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The association between opportunistic infection (OI) and anaemia among HIV-infected patients remains to be studied. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of anaemia in hospitalised HIV-infected patients to reveal the association between OI and anaemia. We conducted a retrospective study of HIV-positive hospitalised patients from June 2016 to December 2017 in Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University. Patients’ information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were carefully collected. The comparison of anaemia prevalence between groups was conducted with χ2 test. A logistic regression model was carried out to analyse the predictors of anaemia. The total prevalence of anaemia in hospitalised HIV-infected patients was 55.15%. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anaemia was 41.42%, 11.08% and 2.64%, respectively. Predictors independently associated with anaemia were: CD4 counts <50 cells/μl (odds ratio (OR): 6.376, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.916–21.215, P = 0.003), CD4 counts 50–199 cells/μl (OR: 6.303, 95% CI = 1.874–21.203, P = 0.003), co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) (OR: 2.703, 95% CI = 1.349–5.414, P = 0.005) or Penicillium marneffei (PM) (OR: 7.162, 95% CI = 3.147–15.299, P < 0.001). In Fujian, China, more than half inpatients with HIV were anaemic, but severe anaemia is infrequent. Lower CD4 counts, co-infection with TB or PM were independent risk factors for anaemia. Chinese HIV patients especially with TB, PM infection and low CD4 level should be routinely detected for anaemia to improve therapy.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3–4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4–29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using Multiplex 3, a hand-held canopy fluorescence sensor, to determine rice nitrogen (N) status at different growth stages. In 2013, a paddy rice field experiment with five N fertilizer treatments and two varieties was conducted in Northeast China. Field samples and fluorescence data were collected simultaneously at the panicle initiation (PI), stem elongation (SE), and heading (HE) stages. Four N status indicators, leaf N concentration (LNC), plant N concentration (PNC), plant N uptake (PNU) and N nutrition index (NNI), were determined. The preliminary results indicated that different N application rates significantly affected most of the fluorescence variables, especially the simple fluorescence ratios (SFR_G, SFR_R), flavonoid (FLAV), and N balance indices (NBI_G, NBI_R). These variables were highly correlated with N status indicators. More studies are needed to further evaluate the accuracy of rice N status diagnosis using fluorescence sensing at different growth stages.
We analyse the asymptotic behaviour of a biological system described by a stochastic competition model with
resources (chemostat model), in which the species mortality rates are influenced by the fractional Brownian motion of the extrinsic noise environment. By constructing a Lyapunov functional, the persistence and extinction criteria are derived in the mean square sense. Some examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical result.
A method was developed to predict numerically the damage of composite laminates with multiple plies under low-velocity impact loading. The Puck criterion for 3D stress states was adopted to model the intralaminar damage including matrix cracking and fibre breakage, and to obtain the orientation of the fracture plane due to matrix failure. According to interlaminar delamination mechanism, a new delamination criterion was proposed. The influence of transverse and through-thickness normal stress, interlaminar shear stress and damage conditions of adjacent plies on delamination was considered. In order to predict the impact-induced damage of composite laminates with more plies quickly and efficiently, an approach, which can predict the specific damage of several plies in a single solid element, was proposed by interpolation on the strains of element integration points. Moreover, the proposed model can predict specific failure modes. A good agreement between the predicted delamination shapes and sizes and the experimental results shows correctness of the developed numerical method for predicting low-velocity impact damage on composite laminates.
A new death line for radio pulsars is presented in this paper within the framework of vacuum gap and inverse Compton scattering (ICS) induced pair production process. The 8.5s period pulsar PSR J2144-3933 is located above the death line without any additional assumptions. An “appearance line” instead of the so-called “Hubble line”, is also presented in this paper. Both of those two lines fit observations well.
