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Understand the theoretical principles, key technologies and applications of UDNs with this authoritative survey. Theory is explained in a clear, step-by-step manner, and recent advances and open research challenges in UDN physical layer design, resource allocation and network management are described, with examples, in the context of B5G and 6G standardization. Topics covered include NOMA-based physical layer design, physical layer security. Interference management, 3D base station deployment, software defined UDNs, wireless edge caching in UDNs, UDN-based UAVs and field trials and tests. A perfect resource for graduate students, researchers and professionals who need to get up to speed on the state of the art and future opportunities in UDNs.
Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) can improve the growth performance of bulls. This study investigated the influences of GAA addition on growth, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation and serum metabolites in bulls. Forty-eight Angus bulls were randomly allocated to experimental treatments, that is, control, low-GAA (LGAA), medium-GAA (MGAA) and high-GAA (HGAA), with GAA supplementation at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 g/kg DM, respectively. Bulls were fed a basal diet containing 500 g/kg DM concentrate and 500 g/kg DM roughage. The experimental period was 104 days, with 14 days for adaptation and 90 days for data collection. Bulls in the MGAA and HGAA groups had higher DM intake and average daily gain than bulls in the LGAA and control groups. The feed conversion ratio was lowest in MGAA and highest in the control. Bulls receiving 0.9 g/kg DM GAA addition had higher digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF and ADF than bulls in other groups. The digestibility of CP was higher for HGAA than for LGAA and control. The ruminal pH was lower for MGAA, and the total volatile fatty acid concentration was greater for MGAA and HGAA than for the control. The acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower for MGAA than for LGAA and control. The propionate proportion was higher for MGAA than for control. Bulls receiving GAA addition showed decreased ruminal ammonia N. Bulls in MGAA and HGAA had higher cellobiase, pectinase and protease activities and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus populations than bulls in LGAA and control. However, the total protozoan population was lower for MGAA and HGAA than for LGAA and control. The total bacterial and Ruminococcus flavefaciens populations increased with GAA addition. The blood level of creatine was higher for HGAA, and the activity of l-arginine glycine amidine transferase was lower for MGAA and HGAA, than for control. The blood activity of guanidine acetate N-methyltransferase and the level of folate decreased in the GAA addition groups. The results indicated that dietary addition of 0.6 or 0.9 g/kg DM GAA improved growth performance, nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation in bulls.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REM) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off the mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimension particle-in-cell simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapid expansion. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads to the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, a certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selective adjustment of the corresponding spectra.
This paper presents a new immersed finite volume element method for solving second-order elliptic problems with discontinuous diffusion coefficient on a Cartesian mesh. The new method possesses the local conservation property of classic finite volume element method, and it can overcome the oscillating behaviour of the classic immersed finite volume element method. The idea of this method is to reconstruct the control volume according to the interface, which makes it easy to implement. Optimal error estimates can be derived with respect to an energy norm under piecewise
regularity. Numerical results show that the new method significantly outperforms the classic immersed finite volume element method, and has second-order convergence in
Surface waves called meniscus waves often appear in systems that are close to the capillary length scale. Since the meniscus shape determines the form of the meniscus waves, the resulting streaming circulation has features distinct from those caused by other capillary–gravity waves recently reported in the literature. In the present study, we produce symmetric and antisymmetric meniscus shapes by controlling boundary wettability and excite meniscus waves by oscillating the meniscus vertically. The symmetric and antisymmetric configurations produce different surface capillary–gravity wave modes and streaming flow structures. The root-mean-square speed of the streaming circulation increases with the second power of the forcing amplitude in both configurations. The flow symmetry of streaming circulation is retained under the symmetric meniscus, while it is lost under the antisymmetric meniscus. The streaming circulation pattern beneath the meniscus observed in our experiments is qualitatively explained using the method introduced by Nicolás & Vega (Fluid Dyn. Res., vol. 32 (4), 2003, pp. 119–139) and Gordillo & Mujica (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 754, 2014, pp. 590–604).
