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In the present study, the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of Oesophagostomum asperum and O. columbianum were amplified and sequenced. The ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences of O. asperum were 374 bp, 153 bp and 259 bp in length, respectively, and the corresponding sequences of O. columbianum were 259, 153 and 218 bp in length, respectively. Sequence differences in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 rDNA between the two Oesophagostomum species were 9.5–10.2% and 12.7–13.9%, respectively. Sequence differences in the ITS-1 and ITS-2 rDNA among members of the genus Oesophagostomum were 2.5–11.6% and 6.8–22.3%, respectively. Based on genetic markers in the ITS rDNA, an effective polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was developed to differentiate O. columbianum from O. asperum with a sensitivity of 0.2 ng/μl DNA. Since accurate characterization of parasites at different taxonomic levels is essential for population genetic studies and control of parasitosis, the present findings have important implications for studying epidemiology, taxonomy and population biology, as well as for the control of oesophagostomiasis.
Commensurate BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices were grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy on four different substrates: TiO2-terminated (001) SrTiO3, (101) DyScO3, (101) GdScO3, and (101) SmScO3. With the aid of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), precise single-monolayer doses of BaO, SrO, and TiO2 were deposited sequentially to create commensurate BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with a variety of periodicities. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements exhibit clear superlattice peaks at the expected positions. The rocking curve full width half-maximum of the superlattices was as narrow as 7 arc s (0.002°). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals nearly atomically abrupt interfaces. Temperature-dependent ultraviolet Raman and XRD were used to reveal the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric transition temperature (TC). Our results demonstrate the importance of finite size and strain effects on the TC of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices. In addition to probing finite size and strain effects, these heterostructures may be relevant for novel phonon devices, including mirrors, filters, and cavities for coherent phonon generation and control.
We conducted a comparative study of microstructural properties for YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) films on single-crystal MgO and polycrystalline Ni-based metal substrates with ion-beam-assisted deposited (IBAD) MgO as a template. The film grown on the metal substrate shows more crystalline imperfections with density of screw dislocations four times higher than that of the film on single-crystal MgO, as revealed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). These high-density screw dislocation cores connect well and form bigger clustered grains as detected by scanning tunneling microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm that the structural quality of YBCO on the Ni-based alloy is comparable to that on single-crystal MgO. All these factors contribute to our routine fabrication of high-quality YBCO films on metal substrates with critical current densities in self-field as high as those for the films grown on single-crystal MgO substrates. Superconducting properties in fields are also discussed.
A thin layer of SrTiO3 (STO) has successfully been used as a buffer layer to grow high-quality superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ(YBCO) thick films on polycrystalline metal substrates with a biaxially oriented MgO template produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition. Using this architecture, 1.5-μm-thick YBCO films with an in-plane mosaic spread in the range of 2.5° to 3.5° in full width at half-maximum and critical current density over 2 × 10 6A/cm2 in self-field at 75 K have routinely been achieved. It is interesting to note that the pulsed laser deposition growth conditions of SrTiO3 buffer layers, such as growth temperature and oxygen pressure, have strong effects on the superconducting properties of YBCO. Detailed studies using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to explore the microstructures of STO deposited at different conditions and to understand further their effects on the growth and properties of YBCO films.
ZnCdO thin films were deposited on (001) sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Modulation of the energy band gap of ZnCdO was induced by changing the processing parameters. The optical energy band gap of ZnCdO thin films, measured by photoluminescence and transmittance, changed from 3.289 eV to 3.311 eV due to the variation of annealing temperatures. The change of the optical properties was attributed to the change of the stoichiometry of ZnxCd1-xO as illustrated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy.
Y2O3 is a super refractory oxide with high thermal stability and finds various applications in optics and microelectronic devices. Recently, Eu-activated Y2O3 films attracted much research interest due to its promising applications in flat panel field emission displays. Epitaxial Y2O3:Eu thin films have been grown on LaA1O3(LAO). in this paper we report a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of Y2O3 nano tip-structure grown on LAO by pulsed laser deposition using stoichiometric YBa2Cu3O7-σ.a target under a low oxygen pressure. The experimental work was conducted within a JEOL2010F TEM equipped with an ED AX system.
Fig.l is a low magnification cross-section TEM image of the nano-tip structure grown on (001) LAO. The lattice parameters of the tips were calculated to be that of Y2O3 by using LAO as a standard for indexing the diffraction patterns. Nano electron beam diffraction patterns from the tips along  and  axis are shown in Fig.2a and Fig.2b, respectively, in agreement with the simulated ones using bulk Y2O3 structure.
Two conducting oxides, La0.5Sr0.5CoO3(LSCO) and SrRuO3, were deposited by pulsed laser ablation onto silicon substrates coated with biaxially textured MgO on an amorphous silicon nitride isolation layer. Comparison is made between templates using just 10 nm of ion-beam assisted deposited (IBAD) MgO and substrates with an additional 100 nm of homoepitaxial MgO. Both of these conducting oxide layers exhibited in-plane and out-of-plane texture, on the order of that obtained by the underlying MgO. The SrRuO3 was c-axis oriented on both substrates, but exhibited a slightly sharper out-of- plane texture when the homoepitaxial MgO layer was included. On the other hand, the LSCO showed only (100) orientation when deposited directly on the IBAD-MgO templates, whereas a significant (110) peak was observed for films on the homoepitaxial MgO. A simple calculation of the distribution of grain boundary angles, assuming a normal distribution of grains, is also presented.
