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The strong-coupling mode, called the “quasimode”, is excited by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in high-intensity laser–plasma interactions. Also SBS of the quasimode competes with SBS of the fast mode (or slow mode) in multi-ion species plasmas, thus leading to a low-frequency burst behavior of SBS reflectivity. Competition between the quasimode and the ion-acoustic wave (IAW) is an important saturation mechanism of SBS in high-intensity laser–plasma interactions. These results give a clear explanation of the low-frequency periodic burst behavior of SBS and should be considered as a saturation mechanism of SBS in high-intensity laser–plasma interactions.
Proper monitor planning is a vital component of structural health monitoring (SHM) project. An extremely important part of the monitor planning is the placement of sensors, usually in the form of acceleration sensors. For the placement of three-dimensional acceleration sensors, the state of practice is to select the sensor configuration by previous experiences. However, this results in a waste of many sensors. A novel method called siege ant colony algorithm (SAC) is proposed in this paper. This method is built on the previous ant colony optimization (ACO) in the direction of improving efficiency and accuracy when applied to optimal sensor placement (OSP) problems in large-scale structure monitoring. This method is applied and compared with standard approaches using the Hanjiang transmission tower.
A large-scale network named the default mode network (DMN) dynamically cooperates and competes with an external attention system (EAS) to facilitate various cognitive functioning that is prominently impaired in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia is related to the disrupted competition and/or cooperation between these two networks.
A total of 35 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls were scanned using gradient-echo echo-planar imaging during n-back working memory (WM) processing. Brain activities of the DMN and EAS were measured using general linear modelling of the functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Dynamic interaction between the DMN and EAS was decomposed into two directions using Granger causality analysis.
We observed a significant failure of DMN suppression in patients with schizophrenia, which was significantly related to WM/attentional deficit. Granger causality modelling showed that in healthy controls, while the EAS inhibitorily influenced the DMN, the DMN exerted an ‘excitatory’ or cooperative influence back on the EAS, especially in those with lower WM accuracy. In schizophrenia, this ‘excitatory’ DMN→EAS influence within the reciprocal EAS–DMN loop was significantly reduced, especially in patients with WM/attentional deficit.
The dynamic interaction between the DMN and EAS is likely to be comprised of both competitive and cooperative influences. In healthy controls, both the ‘inhibitory’ EAS→DMN interaction and ‘excitatory’ DMN→EAS interaction are correlated with WM performance. In schizophrenia, reduced ‘cooperative’ influence from the DMN to dorsal nodes of the EAS occurs in the context of non-suppression of the DMN and may form a possible pathophysiological substrate of WM deficit and attention disorder.
We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and a potentially important source of zinc (Zn) in the diet. The improvement of Zn content of rice is a global challenge with implications for both rice production and human health. The objective of the present study was to identify the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and Zn application methods on Zn content of rice by evaluating rice production on native soils with different Zn availabilities in 2010/11. The results indicated that Zn application increased rice grain yield and Zn content in grains compared with the control; however, this effect was also affected by the native soil Zn availability, N fertilizer rate and Zn fertilizer application method. The native soil Zn status was the dominant factor influencing grain yield and grain Zn content in response to Zn fertilizer application. Grain Zn content ranged from 19·74 to 26·93 mg/kg under the different Zn statuses. The results also indicated that Zn application method has a significant influence on grain yield. Application of Zn fertilizer to the soil was more effective than the foliar spray on rice grain yield; however, the foliar spray resulted in a greater increase in grain Zn content when compared with soil application. Grain Zn content was affected by application method and displayed the following general trend: soil application + foliar spray > foliar spray > soil application. The experiments investigating the effect of N fertilizer rate combined with Zn application method showed a clear increase in both grain yield and Zn content as the N fertilizer level increased from 200 to 300 kg/ha. In addition, the results also indicated that N content and accumulation increased in all plant tissues, which suggests that Zn application might influence the uptake and translocation of N in rice plants. These results suggest that soil application in addition to a foliar spray of Zn should be considered as an important strategy to increase grain yield and grain Zn content of rice grown in soils with low background levels of Zn-associated diethylene triamine pentaacetate acid. Moreover, this process could be further strengthened by a high N application rate. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the potential of optimizing nutrient management using Zn fertilizer to obtain higher grain yields and higher grain Zn content in fields with low native Zn status.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a new low-frequency interferometric radio telescope built in Western Australia at one of the locations of the future Square Kilometre Array. We describe the automated radio-frequency interference detection strategy implemented for the Murchison Widefield Array, which is based on the aoflagger platform, and present 72–231 MHz radio-frequency interference statistics from 10 observing nights. Radio-frequency interference detection removes 1.1% of the data. Radio-frequency interference from digital TV is observed 3% of the time due to occasional ionospheric or atmospheric propagation. After radio-frequency interference detection and excision, almost all data can be calibrated and imaged without further radio-frequency interference mitigation efforts, including observations within the FM and digital TV bands. The results are compared to a previously published Low-Frequency Array radio-frequency interference survey. The remote location of the Murchison Widefield Array results in a substantially cleaner radio-frequency interference environment compared to Low-Frequency Array’s radio environment, but adequate detection of radio-frequency interference is still required before data can be analysed. We include specific recommendations designed to make the Square Kilometre Array more robust to radio-frequency interference, including: the availability of sufficient computing power for radio-frequency interference detection; accounting for radio-frequency interference in the receiver design; a smooth band-pass response; and the capability of radio-frequency interference detection at high time and frequency resolution (second and kHz-scale respectively).