Se can enhance lactation performance by improving nutrient utilization and antioxidant status. However, sodium selenite (SS) can be reduced to non-absorbable elemental Se in the rumen, thereby reducing the intestinal availability of Se. The study investigated the impacts of SS and coated SS (CSS) supplementation on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and microbiota in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity, daily milk yield and days in milk and randomly assigned to five treatments: control, SS addition (0.3 mg Se/kg DM as SS addition) or CSS addition (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg Se/kg DM as CSS addition for low CSS (LCSS), medium CSS (MCSS) and high CSS (HCSS), respectively). Experiment period was 110 days with 20 days of adaptation and 90 days of sample collection. Dry matter intake was higher for MCSS and HCSS compared with control. Yields of milk, milk fat and milk protein and feed efficiency were higher for MCSS and HCSS than for control, SS and LCSS. Digestibility of DM and organic matter was highest for CSS addition, followed by SS addition and then control. Digestibility of CP was higher for MCSS and HCSS than for control, SS and LCSS. Higher digestibility of ether extract, NDF and ADF was observed for SS or CSS addition. Ruminal pH decreased with dietary Se addition. Acetate to propionate ratio and ammonia N were lower, and total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration was greater for SS, MCSS and HCSS than control. Ruminal H ion concentration was highest for MCSS and HCSS and lowest for control. Activities of cellobiase, carboxymethyl-cellulase, xylanase and protease and copies of total bacteria, fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus amylophilus increased with SS or CSS addition. Activity of α-amylase, copies of protozoa, Ruminococcus albus and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and serum glucose, total protein, albumin and glutathione peroxidase were higher for SS, MCSS and HCSS than for control and LCSS. Dietary SS or CSS supplementation elevated blood Se concentration and total antioxidant capacity activity. The data implied that milk yield was elevated due to the increase in total tract nutrient digestibility, total VFA concentration and microorganism population with 0.2 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM from CSS supplementation in dairy cows. Compared with SS, HCSS addition was more efficient in promoting lactation performance of dairy cows.
To identify predictors of remission with placebo treatment in double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in major depressive disorder (MDD) based on baseline characteristics.
989 placebo-treated MDD subjects with baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score (HAMDT17) ≥15 who completed 7-8 weeks of treatment from 8 duloxetine RCTs with placebo lead-in were included. Remission was defined as HAMDT17 endpoint score ≤7. Stepwise logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) methods were used to identify predictors of remission. Data were randomly split into training data (N=791, 80%) for model selection and test data (N=198, 20%) for validation. Predictive quality of models was assessed by ROC curves.
In the logistic regression analysis, out of >50 potential pre-treatment predictors, the HAMDT17 score, age, Hamilton Anxiety Scale item 14 (HAMA14: behavior at interview) and length of current MDD episode (length) were found to be most predictive for remission on placebo. These variables were also identified as top predictors by the CART method that identified 2 subgroups: “HAMA14=0 OR (HAMDT17< 22 AND length< 18 weeks)” (45% remitted), “HAMA14>0 AND (HAMDT17≥22 OR length≥18 weeks)” (21% remitted). However, the predictive power was weak for both methods with areas under the ROC curve (test data) of 67% and 56%, respectively.
Baseline risk factors for non-remission after 7-8 weeks of placebo treatment were older age, more severe depressive symptoms, apparent anxiety, and a longer duration of current MDD episode. These results are consistent with previous findings and may aid in the design of RCTs.
Many studies showed the differences in subjective response to sexual stimuli between heterosexual and homosexual men. However, the underlying neurobiological factors of sexual orientation are largely unknown. We addressed the question what is the major attribution of the expected differences in brain activation, i.e. neural circuits or different cognitive process. Twenty-eight healthy male volunteers, 14 heterosexuals and 14 homosexuals, were scanned by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging while subjects were viewing different types of stimuli, i.e. heterosexual couple stimuli (HCS), gay couple stimuli (GCS), lesbian couple stimuli (LCS) and neutral stimuli (NS). SPM02 was used for data analysis. Rating of sexual attractiveness was assessed. Subjective sexual arousal was induced by HCS and GCS in heterosexual and homosexual men, respectively. And sexual disgust was induced by GCS and LCS in heterosexual and homosexual men, respectively. As compared to viewing NS, viewing sexual stimuli induced significant different brain activations most of which had characteristic for cognitive process. These observations suggested that different cognitive pattern was major attribution of different subjective response to sexual stimuli between heterosexual and homosexual men.