Studies of defects, such as grain boundaries, in high temperature superconductors (HTS) are important due to the interaction of the defects with flux-bearing vortices. The benefit of in-plane grain alignment has been documented in YBCO thin film bicrystals, in which the high critical current density (Jc) observed across small angle grain boundaries deteriorates exponentially with grain boundary angles beyond ∼ 7°. In addition to the weak coupling effect, a grain boundary may also influence the transport properties via the grain boundary dislocations (GBDs) serving as pinning centers to increase the critical current density. There have been a number of studies on grain boundary structures in YBCO. Despite many differences in structure among the different types of boundaries, it has been established that the low angle  tilt boundary in YBCO consists of aperiodic array of edge type GBDs with  type Burgers vector that accommodate the lattice mismatch, and the regions between the GBDs are channels of relatively undisturbed lattices .
The low frequency dielectric properties of epitaxial SrTiO3 thin films deposited on LaAlO3 are presented. The films were deposited using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from stoichiometric targets in an Ar/O2 atmosphere. For the first time, the effects of in situ ozone annealing during the early stages of deposition were explored. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the ozone treatment resulted in more symmetric and sharper diffraction peaks (2 Θ- FWHM decreased from 0.17° to 0.10°). In addition, the peaks for the ozone treated samples were shifted in 2 Θ towards values approaching the bulk value. Rutherford backscattering measurements showed Sr/Ti ratios of 1:1 for these samples, indicating these peak shifts are not due to compositional variations. The dielectric constant of the ozone treated samples increased from 275 at room temperature to 1175 at 22 K (measured at 100 kHz). The effective loss tangent of the device remained between 1 × 10−4 and 1 × 10−3 down to 100 K, where it began to increase. The tunability was also measured. The ozone treated sample showed tunability of 46%, 43% and 38% at 22 K, 40 K and 60 K, respectively. Finally, similar measurements were completed at 1 MHz, indicating a minimal dependence of these properties on frequencies in this range.
We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate (STO), and thin-film barium strontium titanate (BSTO). We have implemented low-frequency capacitance (100 Hz - 1 MHz), swept-frequency transmittance (45 MHz - 4 GHz), and time-domain transmittance (dc - several GHz) measurements to determine effective refractive index (or, dielectric constant), and dissipation factor (or, loss tangent) as a function of dc bias (up to 4×106 V/m) and temperature (20 - 300 K). The STO samples used superconducting electrodes and were designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures, whereas BSTO samples used normal conducting electrodes and exhibited optimal performance around room temperature. By using nearly identical electrode geometries for all devices, we were able to conduct a direct comparative study among them, and investigate not only single-crystal vs thin-film, but also cryogenic vs room-temperature applications.
We have used the inherent surface sensitivity of second harmonic generation (SHG) to develop an instrument for nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy of surfaces and interfaces. This optical technique is ideal for imaging nanometer thick self-assembled monolayers (SAM's) which have been patterned using photolithographic techniques. In this paper we demonstrate the application of SHG microscopy to patterned SAM's of the noncentrosymmetric molecule calixarene and discuss other potential applications for this new technique.
Highly conductive metal-oxide RuO2 thin films have been successfully grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Epitaxial growth of RuO2 thin films on YSZ and the atomically sharp interface between the RuO2 and the YSZ substrate are clearly evident from cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A diagonal-type epitaxy of RuO2 on YSZ is confirmed from x-ray diffraction measurements. The crystalline RuO2 thin films, deposited at temperatures in the range of 500 °C to 700 °C, have a room-temperature resistivity of 35 ± 2 μω-cm, and the residual resistance ratio (R300 k/R4.2 k) is around 5 for the crystalline RuO2 thin films.
Highly stable bilayer thin film resistors, which consist of an underlying layer of tantalum nitride and of a capping layer of ruthenium oxide, were developed by taking advantage of the desired characteristics of two different materials in a single system. The resistors fabricated in such a way were highly stable under power loading or thermal cycling. Resistors with one digit temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) could be easily controlled by the layer thickness ratio of the tantalum nitride to the ruthenium oxide and the ex situ annealing temperature or duration. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profile on the thin films indicates that the ruthenium oxide layer is well defined for the as-deposited form. Nevertheless, interdiffusion takes place after thermal treatment of the bilayer which is used to tune the temperature coefficient of resistance and to stabilize the resistance of the resistors.
Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films were deposited on Si by rf magnetron sputtering. A conductive oxide, RuO2, was used as the bottom electrode of the capacitors. The performance of the thin film capacitors was found to be a strong function of the surface and interface properties between ferroelectric BaTiO3 and the bottom electrode. A suitable capacitor configuration must be used to preserve the bottom electrode, to enhance the dielectric constant, and to reduce the leakage current density of the films. BaTiO3 thin film on the RuO2/Si substrate, where the BaTiO3 thin film has a bilayer structure of polycrystalline on microcrystalline, showed a dielectric constant of 125 at a frequency of 1 MHz, leakage current density of 10−6 A/cm2 at a field intensity of 2.5 × 105 V/cm, and a breakdown voltage above 106 V/cm.
Thin film BaTiO3 capacitors were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. The leakage current was suppressed by more than 3 orders of magnitude if a trace of hydrogen was introduced into the sputtering chamber during film deposition. The introduction of hydrogen gas during sputtering makes the dc conductivity as low as 1×10−13 (Ω−cm)−1 for the amorphous films but still gives the dielectric constant a value of around 17. However, this accomplishment could not be achieved for polycrystal BaTiO3 thin film capacitors. As the substrate temperature increased from room temperature to 700°C, the dielectric constant was increased from 16 to 300 by using Ar + O2 gas. But, the dielectric constant was only around 30 at a deposition temperature of 700°C while the leakage current was decreased when using a gas mixture of Ar + H2 + O2 during sputtering.
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