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In this paper, a novel single-cavity triangular substrate-integrated waveguide (TSIW) dual-band filter loading a complementary triangular split ring resonator (CTSRR) is proposed, which has three transmission zeros (TZs) in the stopband in total. The dual-band response is achieved by the CTSRR and the degenerate modes of the TSIW cavity. In order to control the TZs, we propose two adjustment techniques, shift feeding technique and adding via perturbation. In addition, the CTSRR etched on the surface can produce a new TZ in the upper first-passband. Finally, a dual-band filter with three TZs is simulated, fabricated, and measured. There is a good agreement between the simulated results and measured ones.
We investigated risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among hospitalised children <2 years, with a focus on the interactions between virus and age. Statistical interactions between age and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, adenovirus (ADV) and rhinovirus on the risk of ALRI outcomes were investigated. Of 1780 hospitalisations, 228 (12.8%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The median (range) length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 3 (1–27) days. An increase of 1 month of age was associated with a decreased risk of ICU admission (rate ratio (RR) 0.94; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.91–0.98) and with a decrease in LOS (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.95–0.97). Associations between RSV, influenza, ADV positivity and ICU admission and LOS were significantly modified by age. Children <5 months old were at the highest risk from RSV-associated severe outcomes, while children >8 months were at greater risk from influenza-associated ICU admissions and long hospital stay. Children with ADV had increased LOS across all ages. In the first 2 years of life, the effects of different viruses on ALRI severity varies with age. Our findings help to identify specific ages that would most benefit from virus-specific interventions such as vaccines and antivirals.
Litter size has a great impact on the profit of swine producers. Uterine development is an important determinant of reproduction efficiency and could hence affect litter size. Chinese Erhualian pig is one of the most prolific breeds in the world, even though large phenotypic variation in litter size was observed within Erhualian sows. To dissect the genetic basis of the phenotypic variation, we herein conducted genome-wide association studies for total number born and number born alive (NBA) of Erhualian sows. In total, one significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (P<1.78e−06) and 11 suggestive SNPs (P<3.57e−05) were identified on 10 chromosomes, confirming seven previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) and uncovering six QTL for litter size or uterus length. One locus on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 13 (79.28 to 90.43 Mb) harbored a cluster of suggestive SNPs associated with multiparous NBA. The SNP (rs81447100) within this region was confirmed to be significantly (P<0.05) associated with litter size in Erhualian (n=313), Sutai (n=173) and Yorkshire (n=488) populations. Retinol binding protein 2 and retinol binding protein 1 functionally related to the development of uterus were located in a region of 2 Mb around rs81447100. Moreover, four genes related to embryo implantation and development were also detected around other significant SNPs. Taken together, our findings provide a potential marker (rs81447100) for the genetic improvement of litter size not only in Chinese Erhualian pigs but also in European commercial pig breeds like Yorkshire, and would facilitate the final identification of causative variant(s) underlying the effect of SSC13 QTL on litter size.
Four complete platysiagid fish specimens are described from the Luoping Biota, Anisian (Middle Triassic), Yunnan Province, southwest China. They are small fishes with bones and scales covered with ganoine. All characters observed, such as nasals meeting in the midline, a keystone-like dermosphenotic, absence of post-rostral bone, two infraorbitals between dermosphenotic and jugal, large antorbital, and two postcleithra, suggest that the new materials belong to a single, new Platysiagum species, P. sinensis sp. nov. Three genera are ascribed to Platysiagidae: Platysiagum, Helmolepis and Caelatichthys. However, most specimens of the first two genera are imprints or fragmentary. The new, well-preserved specimens from the Luoping Biota provide more detailed anatomical information than before, and thus help amend the concept of the Platysiagidae. The Family Platysiagidae was previously classed in the Perleidiformes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Platysiagidae is a member of basal Neopterygii, and its origin seems to predate that of Perleidiformes. Moreover, platysiagid fishes are known from the Middle Triassic of the western Tethys region. The newly found specimens of platysiagids from Luoping provide additional evidence that both eastern and western sides of the Tethys Ocean were biogeographically more connected than previously thought.
