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Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
Zha Mingzhe's 1997 production of Sartre's Morts sans sépulture takes bold creative license in the form of retooled dialogues; hard-edged stage design; moody, ironic music; and the brutal acoustic ‘facsimile’ of torture to reimagine the play for Chinese audiences. Zha's production is neither an exuberant celebration of ‘heroism’ as the term is conventionally understood, nor a parable-like play given to ‘philosophizing’ the core tenets of Sartre's existentialism. Rather, it is a full-scale, in-your-face presentation of ‘total heroism’: heroism that is flawed, falling far short of the kind of heroism idealized in the annals or mythologies of the so-called ‘red classics’, but it is heroism nonetheless. It is an interrogation, in the fullest sense of the term, of the ‘essence’ of being tested in the crucible of ferocious tortures, and a ‘cruel’ antidote much needed to shock the numbed nerves of the body politic.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
Seed reserves play vital roles in seed germination and seedling growth and their variation may be related to various environment factors, plant traits and phylogenetic history. Here, the evolutionary correlation associated with seed mass and altitude and carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) allocation of seeds among 253 alpine herbaceous plants was tested. In this study, phylogeny had strong limitations on nutrient allocation of seeds across species, and species from younger phylogenetic groups tended to have higher N and P contents, which might be considered as the evolutionary selection of seed plants. Higher seed N and P content would help seedlings to gain more survival chance and stronger competitive capacity, and their progeny would be more likely to be preserved. When phylogeny was considered, altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content, but the negative effects on seed mass were all expressed. The independent effects of altitude and seed mass suggest that the nutrient allocation of seeds might be affected by both environment and plant traits. In addition, altitude and seed mass displayed partial overlapping effects on nutrient allocation of seeds. The negative effects of seed mass were affected slightly by altitude, whereas altitude only had a significant positive effect on P content when seed mass was controlled. Above all, seed P content showed obvious and general correlations with seed mass, altitude and age of clade, which indicated that higher seed P content might be an adaptive selection of species associated with growth and survival of progeny.
A mixture copula is a linear combination of several individual copulas that can be used to generate dependence structures not belonging to existing copula families. Because different pairs of markets may exhibit quite different dependence structures in empirical studies, mixture copulas are useful in modeling the dependence in financial data. Therefore, rather than selecting a single copula based on certain criteria, we propose using a model averaging approach to estimate financial data dependence structures in a mixture copula framework. We select weights (for averaging) by a J-fold Cross-Validation procedure. We prove that the model averaging estimator is asymptotically optimal in the sense that it minimizes the squared estimation loss. Our simulation results show that the model averaging approach outperforms some competing methods when the working mixture model is misspecified. Using 12 years of data on daily returns from four developed economies’ stock indexes, we show that the model averaging approach more accurately estimates their dependence structures than some competing methods.
Projected changes to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the upcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 may affect the prevalence and severity of identified cases. This study examined differences in rates, severity, and overlap of diagnoses using ICD-10 and ICD-11 PTSD diagnostic criteria during consecutive assessments of recent survivors of traumatic events.
The study sample comprised 3863 survivors of traumatic events, evaluated in 11 longitudinal studies of PTSD. ICD-10 and ICD-11 diagnostic rules were applied to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) to derive ICD-10 and ICD-11 diagnoses at different time intervals between trauma occurrence and 15 months.
The ICD-11 criteria identified fewer cases than the ICD-10 across assessment intervals (range −47.09% to −57.14%). Over 97% of ICD-11 PTSD cases met concurrent ICD-10 PTSD criteria. PTSD symptom severity of individuals identified by the ICD-11 criteria (CAPS total scores) was 31.38–36.49% higher than those identified by ICD-10 criteria alone. The latter, however, had CAPS scores indicative of moderate PTSD. ICD-11 was associated with similar or higher rates of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Individuals identified by either ICD-10 or ICD-11 shortly after traumatic events had similar longitudinal course.
This study indicates that significantly fewer individuals would be diagnosed with PTSD using the proposed ICD-11 criteria. Though ICD-11 criteria identify more severe cases, those meeting ICD-10 but not ICD-11 criteria remain in the moderate range of PTSD symptoms. Use of ICD-11 criteria will have critical implications for case identification in clinical practice, national reporting, and research.
