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This study assesses the difference in professional attitudes among medical students, both before and after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and identifies the determinants closely associated with it, while providing precise and scientific evidence for implementing precision education on such professional attitudes.
A pre-post-like study was conducted among medical students in 31 provinces in mainland China, from March 23, to April 19, 2021.
The proportion of medical students whose professional attitudes were disturbed after the COVID-19 pandemic, was significantly lower than before the COVID-19 pandemic (χ2 = 15.6216; P < 0.0001). Compared with the “undisturbed -undisturbed” group, the “undisturbed-disturbed” group showed that there was a 1.664-fold risk of professional attitudes disturbed as grade increased, 3.269-fold risk when others suggested they choose a medical career rather than their own desire, and 7.557-fold risk for students with COVID-19 in their family, relatives, or friends; while the “disturbed-undisturbed” group showed that students with internship experience for professional attitudes strengthened was 2.933-fold than those without internship experience.
The professional attitudes of medical students have been strengthened during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results provide evidence of the importance of education on professional attitudes among medical students during public health emergencies.
Our previous studies have suggested that spastin, which aggregates on spindle microtubules in oocytes, may promote the assembly of mouse oocyte spindles by cutting microtubules. This action may be related to CRMP5, as knocking down CRMP5 results in reduced spindle microtubule density and maturation defects in oocytes. In this study, we found that, after knocking down CRMP5 in oocytes, spastin distribution shifted from the spindle to the spindle poles and errors in microtubule–kinetochore attachment appeared in oocyte spindles. However, CRMP5 did not interact with the other two microtubule-severing proteins, katanin-like-1 (KATNAL1) and fidgetin-like-1 (FIGNL1), which aggregate at the spindle poles. We speculate that, in oocytes, due to the reduction of spastin distribution on chromosomes after knocking down CRMP5, microtubule–kinetochore errors cannot be corrected through severing, resulting in meiotic division abnormalities and maturation defects in oocytes. This finding provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of spastin in oocytes and important opportunities for the study of meiotic division mechanisms.
Anxiety disorder is one of the common mental health problems in college students, which hurts their study, work, and life. Comprehensive psychological crisis intervention is a complete psychological treatment method expected to be essential in treating anxiety disorders in college students.
Subjects and Methods
One hundred college students with anxiety disorder were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group received comprehensive psychological crisis intervention treatment and comprehensive intervention measures such as psychological assistance, cognitive behavioral therapy, and intimate relationship training. The control group received traditional psychotherapy, including counseling and medication. The Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and other assessment tools were used to carry out psychological measurements of the two groups of patients before, after, and at the follow-up point, respectively. The collected information was statistically analyzed by SPSS23.0 software.
After the comprehensive psychological crisis intervention treatment, the anxiety and depression levels of the experimental group were significantly reduced (P<0.001), and life satisfaction was significantly increased (P<0.001). Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed obvious advantages in curative effect.
Comprehensive psychological crisis intervention has shown remarkable efficacy in college students with anxiety disorders, can effectively reduce anxiety and depression, and improves the life satisfaction of patients. This approach may become an essential option for treating anxiety disorders in college students.
2021 Humanities and Social Sciences Research Project for Basic Research Business Expenses of Provincial Undergraduate Universities in Heilongjiang Province. No. 2021- kyywf-0384.
While previous research has identified the performance implications of leaders’ positive implicit followership theories (IFTs, i.e., personal expectations regarding followers’ positive characteristics), this study focuses on the effect of leader–follower congruence in positive IFTs on followers’ job performance. To test our predictions, we conducted two complementary studies. The results of Study 1 (an experiment, N = 200) show that leader–follower congruence (versus incongruence) in positive IFTs is positively related to followers’ relational identification with the leader, which, in turn, is positively related to followers’ job performance. Moreover, followers’ uncertainty avoidance strengthens this relationship. These findings were replicated in Study 2 (a three-wave survey, N = 223) through polynomial regression and response surface analysis. This study improves our understanding of IFTs by showing that leader–follower congruence in this domain is related to followers’ outcomes.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a classic disorder on the compulsivity spectrum, with diverse comorbidities. In the current study, we sought to understand OCD from a dimensional perspective by identifying multimodal neuroimaging patterns correlated with multiple phenotypic characteristics within the striatum-based circuits known to be affected by OCD.