A study on effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of natural ice in a reservoir with <3% gas content and ∼300 mg L−1 dissolved matter content in the parent water was conducted in a laboratory. Ice sections were prepared to obtain the ice crystal structure, gas bubble content and ice density. Profiles of horizontal and vertical thermal conductivity of ice samples were determined with attention to relatively high temperature spanning 0 to –10°C. A detailed comparative analysis was conducted of the effects on ETC of direction, ice crystal structure, gas bubbles and temperature. Gas inclusions had little impact on the thermal conductivity of natural reservoir ice due to their quite low content (<3%). At high ice temperature the ETC decreases remarkably as ice temperature approaches the melting point, as the ETC of sea ice does due to its brine volume at ice temperature approaching its melting point. The measured conductivities for temperatures higher than –4°C were less than expected from previous work on saline ice. Whether this was due to the measurement techniques or actual properties of the reservoir ice is not clear. The present findings could lead to better understanding of the thermal processes of ice in natural freshwater bodies.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using Multiplex 3, a hand-held canopy fluorescence sensor, to determine rice nitrogen (N) status at different growth stages. In 2013, a paddy rice field experiment with five N fertilizer treatments and two varieties was conducted in Northeast China. Field samples and fluorescence data were collected simultaneously at the panicle initiation (PI), stem elongation (SE), and heading (HE) stages. Four N status indicators, leaf N concentration (LNC), plant N concentration (PNC), plant N uptake (PNU) and N nutrition index (NNI), were determined. The preliminary results indicated that different N application rates significantly affected most of the fluorescence variables, especially the simple fluorescence ratios (SFR_G, SFR_R), flavonoid (FLAV), and N balance indices (NBI_G, NBI_R). These variables were highly correlated with N status indicators. More studies are needed to further evaluate the accuracy of rice N status diagnosis using fluorescence sensing at different growth stages.
Using the data from the LAMOST Galactic spectroscopic surveys and some other surveys, we have started a series of work to measure the mass distribution of our Galaxy. As a result of the first-stage, we have constructed the Galactic rotation curve out to 100 kpc and the Galactic escape velocity curve between 5 and 14 kpc. From the two curves, we have built parametrized mass models for our Galaxy, respectively. Both models yield a similar result for the Milky Way's virial mass: ~ 0.9 × 1012 M⊙.
Using the spectroscopic distances of over 0.12 million A-type stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC), we map their three-dimensional number density distributions in the Galaxy. These stellar number density maps allow an investigation of the Galactic young age thin disk structure with no a priori assumptions about the functional form of its components. The data show strong evidence for a significant flaring young disk. A more detail analysis show that the stellar flaring have different behaviours between the Northern and the Southern Galactic disks. The maps also reveal spatially coherent, kpc-scale stellar substructure in the thin disk. Finally, we detect the Perseus arm stellar overdensity at R ~ 10 kpc.
Worldwide 350 million people suffer from major depression, with the majority of cases occurring in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the patterns, correlates and care-seeking behaviour of adults suffering from major depressive episode (MDE) in China.
A nationwide study recruited 512 891 adults aged 30–79 years from 10 provinces across China during 2004–2008. The 12-month prevalence of MDE was assessed by the Modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-short form. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of MDE associated with socio-economic, lifestyle and health-related factors and major stressful life events.
Overall, 0.7% of participants had MDE and a further 2.4% had major depressive symptoms. Stressful life events were strongly associated with MDE [adjusted OR 14.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7–15.7], with a dose–response relationship with the number of such events experienced. Family conflict had the highest OR for MDE (18.9, 95% CI 16.8–21.2) among the 10 stressful life events. The risk of MDE was also positively associated with rural residency (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.7), low income (OR 2.3, 95% CI 2.1–2.4), living alone (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.3–3.0), smoking (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) and certain other mental disorders (e.g. anxiety, phobia). Similar, albeit weaker, associations were observed with depressive symptoms. Among those with MDE, about 15% sought medical help or took psychiatric medication, 15% reported having suicidal ideation and 6% reported attempting suicide.
Among Chinese adults, the patterns and correlates of MDE were generally consistent with those observed in the West. The low rates of seeking professional help and treatment highlight the great gap in mental health services in China.
At the end of 2013, China reported a countrywide outbreak of measles. From January to May 2014, we investigated the clinical and immunological features of the cases of the outbreak admitted to our hospital. In this study, all 112 inpatients with clinically diagnosed measles were recruited from the 302 Military Hospital of China. The virus was isolated from throat swabs from these patients, and cytokine profiles were examined. By detecting the measles virus of 30 of the 112 patients, we found that this measles outbreak was of the H1 genotype, which is the major strain in China. The rates of complications, specifically pneumonia and liver injury, differed significantly in patients aged <8 months, 8 months to 18 years, and >18 years: pneumonia was more common in children, while liver injury was more common in adults. Pneumonia was a significant independent risk factor affecting measles duration. Compared to healthy subjects, measles patients had fewer CD4+IL-17+, CD4+IFN-γ+, and CD8+IFN-γ+ cells in both the acute and recovery phases. In contrast, measles patients in the acute phase had more CD8+IL-22+ cells than those in recovery or healthy subjects. We recommend that future studies focus on the age-related distribution of pneumonia and liver injury as measles-related complications as well as the association between immunological markers and measles prognosis.