Timing of seedling emergence is a critical aspect of a plant's life cycle, and it may influence the expression of other plant life history traits. However, most studies have been conducted at the population level, and thus little is known about timing of seedling emergence at the community level. In the field, we determined the peak emergence season for seedlings of 144 species collected from a subalpine meadow on the eastern Tibet Plateau in China. The proportion of species with seedlings emerging in autumn, spring and summer, seedling field emergence percentage (FE) and mean emergence time (MET) were analysed in relation to seed mass, life cycle type (annual/biennial and perennial) and phylogeny. The results showed that (1) the proportion of species with seedlings emerging in autumn (33%), spring (44%) and summer (23%) differed significantly; (2) overall, species with seedlings emerging in autumn had higher FE than those emerging during spring/summer; (3) there was a positive relationship between log-seed mass and log-MET, but log-seed mass had no significant effect on log-FE; (4) life cycle type did not affect seedling emergence; and (5) phylogeny significantly explained peak emergence season. These results suggest that seed mass and phylogenetic position are the main determinants of seedling emergence season. However, seedling peak emergence season affected FE, growing season length and resource utilization, and thus may be related to the importance of a species in the community.
Social media has outpaced traditional media to be the most popular sociocultural channel to transmit thin-ideal images, an established trigger for body image concerns and disordered eating in women. With an experimental design, the present research first demonstrated that exposure to thin images on social media threatened women's body image and increased their unhealthy food consumption (Study 1). However, given that thin images posted on social media are usually from wealthier people, the present research hypothesised that it may not be the body shape but the perceived socioeconomic status (SES) of images that indeed have negative effects on women. By manipulating the perceived SES of thin images and incorporating a baseline control group (Study 2), the present research provided causal evidence for the hypothesis by indicating that viewing thin images with parallel-perceived SES could significantly buffer undesirable thin-ideal effects on self-objectification and food intake. Therefore, future research needs to pay more attention to the role of SES in the thin media images literature.
We integrate previous work on the Hegenshan–Heihe suture with our interpretation of geomagnetic anomaly and seismic reflection data to investigate the role of the Hegenshan–Heihe suture in the evolution of late Mesozoic extensional structures in the Wunite depression of the Erlian Basin. Sags in the Wunite depression present as NE50° trending in the western sector, N0°–NE30° trending in the central sector and NE45° trending in the eastern sector. Our results highlight the importance of the pre-existing Hegenshan–Heihe suture in the evolution of the late Mesozoic rift system and reveal the following details. (1) The NE50° extent sags in the western sector are controlled by the c. NE50°-trending suture. Moreover, the extensional deformation of the reactivated suture during Early Cretaceous time resulted in a further vertical and horizontal extension of major border faults. (2) The N0°–NE30° extent sags in the central sector are influenced by the c. NE75°-trending suture. The sinistral strike-slip component of the reactivated suture during Early Cretaceous time resulted in a strike rotation of major border faults from NEE-trending (following the suture) to NNE-trending. (3) Because of strike-slip deformation, which resulted from the deformation of the reactivated suture accrued in major border faults, light dip-slip deformation led to less vertical offset. (4) The NE45°-trending sags in the eastern sector are controlled by the c. NE45°-trending suture. Moreover, the extensional deformation of the reactivated suture during Early Cretaceous time facilitated a further vertical and horizontal prolongation of major border faults.
Background: Patients with arterial perinatal stroke often suffer long-term motor sequelae, difficulties in language, social development, and behaviour as well as epilepsy. Despite homogeneous lesions, long-term behavioural and cognitive outcomes are variable and unpredictable. Sleep-related epileptic encephalopathies can occur after early brain injury and are associated with global developmental delays. We hypothesized that sleep-potentiated epileptiform abnormalities are associated with worse developmental outcomes after perinatal stroke. Methods: Participants were identified from a population-based cohort (Alberta Perinatal Stroke Project). Inclusion criteria were magnetic resonance imaging–confirmed arterial perinatal stroke, age 4 to 18 years, electroencephalogram (EEG) including sleep, and comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Sleep-related EEG abnormalities were categorized by an epileptologist blinded to the cognitive outcome. Associations between EEG classification and neuropsychological outcomes were explored (t tests, Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons). Results:Of 128 potentially eligible participants, 34 (53% female) had complete EEG (mean age, 8.1 years; range, 0.2-16.4) and neuropsychology testing (mean age, 9.8 years; range 4.4-16.7). Twelve (35%) were classified as having electrical status epilepticus in sleep. Patients with abnormal EEGs were more likely to have statistically worse scores when corrected for multiple comparisons, in receptive language (median, 1st percentile; IQR 1-7th percentile; p<0.05), and externalizing behaviours (median, 82nd percentile; IQR, 79-97th percentile; p<0.05). Conclusions: Developmental outcome in language and behaviour in children with arterial perinatal stroke is associated with electrical status epilepticus in sleep. Increased screening with sleep EEG is suggested, whereas further studies are necessary to determine if treatment of EEG abnormalities can improve outcome.