Neuroimaging measurements of local functional and structural features and clinical information were collected from 110 subjects, including 51 patients with OCD and 59 healthy control subjects. Linked independent component analysis (LICA) and correlation analysis were applied to identify associations between local neuroimaging patterns across modalities (including gray matter volume, white matter integrity, and spontaneous functional activity) and clinical factors.
LICA identified eight multimodal neuroimaging patterns related to phenotypic variations, including three related to symptoms and diagnosis. One imaging pattern (IC9) that included both the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation measure of spontaneous functional activity and white matter integrity measures correlated negatively with OCD diagnosis and diagnostic scales. Two imaging patterns (IC10 and IC27) correlated with compulsion symptoms: IC10 included primarily anatomical measures and IC27 included primarily functional measures. In addition, we identified imaging patterns associated with age, gender, and emotional expression across subjects.
We established that data fusion techniques can identify local multimodal neuroimaging patterns associated with OCD phenotypes. The results inform our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of compulsive behaviors and OCD diagnosis.
Flexible cables in cable-driven parallel robots (CDPRs) are easy to be excited and vibrate. Cable vibration will react on the end-effector, causing attitude deviation of the end-effector. The main objective of this study is to accurately model axially moving flexible cables and characterize the dynamic behaviors of associated compliant CDPRs. Firstly, a model for transverse vibration of the axially moving length-variable cable is developed. On this basis, an original nonlinear dynamic model of the CDPRs able to capture the vibration of the cables and the dynamics of the end-effector is proposed. Secondly, the frequency–amplitude relationship of the CDPR is obtained. Moreover, the significance of the excitation effect caused by the axially moving length-variable cables is demonstrated, by comparing the results with and without excitation effect at different frequencies. It turns out that, as the oscillation frequency of the end-effector increases, the end-effector and cables exhibit the dynamics process from steady state to unstable large-amplitude vibration and finally to stable small-amplitude vibration. This indicates that the dynamics of the CDPR exhibit non-linear characteristics, due to the influence of flexible cables. Finally, the proposed dynamic model of compliant CDPRs is validated by experiments performed in the laboratory.
Compared with nitrogen and argon, helium is lighter and can better reduce the beam loss caused by angular scattering during beam transmission. The molecular dissociation cross-section in helium is high and stable at low energies, which makes helium the prevalent stripping gas in low-energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To study the stripping behavior of 14C ions in helium at low energies, the charge state distributions of carbon ion beams with −1, +1, +2, +3, and +4 charge states were measured at energies of 70–220 keV with a compact 14C-AMS at Guangxi Normal University (GXNU). The experimental data were used to analyze the stripping characteristics of C-He in the energy range of 70–220 keV, and new charge state yields and exchange cross-sections in C-He were obtained at energies of 70–220 keV.
Bio-inspired design (BID) involves generating innovative ideas for engineering design by drawing inspiration from natural biological phenomena and systems, using a form of design-by-analogy. Despite its many successes, BID approaches encounter research challenges including unstructured data and existing models that hinder comprehension and processing, limited focus on finding biological knowledge compared to defined problems, and insufficient guidance of the ideation process with algorithms. This paper proposes a knowledge-based approach to address the challenges. The approach involves transforming unstructured data into structured knowledge, including information about natural sources, their benefits, and applications. The structured knowledge is then used to construct a semantic network, enabling designers to retrieve information for BID in two ways. Furthermore, a three-step ideation method is developed to encourage divergent thinking and explore additional potential solutions by drawing inspiration and utilizing knowledge. The knowledge-based BID approach is implemented as a tool and design cases are conducted to illustrate the process of applying this tool for BID.
A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) developed for radiocarbon and tritium measurements was installed and commissioned at Guangxi Normal University in 2017. After several years of operational and methodological upgrades, its performance has been continuously improved and applied in multidisciplinary fields. Currently, the measurement sensitivity for radiocarbon and tritium is 14C/12C ∼ (3.14 ± 0.05) ×10–15 and 3H/1H ∼ (1.23 ± 0.17)×10–16, respectively, and the measurement accuracy is ∼0.6%, which can meet the measurement requirements in the nuclear, earth, environmental and life science fields. This study presents the performance characteristics of GXNU-AMS and several interesting application studies.