Floral organ development influences plant reproduction and crop yield. The mechanism of floral organ specification is generally conserved in angiosperms as demonstrated by the ‘ABC’ model. However, mechanisms underlying the development of floral organs in specific groups of species such as grasses remain unclear. In the genus Oryza (rice), a spikelet consists of a fertile floret sub-tended by a lemma, a palea, two sterile lemmas and rudimentary glumes. To understand how the lemma is formed, a curve-shaped lemma-distortion1 (ld1) mutant was identified. Genetic analysis confirmed that the ld1 mutant phenotype was due to a single recessive gene mutation. Using a large F2 population, the LD1 gene was mapped between markers Indel-7-15 and Indel-7-18, which encompassed a region of 15·6 kilo base pairs (kbp). According to rice genome annotations, two putative genes, LOC_Os07g32510 and LOC_Os07g32520, were located in this candidate region. However, DNA sequencing results indicated only 1 base pair (bp) substitution (T⇨C) was found in LOC_Os07g32510 between the wild-type and the ld1 mutant. Thus LOC_Os07g32510, encoding a DNA binding with one zinc finger (DoF) containing protein, was the candidate gene for LD1. Further analysis showed that mutation of the amino acid cysteine (C) to arginine (R) was likely to lead to zinc finger protein deactivation. Phylogenetic and conservation analysis of the gene from different species revealed that cysteine was critical to LD1 function. As a new gene controlling lemma development, the study of LD1 could provide insights into rice floral organ formation mechanisms.
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute contagious condition caused by a spectrum of human enteroviruses. HFMD reinfection is common in the absence of cross-protection from other virus subtypes. This study focused on reinfection in children in Anhui province, China between 2008 and 2013 using surveillance system data. We classified 8960 cases as reinfected, corresponding to a rate of 2·02%. The reinfection rate was higher in boys than in girls [odds ratio (OR) 1·27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·21–1·32, P < 0·001], children aged < 3 years (OR 3·82, 95% CI 3·58–4·07, P < 0·001), and children living in rural areas (OR 1·09, 95% CI 1·04–1·14, P = 0·001). The reinfection rate in children who were originally infected with non-enterovirus A71 (non-EVA71) enteroviruses was higher than those infected with EVA71 (OR 1·36, 95% CI 1·02–1·80, P = 0·034). Influential factors of reinfection rate included annual incidence (β coefficient = 0·715, P = 0·002) and the proportion of EVA71 in patients with mild HFMD (β coefficient = −0·509, P = 0·018). These results demonstrate that boys aged <3 years, especially those in rural areas or regions with a lower EVA71 proportion are more prone to reinfection, and specific health education programmes should be developed to protect these susceptible populations.
A balanced cavitation bubble is released near the rigid wall in the sound field generated by the incidence plane wave and its reflecting wave. With the modified boundary integral equation, the dynamics of bubble is solved considering the compressibility of fluid in this paper. Also the Bernoulli equation as the boundary condition for cavitation bubble in sound field is deduced using Euler equation. Since the arbitrary incidence angle of acoustic wave, the three-dimensional model is utilized. The bubble will expand or contract at first according to the initial phase of acting acoustic pressure on bubble surface. And during the contraction phase, the liquid jet with high speed will be generated pointing to rigid wall but be deflected to the incidence direction of acoustic wave. The oblique degree of jet will be affected by the incidence angle and initial distance between bubble center and rigid wall. The oscillation amplitude of bubble will be affected by the incidence amplitude and incidence frequency, but be limited by the rigid wall. Since the compressibility of fluid, the perturbation will propagate to the far-field. Thus the oscillation amplitude of bubble will be reduced.
To study the activation of caspase-9 and its potential influence in conditioning, longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (STN) and psoas minor (PMi) muscles were used to analyze the ratio of pro-apoptotic bax to anti-apoptotic bcl-2 in fresh tissues and observe the changes in ATP, cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-9 activity levels during storage at 4°C. Caspase-9 activity at 5 h is higher than the activity at 0 and 24 h in the muscles (P<0.001). The ATP content decreased between 0 and 3 h, between 8 and 14 h in the PMi and LT muscles (P<0.0001), whereas between 0 and 5 h, between 8 and 14 h in the STN muscle (P<0.0001). There is 60.2%, 55.3% and 43.1% available ATP in the STN, LT and PMi muscles at 5 h, respectively. The cytosolic cytochrome c level increased during 5 and 24 h storage in the LT and PMi muscles (P<0.0001), during 5 and 96 h in the STN muscle (P<0.0001). The cytosolic cytochrome c at 24 h (P<0.001) and ratio of bax to bcl-2 (P<0.05) was higher in the PMi than in other muscles. We concluded that the increase in cytosolic cytochrome c and available intracellular ATP should be responsible for the increase in caspase-9 activity; the activation of caspase-9 could be limited by the subsequent depletion of ATP; the postmortem release level of cytochrome c could be determined by the ratio of bax to bcl-2 in fresh tissues.