We report our preliminary results on the role of starbursts in LINERS by use of Wolf-Rayet galaxies as a tool. The essence of this approach lies in the different FIR-radio relation of WR galaxies from the pure AGN's.
We report the discovery of two new Wolf-Rayet galaxies: Mrk 1039, and F8208+2816. Two broad WR bumps at 5808Å and 4650Å indicate the presence of WCE and WNL star populations in these two sources. Comparison of the observed EW(HeII λ4686) and EW(CIV λ5808) with recent models of WR populations in young starbursts provide an indication that the stellar initial mass function in some WR galaxies might not be Salpeter-like.
Amongst relatively undisturbed spiral galaxies of type ≤ Sc barred morphology is unquestionably associated with powerful mid- and Far-IR emission. On the other hand, even amongst early type galaxies, those with LFIR/LB < 1/3 exhibit no association of high relative FIR luminosity with barred morphology, but some association of IR colors resembling those of star formation regions (SFRs). Amongst systems with LFIR/LB < 0.1 this ratio may be anti-correlated with barredness. It appears that enhanced IR emission from those galaxies whose star formation rate is currently elevated by the the bar translates them into the group with higher FIR-to-optical luminosity ratios. Depletion of extended nearnuclear gas and dust, once the bar has swept up the currently-available supplies, may reduce the fraction of the background stellar radiation field which can be converted to FIR radiation in the inner, most luminous parts of the galaxy. Thus, after the starburst has subsided, such galaxies may be less FIR-luminous than unbarred systems. Several uncertainties remain: it is still not clear whether barred morphology is a necessary condition for the generation of a starburst in an otherwise undisturbed galaxy, while evidence as to the effect of differing bar strengths is conflicting.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
Most acid sulphate soils (ASSs) in the Pearl River Delta of South China have been traditionally reclaimed for rice cultivation, but the rice yield in most of these paddy fields is lower than the average rice yield in China due to extremely high soil acidity. In the present study, a range of sulphate and acidity parameters were investigated in ASS profiles in three types of paddy fields in Taishan City (Guangdong Province, China) divided based on the local rice productivity (4500, 3000 and 1500 kg/ha) using an abandoned ASS (uncultivated) as the control treatment to ascertain key yield constraining parameters. Soluble acidity (SA), exchangeable acidity (ExA), soluble sulphate (SS) and net acid-soluble sulphate (NAS) increased with increasing soil depths from 0 to 100 cm and then decreased abruptly with further increases in the depth. However, the depth distribution of exchangeable sulphate (ES) was uniform. The soil acidity and sulphate contents differed significantly in three sampled paddy fields. The values of SA and SS in the soils at depths of 0–100 cm in the studied ASS were lower compared with those in the uncultivated ASS and the ExA in soils at depths of 0–40 cm in ASS were lower compared with those observed in the uncultivated ASS. A correlation analysis revealed that SA was strongly correlated with SS and ExA with NAS. Soluble acidity, ExA, SS and NAS in the ASS were significantly associated with rice yield. Exchangeable acidity in the plough layer (0–20 cm) of soils was the most sensitive indicator of soil quality affecting rice yield among those in soils from 0 to 140 cm depth. It is interesting to note that SA, SS and NAS were more sensitive indicators of soil quality affecting rice yield at 60–100 cm than at 0–40 cm depth. Principal component analysis showed that pH value, ExA and ES in soils at depths of 0–40 cm and SA, SS and NAS in soils at depths of 60–100 cm constituted the critical soil acidity and sulphate characteristics that were strongly correlated with rice yields. This finding implies that controlling the ExA in the plough layer and the SA and NAS in the Jarosite layer should be the major focus of studies aimed at the amelioration of ASSs.
To assess the time-dependent exposure of California healthcare facilities to patients harboring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) upon discharge from 1 hospital.
Retrospective multiple-cohort study of adults discharged from 1 hospital in 2005–2009, counting hospitals, nursing homes, cities, and counties in which carriers were readmitted, and comparing the number and length of stay of readmissions and the number of distinct readmission facilities among carriers versus noncarriers.