Programmable active matter (PAM) combines information processing and energy transduction. The physical embodiment of information could be the direction of magnetic spins, a sequence of molecules, the concentrations of ions, or the shape of materials. Energy transduction involves the transformation of chemical, magnetic, or electrical energies into mechanical energy. A major class of PAM consists of material systems with many interacting units. These units could be molecules, colloids, microorganisms, droplets, or robots. Because the interaction among units determines the properties and functions of PAMs, the programmability of PAMs is largely due to the programmable interactions. Here, we review PAMs across scales, from supramolecular systems to macroscopic robotic swarms. We focus on the interactions at different scales and describe how these (often local) interactions give rise to global properties and functions. The research on PAMs will contribute to the pursuit of generalised crystallography and the study of complexity and emergence. Finally, we ponder on the opportunities and challenges in using PAM to build a soft-matter brain.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
In recent years, children’s travel behaviour, including active school transport (AST, such as walking and cycling), has attracted researchers from varying disciplines, such as urban planning, transportation and public health. Previous studies have shown that those who often walk or cycle to and from school are much more active than those who are driven and have more knowledge regarding their neighborhood environment (Mackett 2013). Research has also reported that AST plays a vital role in promoting children’s physical activity and can prevent and reduce childhood obesity (Mendoza et al. 2011). Furthermore, AST can contribute to children’s physical activity levels and positively impact children’s mental and psychological health (Fusco et al. 2012). In addition, it was estimated that as much as 10–14% of morning traffic is generated by parents driving their children to schools (McDonald et al. 2011). Similar trends have been documented in developing countries. It is also found that the traffic congestion indices of two weeks before and after school in Beijing can rise from 3–6 to 6–9 points (above six means moderate or severe congestion). And the capacity of the three-lane road around the school will drop 38% under the influence of student shuttle vehicle trips (Shi et al. 2014).
The problem caused by this traffic congestion on the roads near schools may create hazardous conditions for children traveling by non-motorized means and increase tail gas of automobiles that will contaminate the air that children breathe in and around their school. Despite AST’s significant health and environmental implications, AST has declined over the past few decades internationally (Buliung et al. 2011; Witten et al. 2013). For example, in the United States, the rate of AST declined from 47.7% in 1969 to 12.7% in 2009 (McDonald et al. 2011), and the share of children aged 5–9 who walked to school has decreased from 57.7% in 1971 to 25.5% in 2003 in Australia (Van der Ploeg et al. 2008).
The surface wave instability (SWI) of thermocapillary migration is examined by linear stability analysis for a droplet on a unidirectional heated plane. Both a Newtonian fluid and an Oldroyd-B fluid are considered. The droplet, flattened by gravity, is susceptible to two kinds of instabilities: convective instability (CI), which is independent of surface deformation; and SWI, which occurs only when the Galileo number and the surface-tension number are not too large. The wavenumber of the latter is much smaller than that of the former, while the reverse is true for the wave speed. SWI is found at different Prandtl numbers (Pr), while its mode includes streamwise and oblique waves. Energy analysis suggests that the energy of the long-wave mode comes from the shear stress induced by the surface deformation, the energy source for the mode with finite wavelength is the work done by Marangoni forces, while the energy from the basic flow is only important in some cases at small Pr. For the Oldroyd-B fluid, a small elasticity slightly changes the critical Marangoni number of SWI, while larger elasticity changes the preferred mode from SWI to CI. The instability mechanism is discussed and comparisons are made with experimental results.
Fat deposition and lipid metabolism are closely related to the morphology, structure and function of mitochondria. The morphology of mitochondria between fusion and fission processes is mainly regulated by protein posttranslational modification. Intermittent fasting (IF) promotes high expression of Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and induces mitochondrial fusion in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the mechanism by which Sirt3 participates in mitochondrial protein acetylation during IF to regulate mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics remains unclear. This article demonstrates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function in HFD mouse inguinal white adipose tissue. Proteomic sequencing revealed that IF increased protein deacetylation levels in HFD mice and significantly increased Sirt3 mRNA and protein expression. After transfecting with Sirt3 overexpression or interference vectors into adipocytes, we found that Sirt3 promoted adipocyte mitochondrial fusion and improved mitochondrial function. Furthermore, Sirt3 regulates the JNK-FIS1 pathway by deacetylating malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) to promote mitochondrial fusion. In summary, our study indicates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function by upregulating the high expression of Sirt3 in HFD mice, promoting deacetylation of MDH2 and inhibiting the JNK-FIS1 pathway. This research provides theoretical support for studies related to energy limitation and animal lipid metabolism.