An adaptive algorithm is presented for the wavelength calibration of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). The new algorithm can identify emission lines of calibration lamp without manual interaction and then fit relationship between the pixel positions and the wavelengths by utilizing a polynomial function. In this study, experiments are performed both on the actual data observed by LAMOST and the simulated data to analyze the accuracy and the robustness.The experimental results show that the proposed automatic algorithm can perform the lines identification exactly and acquire the wavelength solution accurately. Thus, an applicable approach is provided for the wavelength calibration of LAMOST.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
Phase transformations by yttrium implantation into pure aluminum using 60kV ions and 3×1017 ions/cm2 dose have been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). YAl3(12R) particles with an average size of 0.3μm were formed in the modified aluminum surface, which transformed into YFe3·5Alx (predominantly) and YAl3(8H) phase particles with 2 μm average diameter after being annealed at 600°C for one hour. The Fe ions were introduced by ion sputtering from the iron screws of the specimen holder, a previously unnoticed effect during heavy metal ion implantation for surface modification of materials. Electron diffraction experiments indicated that the YFe3·5Alx was a new phase and belongs to the orthorhombic system with a C-face-centered lattice (a=c=0.887nm, b=1.024nm). The reciprocal lattice of the YFe3·5Alx phase is related to that of the YFe4Al8 magnetic phase. The microstructure of the modified aluminum surface was also investigated by high-resolution TEM.
The whisker/matrix interfaces in a β-Si3N4w/60 61Al composite were structurally characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was shown that there was a nearly amorphous layer (2–3 nm thickness) at a whisker/matrix interface. The magnesium segregation at the whisker/Al interface was revealed by electron dispersive analysis of x-ray (EDAX). MgO and MgAl2O4 nanocrystal particles were formed at the whisker/matrix interface due to the Mg segregation there during the manufacturing of the composite. The Mg2Si particles preferred to precipitate at the whisker/Al interface when the composite was processed with T6 heating treatment. There were specific orientation relationship of the MgAl2O4 or Mg2Si particles with the β-Si3N4 whiskers.
The interface structure in a Ti/TiN multilayer material has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was shown that the α-Ti and β-TiN layers consisted of many cylindrical crystals growing along the close packed directions normal to the surface of a stainless steel. There existed specific orientation relationship at the Ti/TiN interfaces without transition layers: (111)TiN ‖ (001)Ti, TiN ‖ Ti. However there was no such orientation relationship at the Ti/TiN interfaces with TixN (x >1) transition layers.
The perpendicular x-ray strain of epitaxial CoSi2 films grown on Si(111) substrates at ∼ 600°C by MBE was measured at various temperatures. Within experimental error margins, the strain decreases linearly with rising temperature at a rate of (1.3±0.1) × 10-5/°C from room temperature up to 600°C. Over that temperature range and the duration of a complete measurement (∼5h to ∼ 2h), these strain values remain reversible. At 593°C, the x-ray strain is -0.85%, which is about the strain that a stress-free CoSi2 film on Si(111) would have at that temperature. This results show that the stress in the epitaxial CoSi2 film is fully relaxed at the growth temperature. Strains below the growth temperature are induced in the film by the difference in the linear coefficient of thermal expansion of CoSi2 and Si. They were calculated by assuming that the density of misfit dislocations formed at the growth temperature remains constant. The slope of the strain-temperature dependence obtained that way agrees with the measured slope if the unknown Possion ratio of CoSi2 is assumed to be VcoSi2 = 0.35. A film stress of ∼ 0.8 GPa at room temperature was calculated using the above value for the Possion ratio, 130 GPa for the Young modulus, and the measured x-ray strain.
We have investigated the optical properties of asymmetric multiple layer stacked self-assembled InAs quantum dot with different interlayer. We found that asymmetric multiple stacked QD samples with In0.2Ga0.8As + GaAs interlayer can afford a 180nm flat spectral width with strong PL intensity compared to other samples at room temperature. We think this result is due to the introduction of In0.2Ga0.8As strain-reducing layer. Additionally, for the broad spectral width and the strong PL intensity, this structure can be a promising candidate for quantum-dot superluminescent diodes.
The result of first-principles density functional calculations of the bulk modulus and related structural and electronic properties of the total 25 group III-V binary phases with zinc-blende and wurtzite structures are presented. The behavior of energy band structure variation under high pressures is also studied. It is found that the bulk modulus is more sensitive to the local atom configuration than the lattice structure. The crystallographic geometry plays an important role in the electronic property of these phases.