We evaluated 45,772 inpatients including those with MRSA (N=1,198), VRE (N=547), ESBL (N=121), and CDI (N=300). Within 1 year of discharge, MRSA, VRE, and ESBL carriers exposed 137, 117, and 45 hospitals and 103, 83, and 37 nursing homes, generating 58,804, 33,486, and 15,508 total exposure-days, respectively. Within 90 days of discharge, CDI patients exposed 36 hospitals and 35 nursing homes, generating 7,318 total exposure-days. Compared with noncarriers, carriers had more readmissions to hospitals (MRSA:1.8 vs 0.9/patient; VRE: 2.6 vs 0.9; ESBL: 2.3 vs 0.9; CDI: 0.8 vs 0.4; all P<.001) and nursing homes (MRSA: 0.4 vs 0.1/patient; VRE: 0.7 vs 0.1; ESBL: 0.7 vs 0.1; CDI: 0.3 vs 0.1; all P<.001) and longer hospital readmissions (MRSA: 8.9 vs 7.3 days; VRE: 8.9 vs 7.4; ESBL: 9.6 vs 7.5; CDI: 12.3 vs 8.2; all P<.01).
Patients harboring antibiotic-resistant pathogens rapidly expose numerous facilities during readmissions; regional containment strategies are needed.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1275–1282
A new type of steel-concrete composite beam with double-box cross-section is proposed in this paper. In order to investigate stress behaviors and deflection characteristics of such composite beam with wide flange considering the shear lag effect, theoretical analysis and experimental study are launched simultaneously. Based on the minimum potential energy principle, governing differential equations in view of the shear lag effect are deduced by energy variational method, and analytical solutions of it's stress and deflection under the effect of symmetrical loading are calculated. The preceding analyses show that relative error is less than 14.71%, with a good agreement, and farther show that this method of theoretical derivation, which is used for analyzing shear lag effect of composite beam with wide flange, has certain reference and guidance.
Across 366 California hospitals, we identified hospital-level characteristics predicting increased hospital-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI) rates including more licensed beds, teaching and long-term acute care (LTAC) hospitals, and polymerase chain reaction testing. Adjustment for these characteristics impacted rankings in 24% of teaching hospitals, 13% of community hospitals, and 11% of LTAC hospitals.
Metastatic tumors can spread via release of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream. Early detection of these CTCs could greatly improve cancer survival rates by enabling diagnosis, and therefore treatment, before secondary tumors arise. However, tumor cells are typically present in very low concentrations, making them difficult to detect in a fluid dominated by red blood cells (RBCs), leukocytes and serum proteins. Separation of CTCs from blood plasma, leukocytes and RBCs is predicted to improve cell capture via antibody-based methods and reduce interference in capture/detection assays. Previously, members of our team have demonstrated microfluidic, size-based separation of blood components, but have yet to integrate this sorting capability with an affinity-based detection technology. To this end, we have developed a microfluidic platform to separate CTCs from mouse blood and detect them using grating coupled surface plasmon resonance (GCSPR). We have implemented a size-based sorting array, which separates objects based upon their diameter, within a microfluidic channel. Separation of beads (2 μm, 6 μm, 10 μm) has been demonstrated, as well as separation of white blood cells and CTCs from blood. The resulting stream of large blood cells (including CTCs) is then directed onto an integrated SPR grating for affinity based capture and detection. Using GCSPR vs. conventional SPR enables detection of multiple cell types across the grating in an array-based format. We have demonstrated differential capture and detection of cells on GCSPR gratings following size-based separation of blood. Using capture antibodies specific to unique CTC surface proteins enables identification of cell types and may provide prognostic capability, beyond the diagnostic capacity of this system.
Although variation in the long-term course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is not strongly predicted by existing symptom subtype distinctions, recent research suggests that prediction can be improved by using machine learning methods. However, it is not known whether these distinctions can be refined by added information about co-morbid conditions. The current report presents results on this question.
Data came from 8261 respondents with lifetime DSM-IV MDD in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Outcomes included four retrospectively reported measures of persistence/severity of course (years in episode; years in chronic episodes; hospitalization for MDD; disability due to MDD). Machine learning methods (regression tree analysis; lasso, ridge and elastic net penalized regression) followed by k-means cluster analysis were used to augment previously detected subtypes with information about prior co-morbidity to predict these outcomes.
Predicted values were strongly correlated across outcomes. Cluster analysis of predicted values found three clusters with consistently high, intermediate or low values. The high-risk cluster (32.4% of cases) accounted for 56.6–72.9% of high persistence, high chronicity, hospitalization and disability. This high-risk cluster had both higher sensitivity and likelihood ratio positive (LR+; relative proportions of cases in the high-risk cluster versus other clusters having the adverse outcomes) than in a parallel analysis that excluded measures of co-morbidity as predictors.
Although the results using the retrospective data reported here suggest that useful MDD subtyping distinctions can be made with machine learning and clustering across multiple indicators of illness persistence/severity, replication with prospective data is needed to confirm this preliminary conclusion.