The present study was designed to detect three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on 22q11 that was thought as being of particularly importance for genetic research into schizophrenia. We recruited a total of 176 Chinese family trios of Han descent, consisting of mothers, fathers and affected offspring with schizophrenia for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed that of three SNPs, rs10314 in the 3′-untranslated region of the CLDN5 locus was associated with schizophrenia (χ2 = 4.75, P = 0.029). The other two SNPs, rs1548359 present in the CDC45L locus centromeric of rs10314 and rs739371 in the 5′-flanking region of the CLDN5 locus, did not show such an association. The global chi-square (χ2) test showed that the 3-SNP haplotype system was not associated with schizophrenia although the 1-df test for individual haplotypes showed that the rs1548359(C)-rs10314(G)-rs739371(C) haplotype was excessively non-transmitted (χ2 = 5.32, P = 0.02). Because the claudin proteins are a major component for barrier-forming tight junctions that could play a crucial role in response to changing natural, physiological and pathological conditions, the CLDN5 association with schizophrenia may be an important clue leading to look into a meeting point of genetic and environmental factors.
An increasing number of studies have described the relationship between velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) and schizophrenia. in a family-based study, we found that rs10314, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the 3’-flanking region of the CLDN5 gene, was associated with schizophrenia among a Chinese population. High false positive rate is a common problem with the association study of human diseases. It is very important to replicate an initial finding with different samples and experimental designs.
A total of 749 patients with schizophrenia and 383 age and sex matched healthy control subjects in Chinese population were recruited. PCR-based RFLP protocol was applied to genotype rs10314 to see its disease association.
The χ2 goodness-of-fit test showed that the genotypic distributions of rs10314 were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the patient group (χ2=1.12, P=0.289) and the control group (χ2=0.22, P=0.639). rs10314 was associated with schizophrenia with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 in the male subjects (χ2=5.45, P=0.02, 95% CI 1.05-1.67) but not in the female subjects (χ2=0.64, P=0.425, OR=1.14, 95% CI 0.83-1.57). the χ2 test showed a genotypic association only for combined samples (χ2=7.80, df=2, P=0.02). SNP rs10314 is a G to C base change. Frequency of the genotypes containing the C allele was significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group.
The present work shows that the CLDN5 gene polymorphism is more likely to be involved in schizophrenic men than women, suggesting that this gene may contribute to the gender differences in schizophrenia.
Studies revealed that prenatal stress (PS) may increase the vulnerability to depression in their offspring, and ERK-CREB signal system might play a role in its mechanism.
Objectives and aims
The present study investigated the effect of MK-801 on depressive-like behavior and its impacts on ERK2, CREB, Bcl-2 mRNA expression in PS female rat offspring.
The pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups, the control group (Con) was left undisturbed, the PS-saline group (PS-saline) and the PS-MK-801 group (PS-MK-801) were subjected to restraint stress on days 14–20 of pregnancy three times daily for 45 min, and received an i.p. administration of saline or MK-801(sigma, 0.2 mg/kg) 30 min before the first stress respectively. Forced swimming test was undertaken to assess depressive-like behavior in one month female offspring. ERK2, CREB, Bcl-2 mRNA in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and striatum were detected by RT-PCR.
PS-saline spent significantly more immobile time compared to Con and PS-MK-801 (P < 0.05). ERK2 and CREB mRNA expression in hippocampus and frontal cortex was significantly decreased in PS-saline compared to Con and PS-MK-801 (P < 0.05), while in striatum CREB mRNA expression in PS-saline was lower than Con (P < 0.05). Bcl-2 mRNA expression in hippocampus and striatum was significantly decreased in PS-saline (P < 0.05), and in frontal cortex, its expression was significantly lower in PS-saline and PS-MK-801 (P < 0.05).
PS may suppress ERK-CREB signal pathway in female offspring rats, which could be partly prevented by MK- 801. (Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China, No: 30970952).
Studies have convinced that the rodents' exposure to prenatal stress (PNS) may induce depression and anxiety to their offspring. We focused on the glutamatergic system to explore the mechanisms.
Objectives and aims:
By examining EAAT2,EAAT3 (Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2,3), which are the only substances to inactivate glutamate in nervous system, we explored the effect of PNS on glutamatergic system.
Pregnant rats were assigned to Control group (CON), Middle period of PNS group (MPS) and Late period of PNS group (LPS). MPS and LPS rats were exposed to restraint stress on days 7–13, 14–20 of pregnancy three times daily for 45 min. EAAT2 and EAAT3 mRNA expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and striatum of one month rat offspring were checked by RT-PCR.