We fabricated Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells by a printing and high-pressure sintering (PHS) process. First, the CZTSSe solid solution powders were synthesized by heating the elemental mixtures at 550oC for 5 h in an N2 gas atmosphere. We fabricated CZTSSe films by a printing and high-pressure sintering (PHS) process. The obtained dense CZTSSe film was post-annealed at 550oC for 10 min under an N2 +5% H2S gas atmosphere. We fabricated CZTSSe solar cells with the device structure of Ag/ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CZTSSe/Mo/soda-lime glass. The CZTSSe solar cell showed an efficiency of 2.1%, with Voc of 272 mV, Jsc of 18.0 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.44.
Gattini and CSTAR have been installed at Dome A, Antarctica, which provide time-series photometric data for a large number of pulsating variable stars. We present the study for several variable stars with the data collected with the two facilities in 2009 to demonstrate the scientific potential of observations from Dome A for asteroseismology.
The crystal structure of a-plane GaN/ZnO heterostructures on r-plane sapphire was investigated by using the XRD and TEM measurment. It was found the formation of (220) ZnGa2O4 and crystal orientation of semipolar (10
3) GaN at GaN/ZnO interface. The epitaxial relation of normal surface direction are the sapphire (1
02) // a-GaN (11
0) and ZnGa2O4 (220) // semi-polar GaN (10
). Beside, the emission peak energy of ZnO appears shift about 60 meV in the GaN/ZnO/GaN heterostructures due to the re-crystallization of ZnO layer with Ga or N atom and the formation of the localized state.
We report the case of a successful cochlear implantation in a patient with severe cochlear hypoplasia.
The outcome of cochlear implantation is generally less favourable for patients with cochlear hypoplasia than for those with a normal cochlear structure. In the reported patient, part of the electrode array was inserted into the internal auditory canal. Nevertheless, the benefits following cochlear implantation seemed to outweigh the risks for this patient.
Cochlear hypoplasia is not necessarily a contraindication for cochlear implantation.
Dome A on the Antarctic plateau is likely one of the best observing sites on Earth (Saunders et al. 2009). We used the CSTAR telescope (Yuan et al. 2008) to obtain time-series photometry of 104 stars with i>14.5 mag during 128 days of the 2008 Antarctic winter season (Wang et al. 2011). During the 2010 season we observed 2 × 104 stars with i>15 mag for 183 days (Wang et al. 2012). We detected a total of 262 variables, a 6 × increase relative to previous surveys of the same area and depth carried out from temperate sites (Pojmanski 2004). Our observations show that high-precision, long-term photometry is possible from Antarctica and that astronomically useful data can be obtained during 80% of the winter season.
Dielectric polymers with high energy density with low loss at high electric fields are highly desired for many energy storage and regulation applications. A polar-fluoropolymer blend consisting of a high energy density polar-fluoropolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-CTFE)) with a low dielectric loss polymer of poly(ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (ECTFE) was developed and investigated. We show that the two polymers are partially miscible which leads to blends with high energy density and low loss. Moreover, by introducing crosslinking to further tailor the nano-structures of the blends a markedly reduction of losses in the blend films at high field can be achieved. The crosslinked blend films show a dielectric constant of 7 with a dielectric loss of 1% at low field. Furthermore, the blends maintain a high energy density and low loss (∼3%) at high electric fields (> 250 MV/m).
An inventory of topsoil soil organic carbon (SOC) content in household farms was performed in a village from a red earth region in Jiangxi Province, China in 2003. In this region, the farmland managed by each household is fragmented, consisting of several plots of land that are not necessarily adjacent to each other. A statistical analysis of SOC variation with land use and household management type, and with crop management practices was conducted. Plot size ranged from 0·007 to 0·630 ha with a mean of 0·1 ha, and SOC content ranged from 1·72 to 25·2 g/kg, varying widely with a variety of land management and agricultural practices, arising from individual household behaviours. The mean SOC content in plot size <0·1 ha was 20% lower than in plot size ⩾0·1 ha. SOC of dry crop plots was 70% lower than that in rice paddies, and SOC of plots contracted from the village was almost double that of plots leased from other householders. Moreover, a 30% increase in SOC was observed with green manure cultivation, and a 55% increase under triple cropping. The difference in SOC levels between the least and most favourable cases of household land management and agricultural practice was up to 150%. The results suggest that policies targeted at crop management alone may not deliver the expected SOC benefits if household land management is also not improved.
