggest that dietary lipids and curcumin interact to regulate mucosal homeostasis and the resolution of chronic inflammation in the colon.
The decomposition mechanism of block copolymer templates inside as-synthesized mesostructured solids has been systematically studied using solid-state 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and high-vacuum Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It is shown that there exists hydrogen-bonding interaction between silanols and block copolymers at the inorganic–organic interface in the self-assembled as-synthesized mesostructured solids, which plays an important role in protecting the surfactants against decomposition during the high-temperature hydrothermal treatment process. Increasing silanol concentration can enhance the hydrogen-bonding interaction and thus shows better “protection” effect. Moreover, the thermal decomposition of the block copolymer in as-synthesized mesostructured solids in air commences at higher temperatures compared with that in acidic solution or in air, providing further evidence in support of the silanol protection mechanism.
A new surface cleaning method for Si MBE is described in which the Si surface is exposed to Ge beams while the substrate is kept at certain temperature. It has been proved that the thin passivation layer of SiO2 on the Si substrate will react with Ge at a relatively low temperature (620°C), and the products are volatile. The residual Ge on Si substrate can be reduced to less than 0.1 monolayer (ML). Ge beam treatment turns out to be an effective low temperature technique for preparing Si substrate, especially for the heteroepitaxial growth of GexSi1-x/Si.
Electrical properties of n-ZnO/n-GaN isotype heterostructures obtained by rf-sputtering of ZnO films on GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy are discussed. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the n-ZnO/n-GaN diodes revealed highly rectifying behavior with forward and reverse currents ∼1.43×10-2 A/cm2 and ∼2.4×10-4 A/cm2, respectively, at ±5 V. From the Arrhenius plot built using temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics (I-V-T) an activation energy 0.125 eV was derived for the reverse bias leakage current path, and 0.62 eV for the band offset from forward bias measurements. From electron-beam induced current measurements the minority carrier diffusion length in ZnO was estimated in the range 0.125-0.175 mm, depending on excitation conditions. The temperature dependent EBIC measurements yielded an activation energy of 0.462 ± 0.073 V.
Growth and polarity control of GaN and AlN on carbon-face SiC (C-SiC) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) are reported. The polarities of GaN and AlN layers were found to be strongly dependent on the pre-growth treatment of C-SiC substrates. A pre-flow of trimethyaluminum (TMAl) or a very low NH3/TMAl ratio results in Al(Ga)-polarity layers on C-SiC. Otherwise, N-polarity layers resulted. The polarities of AlN and GaN layers were conveniently determined by their etching rate in KOH or H3PO4, a method reported earlier. We suggest that the Al adatoms, which have a high sticking coefficient on SiC, form several Al adlayers on C-SiC and change the incorporation sequence of Ga(Al) and N leading to metal polarity surface. In addition, the hexagonal pyramids, typical on N-polarity GaN surface, are absent on N-polarity GaN on off-axis C-SiC owing to high density of terraces on off-axis C-SiC. The properties of GaN layers grown on C-SiC are studied by X-ray diffraction.
The conduction band offset of n-ZnO/n-6H-SiC heterostructures fabricated by rf-sputtered ZnO on commercial n-type 6H-SiC substrates has been measured. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics, photocapacitance, and deep level transient spectroscopy measurements showed the conduction band offsets to be 1.25 eV, 1.1 eV, and 1.22 eV, respectively.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Tissue scaffolds have recently demonstrated widespread application in injury healing due to their biomimetic properties and their structural resemblance to the extracellular matrix in cell re-growth. The investigation of cell response to biomimetic triggers provided by tissue scaffolds will greatly extend the impact of this field.
In this paper, the response of 3T3 NIH fibroblasts to 2D planar surfaces versus their response to nanofiber mat surfaces, which have 3D effects, are investigated. A difference in cell shape from triangular cell body with prominent vertices to triangular cell body with blunted vertices and increased cell-cell adhesions at such vertices was observed using fluorescent microscopy, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A new and powerful atomic force microscopy technique developed by our group, Scanning Probe Recognition Microscopy, is introduced and implemented to directly recognize and auto-focus on fibroblast vertex regions.