In 2016, an outbreak of paratyphoid fever occurred in 40 cases at Qingyang town, in China. A case-control study was carried out to determine the source of this outbreak. Case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors of this outbreak. The cases were identified as patients with isolation of S. Paratyphi, controls were confirmed cases’ healthy classmates, colleagues or neighbors and matched by age (±5 y) and gender. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to source tracking. Totally, 40 cases were reported: 24 cases were students, and 20 (20/24) of them were Qingyang High School students. For the case-control study, consuming Chinese egg pancakes was detected as a risk factor (OR1:1 = 5.000; 95% CI: 1.710-14.640), and hand-washing before meals was protective behavior compared with seldom hand-washing (OR1:1 = 23.256; 95% CI: 2.451-200.000). S. Paratyphi was cultured from a well water sample used for washing contents of the pancakes. Isolates from well water and paratyphoid cases showed the same PFGE patterns. Contaminated well water and Chinese egg pancakes were likely source and vehicle of this outbreak. Health education, especially handwashing, and food safety supervision should be promoted particularly in schools.
The carbonate-hosted Pb–Zn deposits in the Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou (SYG) triangle region are important Indosinian deposits in South China. The Tianbaoshan deposit is a typical large Pb–Zn deposit in the SYG area and occurs as pipe-like type, hosted by Sinian dolostone. It contains ∼26 Mt Zn–Pb ore (7.76–10.09 % Zn, 1.28–1.50 % Pb and 93.6 g t−1 Ag) and >0.1 Mt Cu ore (2.55 % Cu). In this study, the detailed mineral textures, mineral chemical and sulphur isotopic compositions of the various sulphides have been analysed to constrain the abnormal enrichment mechanism and mineralization relationship. Four mineralization stages have been recognized: Stage 1, minor early pyrite (Py1) with relics and infill of intergranular dolomite or quartz grains; Stage 2, Cu mineralization with coarse-grained, elliptical crystal chalcopyrite (Cp1); (3) Stage 3, Zn mineralization with dark fine-grained sphalerite (Sph1) and light coarse-grained sphalerite (Sph2); and (4) Stage 4, as represented by a quartz–calcite assemblage with galena, minor pyrite (Py2) and chalcopyrite (Cp2). The petrography of the sulphide minerals (Py1, Cp1, Sph1 and Sph2) demonstrates a mutual inclusion relationship. The nature of this relationship from core to rim and their similar sulphur isotope values (5.5–8.3 ‰) indicates a single sulphur source, suggesting that the different mineralization types are the result of different stages of a continuous hydrothermal system. Sphalerite geothermometer study suggests that sphalerite in the Tianbaoshan deposit formed in a low-temperature (<200 °C) hydrothermal system. The low concentrations of Mn and In, low In/Ge ratios and high Fe/Cd ratios in the sphalerite are consistent with those of Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, but different from those of magmatism-related deposits (e.g. epithermal, skarn and VMS deposits). The positive δ34S values for Py1 (5.1–7.9 ‰), Cp1 (5.1–7.2 ‰), Sph1 (4.7–7.4 ‰), Sph2 (3.9–8.7 ‰), Py2 (4.4–9.3 ‰) and Cp2 (5.0–6.8 ‰) indicate a sulphur source from thermochemical reduction of coeval seawater sulphate. Widely developed dissolved textures (caverns and breccias) with massive sulphide infillings and deformed host rock remnants suggest that replacement of host dolostones by ore fluids was volumetrically significant and the ore formed nearly simultaneously with the cavities. The Tianbaoshan deposit is a typical MVT deposit, which resulted from mixing of a H2S-rich fluid and a metal-rich fluid, with thermochemical sulphate reduction occurring before ore precipitation rather than during ore precipitation.
Adherence to healthy lifestyles can be beneficial for depression among adults, but the intergenerational impact of maternal healthy lifestyles on offspring depressive symptoms is unknown.
In total, 10 368 mothers in Nurses' Health Study II and 13 478 offspring in the Growing Up Today Study were paired. Maternal and offspring healthy lifestyles were defined as a composite score including a healthy diet, normal body mass index (BMI), never-smoking, light-to-moderate consumption of alcohol, and regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Maternal lifestyles were assessed during their offspring's childhood. Offspring depressive symptoms were repeatedly assessed five times using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10 (CESD-10); the offspring were between the ages of 14 and 30 when the first CESD-10 was assessed. Covariates included maternal variables (age at baseline, race/ethnicity, antidepressant use, pregnancy complications, etc.) and offspring age and sex.