The defects formed in carbon rich CZ and EFG silicon after a 900°C, 160 or 560 min long, phosphorous diffusion were studied with TEM. Besides misfit dislocations, numerous precipitates were observed in the junction region in both materials. However, no precipitates were found in the bulk. The precipitates in CZ had a larger strain field than those in EFG material. The difference in the extent of the strain field of precipitates in CZ and EFG silicon can be ascribed to the higher oxygen content in CZ silicon. It appears that oxygen is involved in the Si-self interstitial promoted precipitation of carbon.
By thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction and R(T) relationship determination, the BiSrCaCuO system superconductors with composition of 2201, 2212 and 2223 were studied systematically. The experiments discovered that there is an unstable plane in 2223 sample, but not in 2201 and 2212. Comparing this result with the structure and property of 123 phase in YBCO-system, analyzing carefully, we found that only those superconductors which have the unstable plane are of higher Tc value. The role of the unstable plane in a superconductor is discussed. It is possible that 110K superconductivity in Bi-system has a close relationship with the existence of this unstable plane.
Highly oriented silicon nanowires were grown on Si (111) substrate via a solid-liquid-solid (SLS) mechanism. Unlike the well known vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism of whisker growth, no gaseous or liquid Si source was supplied during growth. Ni was used as the liquid forming agent and mixture of H2 and Ar was introduced in the experiment. Oriented silicon nanowires grew at 950°C and the ambient pressure kept at about 200 Torr. The oriented silicon nanowires have a length around I il m and uniform diameter about 25nm. Selected area electron diffraction showed that silicon nanowires are completely amorphous. The approach used here is simple and controllable, and may be useful in large-scale synthesis of various nanowires.
Amorphous silicon nanowires (a-SiNW's) with average diameter around 20 nm were synthesized at about 950° C under an Ar/H2 atmosphere on large area of a (11) Si substrate without supplying any gaseous or liquid Si sources. The Si substrate, deposited with a layer of Ni of about 40 nm thick, served itself as a silicon source for the growth of the a-SiNWs. Different from the well-known vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) for conventional whisker growth, it was found that growth of the a-SiNWs was controlled by a solid-liquid-solid mechanism, which is analogous to the VLS model.
The recent success of bulk synthesis of pure nano-scale silicon quantum wires (SiQW's) enables us to evaluate their photoluminescence (PL) characteristics under ultra-violet photoexcitation. Intense multiple light emissions ranging from dark red to blue regions were revealed for as-grown and partially oxidized SiQW samples. The physical origin of the multiemissions is discussed on the basis of quantum confinements, or defect centers.
The temperature as well as orientation dependence in anomalous hardening occurs in single crystal Ti-56AI between 673K and 1073K under single slip of ordinary dislocations. The ordinary dislocations (1/2<110]) are gliding not only on (111) plane but also on (110) plane in the temperature range where the anomalous hardening occurs in single crystal Ti-56A1. The TEM study shows that the (110) cross-slip of ordinary dislocations is a double cross-slip in nature in which first, the dislocations cross-slip from the primary (111) slip plane to (110) plane followed by cross-slipping again onto another primary slip plane. This double cross-slip leaves a pair of edge segments 'superjogs' in (110) planes. It appears that these superjogs are immobile in the forward direction and act as pinning points. Furthermore, these pinning points would act as a Frank-Read source for the double cross-slipped dislocations, which generate dislocation loops as well as dislocation dipoles. The pinning structure, multiplane dislocation loops, and dipoles of double cross-slip origin all contribute to anomalous hardening at high temperatures in this material.
Precise wafer-to-wafer alignment accuracy is crucial to interconnecting circuits on different wafers in three dimensional integrated circuits. We discuss the use of fabricated structures on wafer surfaces to mechanically achieve higher alignment accuracy than can be achieved with our existing (baseline) alignment protocol. The keyed alignment structures rely on structures with tapered side-walls that can slide into each after two wafers are “pre-aligned” using our baseline alignment protocol. Results indicate that alignment accuracy is about a quarter micron, well below the one micron alignment accuracy obtained in our baseline alignment procedure using commercial state-of-the-art wafer alignment equipment. In addition to improving alignment, the alignment structures also hinder undesirable bonding-induced misalignment. The keyed alignment structures are also promising for nano-imprint lithography.