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The dynamics of spreading of a macroscopic liquid droplet over a wetting surface is often described by a power-law relaxation, namely, the droplet radius increases as
, which is known as Tanner’s law. Here we show, by both experiments and theory, that when the liquid spreading takes place between a thin soap film and a glass fibre penetrating the film, the spreading is significantly slowed down. When the film thickness
becomes smaller than the fibre diameter
, the strong hydrodynamic confinement effect of the soap film gives rise to a logarithmic relaxation with fibre creeping time
. Such a slow dynamics of spreading is observed for hours both in the measured time-dependent height of capillary rise
on the fibre surface and viscous friction coefficient
felt by the glass fibre in contact with the soap film. A new theoretical approach based on the Onsager variational principle is developed to describe the dynamics of thin film spreading along a fibre. The newly derived equations of motion provide the analytical solutions of
and contact angle
, which are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Our work thus provides a common framework for understanding the confinement effect of thin soap films on the dynamics of spreading along a fibre.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
Systemic Fe overload can contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism and the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic Fe homeostasis, few studies have systematically evaluated the associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks for the development of T2D. In this regard, whether hepcidin concentrations are associated with T2D remains controversial. We measured serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations in a case–control study of 1259 Han Chinese participants to evaluate the possible associations of serum hepcidin concentrations with Fe metabolism parameters and risks of T2D. Individuals with diabetes (n 555) and control participants (n 704) were recruited and serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations were quantified. Additionally, selected biochemical and anthropometric variables were determined. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations with T2D. A linear regression analysis was used to test for associations between serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations and a number of clinical, demographic and diabetes-associated variables. We found that serum hepcidin concentrations correlated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations. No differences in hepcidin concentrations were found between the group with diabetes and the control group. Hepcidin concentrations were not significantly correlated with T2D risk factors. We also found that serum ferritin concentrations were elevated in individuals with diabetes and were positively correlated with both Hb concentrations and T2D risk factors. The present findings suggest that serum ferritin concentrations correlate with T2D risk factors, while serum hepcidin concentrations are positively associated with Hb and serum ferritin concentrations, but do not correlate with T2D.
The evolution and dynamics of the molecular cores traced by 13CO J = 1 → 0 emission in the Taurus molecular cloud are studied. We performed a systematic examination of the distribution and dynamic state of cores in a large contiguous region, as well as the core ages, which lie between 106 and 107 years. The core velocity dispersion (CVD), which is the variance of the core velocity difference δ v, exhibits a power-law behavior as a function of the apparent separation L, i.e. CVD (km/s) ∝ L (pc)0.7, with similarities to Larson's law for the velocity dispersion of the gas.
In this paper, we reported the rapid synthesis of disklike (ZnSe)2·EN precursor via a simple and convenient polyol method. Annealing the precursor in argon stream at 500 °C resulted in the formation of ZnSe crystals with unique quasi-network structure. The obtained samples were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared absorbance spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis. The influence of PEG200 on the final products in the system was also discussed.
A method of absolutely unfolding the atomic spectrum by a pinhole transmission grating spectrometer (TGS) is discussed in detail. The numerical process considers both the factors of higher-dispersive-order overlapping of TGS and source-size widening effects. Real soft-X-ray spectra of aluminum, copper, and gold plasmas are presented of experiments performed on the Six-Beam Laser Facility at the Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics.
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