Al1.3CrFeNi eutectic high entropy alloy was designed and prepared by arc-melting to investigate the microstructure and oxidation behaviors at 1000 °C. The XRD pattern shows that this alloy had a double bcc/B2 structure. SEM images indicates that the microstructure of the alloy is composed of two precipitates of [Cr, Fe] solid solution and NiAl intermetallic, which form the typical eutectic structure. To explore the thermal application of Al1.3CrFeNi alloy, the oxidation behavior of Al1.3CrFeNi alloy at 1000 °C was investigated. From XRD and SEM results, it could be concluded that Al2O3 and Cr2O3 were the predominant oxides during the oxidation process. In addition, spinel like FeCr2O4 was also observed in the oxide scale. According to the analysis of oxide precipitates, the whole process of oxides’ formation was discussed and a simplified oxidation dynamic model of Al1.3CrFeNi alloy at 1000 °C was obtained. This could promote the development of thermal applications in multi-component alloys field.
In the present paper, 10 vol%TiC/Ti–6Al–3Sn–3.5Zr–0.4Mo–0.75Nb–0.35Si composite produced via in situ casting technique was tested in the temperature range from room temperature to 900 °C and much attention was paid on the microstructural evolution during high-temperature tensile test. It was found that the variation of microstructures in deformation zones with strain exhibited different trends at different temperatures. Below 600 °C, dislocation density increased with strain over the entire strain range. As temperature increased to 700 °C, dislocations proliferated rapidly in the initial deformation and then dislocation annihilated through dynamic recovery. Above 800 °C, the variation of microstructures in deformation zones with strain was similar to that at 700 °C at the beginning but at higher strain, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred, leading to the formation of equiaxed microstructure. Microstructural evolution in deformation zones corresponded to the variation of tensile stress–strain characteristics with temperature, reflecting the hardening or softening feature of matrix. Dynamic recovery ascribed to the flow softening of the composite at 700 °C, while flow softening is owing to dynamic recovery and DRX above 800 °C. In addition, matrix softening should show different trends in different temperature ranges.
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) has recently caused multiple outbreaks. This study examined polymorphisms in CD46 to determine their involvement in HAdV-55 infection.
A total of 214 study subjects infected with HAdV-55 were included in our study. The study subjects were divided into those with silent infections (n=91), minor infections (n=85), and severe infections (n=38). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CD46 were examined.
Compared with the AA genotype, the TT genotype at rs2724385 (CD46, A/T) was associated with a protective effect against disease occurrence, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.20 (0.04-0.97) (P=0.038). There were no significant differences between the patients with minor and severe infection and those who had silent HAdV-55 infection in the other CD46 SNPs. We next compared the polymorphisms of these genes according to disease severity in HAdV-55-infected patients with clinical symptoms. The results showed that there were no significant differences between minor infections and severe infections.
Our results suggested that the CD46 SNP at rs2724385 is associated with the occurrence of disease in HAdV-55-infected patients. A much larger number of samples is required to understand the role of CD46 polymorphisms in the occurrence and progression of infection by HAdV-55. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:427–430)
Novel mixed micelle was successfully fabricated by the synergistic self-assembly of poly(methacrylate isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-co-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-oligo(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) (P(methacrylate isobutyl (MAPOSS)-co-NIPAM-co-OEGMA-co-AA)) and poly(methacrylate isobutyl POSS-co-N-isopropylacrylamide-co-oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate-co-2-vinylpyridine) (P(MAPOSS-co-NIPAM-co-OEGMA-co-2VP)). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy characterizations demonstrate that the formation of mixed micelles is driven by electrostatic interaction. The formation of the mixed micelles was further implied by a simple fluorescence resonance energy transfer based technique. The mixed micelle possesses the biggest size at pH = 7.0, which is attributed to the strongest electrostatic interaction between the two kinds of micelles. The zeta potential under different pH was detected to further investigate the surface charges corroborating the discussions. DLS and UV-vis indicate that the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is pH dependent. The mixed micelles reach the highest LCST at pH 7.0. The LCST of the mixed micelle can be tuned by adjusting the volume ratio of the two kinds of micelles as well. Moreover, the thermo-responsive behavior of the mixed micelle is absolutely reversible.
To determine dynamic changes in clinical characteristics by examining an outbreak of adenovirus infection that occurred from December 20, 2012, to February 25, 2013, in Tianjin, China.
Active surveillance for febrile respiratory illnesses was conducted, and medical records of patients were collected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used for pathogen identification and viral genome study, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare the mean values of normally distributed continuous variables. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used if continuous variables were not normally distributed. Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was used to compare categorical variables.
The outbreak was sourced from the index case diagnosed as the common cold on December 20, 2012; a total of 856 cases were reported in the following 66 days. The pathogen was identified as human adenovirus (HAdV) 55. The symptoms manifested differently in severe and mild cases. Routine blood examinations, liver function indexes, and heart function indexes showed different dynamic patterns over time in hospitalized patients.
Clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations may reveal unique patterns over the course of HAdV-55 infection. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:464–469)
Chitosan (CS) is currently used as a hemostatic agent in emergencies and in military settings. However, its application is limited owing to its poor hydrophilia at neutral pH. Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) is an important, water-soluble derivative of CS. In this study, we prepared CS and CMCS microspheres (CSMs and CMCSMs, respectively) and evaluated their hemostatic effect.
To prepare the microspheres of various sizes, we used the emulsion cross-linking technique. CMCSMs were also loaded with etamsylate (DIC). Clotting time in vitro and in a hepatic injury model was examined to evaluate the hemostatic effect.
CMCSMs swelled more and clotted faster than did CSMs. CMCSMs loaded with DIC had no effect on hemostasis.
Both increasing material hydrophilicity and expanding the contact area promoted clotting, whereas chemical cross-linking hampered it because of decreased swelling. CMCSMs are promising candidates for the production of effective hemostatic agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:660–667)
The effects of earthquakes on ischemic heart disease (IHD) have often been reported. At a population level, this study examined short-term (60-day) and long-term (5-year) hospitalization events for IHD after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.
We examined the 10-year medical hospitalization records on IHD in the city of Deyang provided by the Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance program.
Evaluation of 19,083 hospitalizations showed a significantly lower proportional number and cost of hospitalizations in the 60 days after the earthquake (P<0.001). Hospitalizations were 27.81% lower than would have been expected in a normal year; costs were 32.53% lower. However, in the 5 years after the earthquake, the age-adjusted annual incidence of hospitalization increased significantly (P<0.001). In the fifth year after the earthquake, it was significantly higher in the extremely hard-hit area than in the hard-hit area (P<0.01).
After the 2008 earthquake, short- and long-term patterns of hospitalization for IHD changed greatly, but in different ways. Our findings suggest that medical resources for IHD should be distributed dynamically over time after an earthquake. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:203–210)
Evidence suggests a role of Mg and the ratio of Ca:Mg intakes in the prevention of colonic carcinogenesis. The association between these nutrients and oesophageal adenocarcinoma – a tumour with increasing incidence in developed countries and poor survival rates – has yet to be explored. The aim of this investigation was to explore the association between Mg intake and related nutrients and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions, Barrett’s oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis. This analysis included cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (n 218), Barrett’s oesophagus (n 212), reflux oesophagitis (n 208) and population-based controls (n 252) recruited between 2002 and 2005 throughout the island of Ireland. All the subjects completed a 101-item FFQ. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to determine odds of disease according to dietary intakes of Mg, Ca and Ca:Mg ratio. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals consuming the highest amounts of Mg from foods had significant reductions in the odds of reflux oesophagitis (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·87) and Barrett’s oesophagus (OR 0·29; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·71) compared with individuals consuming the lowest amounts of Mg. The protective effect of Mg was more apparent in the context of a low Ca:Mg intake ratio. No significant associations were observed for Mg intake and oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·30, 1·99 comparing the highest and the lowest tertiles of consumption). In conclusion, dietary Mg intakes were inversely associated with reflux oesophagitis and Barrett’s oesophagus risk in this Irish population.
Japanese brome is a winter annual weed commonly found in wheat fields in China. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the effect of temperature, light, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress, and burial depth on the germination and emergence of Japanese brome. Germination was greater than 98% under a wide temperature range of 5 to 30 C and onset of germination was shortened as temperature increased. Light was not required for germination to occur and pH values from 5 to 10 had insignificant effect on germination. Germination was reduced by osmotic stress or salt stress and no germination occurred at −1.3 MPa or 360 mM, suggesting that Japanese brome seed was quite tolerant to osmotic potential and salinity. Seedling emergence was greatest (98%) when seeds were placed on the soil surface but decreased with increasing of burial depth. Only 7% of seedlings emerged at a depth of 5 cm. The results of this study have contributed to our understanding of the germination and emergence of Japanese brome and should enhance our ability to develop better control strategies in wheat farming systems of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China.
Faultline configurations in top management teams are of vital importance in predicting firm outcomes. Grounded in faultline theory, we hypothesise the positive effects of faultlines through the dual routes of coordination and information processing under conditions of various subgroup configuration types. Second-hand data from publicly traded Chinese information technology firms are used to test our hypotheses. The results demonstrate that TMT faultline strength is positively related to a firm’s short-term performance only when both the number and the balance of subgroups are high and is positively related to a firm’s innovation activities only when the number of subgroups is high and the balance of subgroups is low. This study contributes to faultline theory by enriching the connotation of faultlines with the configurational perspective and advancing the debate on the effects of team faultlines as we reveal the benefits of TMT faultlines.