Children of mothers with the healthiest lifestyle had significantly fewer depressive symptoms (a 0.30 lower CESD-10 score, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09–0.50) in comparison with children of mothers with the least healthy lifestyle. The association was only found significant in female offspring but not in males. For individual maternal lifestyle factors, a normal BMI, never-smoking, and adherence to regular physical activity were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms among the offspring. The association between maternal healthy lifestyles and offspring depressive symptoms was mediated by offspring's healthy lifestyles (mediation effect: 53.2%, 95% CI 15.8–87.3).
Our finding indicates the potential mechanism of intergenerational transmission of healthy lifestyles to reduce the risk of depressive symptoms in offspring.
This study aimed to analyze the clinical effects of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) surgery combined with an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) regimen in the treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) patients with different etiologies. In total, 128 NOA patients participated in this study, in which they received infertility treatment by micro-TESE surgery combined with an ICSI regimen, and all patients were divided into three groups [the Klinefelter syndrome (KS), the idiopathic and the secondary NOA groups]. In addition, the sperm retrieval rate (SRR), fertilization rate, embryo development status and clinical treatment effects were analyzed. Among the 128 NOA patients, the SRR of KS NOA patients was 48.65%, those of idiopathic and the secondary patients were 33.82% and 73.91%, respectively. Regardless of etiologies, there was no correlation with age, hormone value or testicular volume. Further analysis showed that the SRR of the KS group was positively related with testosterone (T) values, and the SRR of the secondary group had a positive relationship with follicle-stimulating hormone or luteinizing hormone values. In the subsequent clinical treatment, the retrieved sperm was subjected to ICSI and achieved good treatment effects, especially in the secondary group, and the implantation rate (55.56%) and clinical pregnancy rate (68.42%) were both higher than those of the idiopathic group (28.75% and 40.00%) and KS group (22.05% and 30.77%). Micro-TESE surgery combined with ICSI insemination is the most effective treatment regimen for NOA patients. The SRR of NOA patients with different etiologies are related to certain specific factors, and micro-TESE surgery seems to be the ideal and only way to have biological children.
Numerous studies of resting-state functional imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) have revealed differences in specific brain regions of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but the results have been inconsistent.
A whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analysis was conducted on resting-state functional imaging and VBM studies that compared differences between patients with BD and healthy controls using Seed-based d Mapping with Permutation of Subject Images software.
A systematic literature search identified 51 functional imaging studies (1842 BD and 2190 controls) and 83 VBM studies (2790 BD and 3690 controls). Overall, patients with BD displayed increased resting-state functional activity in the left middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) extending to the right insula, right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral striatum, as well as decreased resting-state functional activity in the left middle temporal gyrus extending to the left superior temporal gyrus and post-central gyrus, left cerebellum, and bilateral precuneus. The meta-analysis of VBM showed that patients with BD displayed decreased VBM in the right IFG extending to the right insula, temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus extending to the left insula, temporal pole, and IFG, anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex), left thalamus, and right fusiform gyrus.
The multimodal meta-analyses suggested that BD showed similar patterns of aberrant brain activity and structure in the insula extending to the temporal cortex, fronto-striatal-thalamic, and default-mode network regions, which provide useful insights for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of BD.
Copy number variation (CNV) is a very common type of gene variation with high frequency. In recent years, CNV has been paid more attention in various fields, especially in livestock and poultry breeding, which has promoted the progress of breeding. WW domain binding protein 1-like (WBP1L) is a protein coding gene, which plays an important role in cattle populations, and its function has been extensively studied, but it is not clear whether the copy number of the gene can affect the growth and development of cattle populations. In this study, CNV of WBP1L gene was detected in 732 cattle of seven breeds (Qinchuan cattle, QC; Pinan cattle, PN; Yuengling cattle, YL; Xianan cattle, XN; Jiaxian cattle, JX; natural Guyuan cattle, NGY; Jian cattle, JA). In addition, the relationship between CNV and growth phenotype of cattle was studied. The experimental data indicate that the copy number of WBP1L was obviously correlated with heart girth of PN cattle (**P < 0.01), rump length (RL) and body weight (BW) of PN cattle (*P < 0.05), withers height (WH), RL, body length, chest depth and BW of JX cattle (*P < 0.05), WH of NGY cattle (*P < 0.05) and WH of JA cattle (*P < 0.05). It was proved that CNV of WBP1L gene could be used as molecular marker locus for genetic breeding of the above four cattle breeds.