For the female offspring, EAAT2 mRNA expression of hippocampus in LPS and MPS was significantly lower compared to CON(P = 0.008,p = 0.003); EAAT2 and EAAT3 mRNA expression of frontal cortex in LPS were significantly lower than CON (p = 0.003,p = 0.013). for the male offspring, EAAT2 and EAAT3 mRNA expression of hippocampus in LPS and MPS were significantly lower (p = 0.005, p = 0.05); EAAT2 mRNA expression of frontal cortex was significantly lower in LPS (p = 0.022); EAAT2 mRNA in LPS group and MPS were significantly lower (p = 0.009, p = 0.014), and EAAT3 mRNA expression of striatum in MPS was significantly lower (p = 0.049).
Decreased EAAT2 and EAAT3 of PNS may explain the increase of glutamate in synaptic cleft and its downstream excitotoxicity. (Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China, No: 30970952)
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) are the primary target of antipsychotic drugs and have been shown to regulate Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3b (GSK-3b) signaling through scaffolding protein b-arrestin 2.
In the present study, we researched the effects of saikosaponin B1 on the b-arrestin 2-mediated Akt/GSK-3b pathway in human neuroblastoma cell lineSH-SY5Y cells.
To determine whether saikosaponin B1 affected neuronal morphology in human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y cells.
We investigated the effects of saikosaponin B1 on neurite outgrowth using immunostaining. We examined the effects of saikosaponin B1 on Akt and GSK-3b and its well-known downstream regulators, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Bcl-2 levels using Western blot analysis.
Saikosaponin B1 was found to enhance neurite outgrowth. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for b-arrestin 2 knockdown blocked the increase in saikosaponin B1-induced neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, saikosaponin B1 increased the levels of Akt and GSK-3b phosphorylation. The elevation of Akt phosphorylation induced by saikosaponin B1 was reduced by b-arrestin 2 siRNA. Moreover, saikosaponin B1 effectively increased the levels of phospho-CREB, BDNF, and Bcl-2.
Together, these results suggest that regulation of the b-arrestin 2-dependent pathway via blockade of the D2R in SH-SY5Y cells is one mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of saikosaponin B1.
Saikosaponin B is one of the main ingredients of Bupleurum. Among the many effects of Bupleurum, saikosaponin B may be contributing molecules.human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y is a tumor cells of low degree of differentiation. Its cell morphology, physiology and biochemical functions similar to normal nerve cells, are widely used to study the mechanism of diseases and drug, of the nervous system.
To investigate the effect of Saikosaponin B on SH-SY5Y cells.
Cultured SH-SY5Y cells and drawed cell growth curve. Then based on the cell growth curve, using hydrogen peroxide of different doses(110?120?130?140?150?160?180?200?220μmol/L) to treated SH-SY5Y cells. At same time, volume fraction 0.05 serum contained Saikosaponin B was added. Cultured SH-SY5Y cells were observed by morphology and tested by the MTT assay.
Less than 140μmol/L hydrogen peroxide, SH-SY5Y cells does not be caused damage. Saikosaponin B of volume fraction 0.05 can relieve the damage of SH-SY5Y cells treated with 140μmol/L hydrogen peroxide, also can increase the survival of the SH-SY5Y cells.
Saikosaponin B can strongly protect the cultured SH-SY5Y cells from damage induced by hydrogen peroxide.
Current available antidepressants exhibit low remission rate with a long response lag time. Growing evidence has demonstrated acute sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant effects. However, a long term use of ketamine tends to elicit its adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of intermittent and consecutive administrations of ketamine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, and to determine whether ketamine can redeem the time lag for treatment response of classic antidepressants. The behavioral responses were assessed by the sucrose preference test, forced swimming test, and open field test. In the first stage of experiments, all the four treatment regimens of ketamine (10 mg/kg ip, once daily for 3 or 7 consecutive days, or once every 7 or 3 days, in a total 21 days) showed robust antidepressant-like effects, with no significant influence on locomotor activity and stereotype behavior in the CUMS rats. The intermittent administration regimens produced longer antidepressant-like effects than the consecutive administration regimens and the administration every 7 days presented similar antidepressant-like effects with less administration times compared with the administration every 3 days. In the second stage of experiments, the combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg ip, once every 7 days) and citalopram (20 mg/kg po, once daily) for 21 days caused more rapid and sustained antidepressant-like effects than citalopram administered alone. In summary, repeated sub-anesthestic doses of ketamine can redeem the time lag for the antidepressant-like effects of citalopram, suggesting the combination of ketamine and classic antidepressants is a promising regimen for depression with quick onset time and stable and lasting effects.
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear.
Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function.
We found significant group differences of the gFCD in bilateral fusiform area (FFA), post-central and pre-central cortex, left superior temporal gyrus (STG), rectal and superior temporal gyrus and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC); abnormal gFCDs in left STG were positively correlated with severity of depression in MDD group. Significant disease × COMT interaction effects were found in the bilateral calcarine gyrus, right vlPFC, hippocampus and thalamus, and left SFG and FFA. Further post-hoc tests showed a nonlinear modulation effect of COMT on gFCD in the development of MDD. Interestingly, an inverted U-shaped modulation was found in the prefrontal cortex (control system) but U-shaped modulations were found in the hippocampus, thalamus and occipital cortex (processing system).
Our study demonstrated nonlinear modulation of the interaction between COMT and depression on brain function. These findings expand our understanding of the COMT effect underlying the pathophysiology of MDD.
Childhoods in urban or rural environments may differentially affect risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we leveraged on dramatic urbanization and rural-urban migration since the 1980s in China to explore the hypothesis that rural or urban childhoods may differentially influence memory processing and neural responses to neutral and aversive stimuli.
Explore the underlying mechanisms of childhood environment effect on brain function and neuropsychiatric risk.
We examined 420 adult subjects with similar current socioeconomic status and living in Beijing, China, but with differing rural (n = 227) or urban (n = 193) childhoods. In an episodic memory paradigm scanned in a 3 T GE MRI, subjects viewed blocks of neutral or aversive pictures in the encoding and retrieval sessions.
Episodic memory accuracy for neutral stimuli was less than for aversive stimuli (P < 0.001). However, subjects with rural childhoods apparently performed less accurately for memory of aversive but not neutral stimuli (P < 0.01). In subjects with rural childhoods, there was relatively increased engagement of bilateral striatum at encoding, increased engagement of bilateral hippocampus at retrieval of neutral and aversive stimuli, and increased engagement of amygdala at aversive retrieval (P < 0.05 FDR corrected, cluster size > 50).
Rural or urban childhoods appear associated with physiological and behavioural differences, particularly in the neural processing of aversive episodic memory at medial temporal and striatal brain regions. It remains to be explored the extent to which these effects relate to individual risk for neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To investigate the effect of saikosaponin B2 on the damage of cultured SH-SY5Y cells.
10% calf serum including volume fraction 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 saikosaponin B2 (10−4mol·L−1) were added respectively into the SH-SY5Y cells, which were then treated with 140 μmol· L−1 hydrogen peroxide(H2O2). 10% calf serum group and blank serum without H2O2-treated group were as the model group and the control group. The effect of saikosaponin B2 was observed by morphological identification, colorimetric MTT assay.
Both saikosaponin B2 of 10−6mol·L−1 and 2 × 10−6mol·L−1 can relieve the damage of SH-SY5Y cells and increase the survival of the cells.
saikosaponin B2 can protect the cultured SH-SY5Y cells from damage induced by H2O2.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To investigate the effect of Qing Huan Ling and (or) risperidone on activity and preferences behavior of the hypoglutamatergic schizophrenia model in mice.
Seventy kunming mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, one group as placebo group. The rest groups intraperitoneal injection MK-801 continuously 14 day, then randomly numbered: model group, Qing Huan Ling group, risperidone groupand Qing Huan Ling combined risperidone group. Intragastric administration give corresponding drugs for each group one month, at the same time observe high activities and changes in the preferences of five groups.
Compared with the blank group, activity of the rest model groups induced by MK-801 was increased (P < 0.05). After intragastric administration one month, model groups of high activity was decreased, especially risperidone combined Qing Huan Ling group. There was no statistical meaning in inquiry activity of five groups (P > 0.05). Compared with model group, latent period of step-through test was prolonged 35.5 s (P < 0.05), of step-down test was prolonged 11.4 s in risperidone combined Qing Huan Ling group.
The combination of Qing Huan Ling and risperidone can suppress the high activity; also can protect harmed memory of the preference behavior in the hypoglutamatergic schizophrenia model in mice.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.