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Since 1992 we have been conducting a 5-GHz VLBI imaging survey of southern and equatorial radio sources. So far, we have published the results of two observing sessions with 26 southern radio sources imaged in total (Shen et al. 1997; 1998). In this paper, we present the preliminary results of the third session of observations of 7 equatorial sources in the sample.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and a potentially important source of zinc (Zn) in the diet. The improvement of Zn content of rice is a global challenge with implications for both rice production and human health. The objective of the present study was to identify the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and Zn application methods on Zn content of rice by evaluating rice production on native soils with different Zn availabilities in 2010/11. The results indicated that Zn application increased rice grain yield and Zn content in grains compared with the control; however, this effect was also affected by the native soil Zn availability, N fertilizer rate and Zn fertilizer application method. The native soil Zn status was the dominant factor influencing grain yield and grain Zn content in response to Zn fertilizer application. Grain Zn content ranged from 19·74 to 26·93 mg/kg under the different Zn statuses. The results also indicated that Zn application method has a significant influence on grain yield. Application of Zn fertilizer to the soil was more effective than the foliar spray on rice grain yield; however, the foliar spray resulted in a greater increase in grain Zn content when compared with soil application. Grain Zn content was affected by application method and displayed the following general trend: soil application + foliar spray > foliar spray > soil application. The experiments investigating the effect of N fertilizer rate combined with Zn application method showed a clear increase in both grain yield and Zn content as the N fertilizer level increased from 200 to 300 kg/ha. In addition, the results also indicated that N content and accumulation increased in all plant tissues, which suggests that Zn application might influence the uptake and translocation of N in rice plants. These results suggest that soil application in addition to a foliar spray of Zn should be considered as an important strategy to increase grain yield and grain Zn content of rice grown in soils with low background levels of Zn-associated diethylene triamine pentaacetate acid. Moreover, this process could be further strengthened by a high N application rate. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the potential of optimizing nutrient management using Zn fertilizer to obtain higher grain yields and higher grain Zn content in fields with low native Zn status.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
We retrospectively analysed the epidemiological data of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases from the largest paediatric infectious diseases centre in Shanghai between 2007 and 2010. A total of 28 058 outpatients were diagnosed with HFMD, of which 3948 (14·07%) were hospitalized, 730 (2·60%) had complications with neurological disorders and pulmonary oedema/haemorrhage, and 11 (0·04%) died. The peak season was the summer months. Boys were more affected than girls. Since 2008, the major population group affected has shifted from native Shanghainese children attending preschool to migrant children and younger children cared for at home. Children aged 1–4 years constituted 82·27% of cases. EV-A71 was tested in clinical samples taken from severe cases in 2009 and 2010, and from most inpatients in 2010. EV-A71 was positive in 99·17% and 86·31% of severe cases, respectively in 2009 and 2010. All 12 cases with pulmonary oedema or haemorrhage were infected with EV-A71. Ten (90·90%) of 11 fatal cases were attributable to EV-A71 infection. In 2010, EV-A71-positive cases accounted for 54·12% of inpatients. The dominant circulation of EV-A71 led to the outbreak of HFMD and occurrence of severe and fatal cases.
In an x-ray diffraction experiment performed on a germanium (111) crystal, both the rod-like and the diffuse-like scattering from the surface have been observed on a nonspecular crystal truncation rod. These scattering contributions can be explained using existing theory on surface roughness. Two treatments to the Ge (111) surface have been used to provide examples with different roughness characteristics for this study. Quantitative analysis results in a surface roughness of 2.5+0.3Å for a clean surface passivated with iodine and 4.3+0.5Å for a Syton polished surface covered with a naturally grown oxide layer. A typical lateral scale of flat surface regions has also been obtained from the transverse width of the diffuse-like scattering peak, and found to be 200 A and 400 Å respectively.
We report new results on nano-scaled oxide films deposited by an RF aerosol mist plasma technique: including indium tin oxide transparent conductive films; yttria stabilized zirconia, nickel iron oxide/YSZ cermet, and lanthanum strontium manganite for fuel cell applications; Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconductor films; gadolinium iron oxide for magnetic heat pumps; silicon oxide for protective coatings, etc. Since this deposition process occurs in an atmospheric environment, it has potential for large scale production. The maximum deposition rate is approximately 1 micrometer per minute per centimeter squared. Substrate temperatures were between 300°C and 900°C. Crystal sizes are analyzed by XRD (Shadow Programs). Some films were also characterized by resistance, optical(IR-UV-Vis transmission/reflection and FTIR) and Mössbauer measurements. Film morphology was found to be strongly dependent on deposition parameters. Controlling the deposition rate by altering solution concentration and mist feed rates, as well as altering plasma torch settings and substrate temperature allowed the formation of different film morphologies. Film density, thickness, and crystallite size could be controlled to obtain films of differing characteristics. This is advantageous to fuel cell depositions where a dense electrolyte as well as porous electrodes (anode and cathode) are required.
We have used ion implantation to dope polycrystalline BaxSr(1−x)TiO3 (BST) thin films with Mn. Dopant concentrations were varied in the range of 0.1 at % to 2 at % Mn. X-ray diffraction and TEM studies show that the implantation process significantly damages the film leaving only short range order, but subsequent rapid thermal annealing heals the damage. The effect of the different Mn dopant concentrations on the electrical properties of the complex capacitance, relaxation currents, leakage, C-V, and resistance degradation was investigated. Our initial results show that the implanted films have significantly lower leakage (up to a factor of 10 lower) than the as deposited films for small (<0.5 at % Mn) implantation doses. The capacitance decreased with increasing Mn concentration while the relaxation currents and loss tangents increased.
Mn-doped GaN films were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy(HVPE). structural measurements show that Mn may substitute Ga atoms in the GaN lattice. Ferromagnetism is observed in these HVPE grown Mn-doped GaN films, which may come from the GaxMn1−xN phase in the films.
The prevalence of family childhood adversities (FCAs) and their joint effects on the first onset of subsequent mental disorders throughout the life course are rarely examined, especially in Asian communities.
Face-to-face household interviews of 5201 people aged 18–70 years in Beijing and Shanghai were conducted by a multi-stage household probability sampling method. The first onsets of four broad groups of mental disorders and six categories of FCAs were assessed using The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Joint effects of FCAs were analyzed by the best fitting of several competitive multivariate models.
FCAs were highly prevalent and inter-correlated. Half of them were in a family-dysfunction cluster. The best-fitting model included each of six types of FCA (with family-dysfunction FCAs being the strongest predictors), number of family-dysfunction FCAs, and number of other FCAs. Family-dysfunction FCAs had a significant subadditive association with subsequent disorders. Little specificity was found for the effects of particular FCAs with particular disorders. Predictive effects of FCAs reached the highest in ages 13–24 compared to ages 4–12 and ⩾25. Estimates of population-attributable risk proportions indicated that all FCAs together explained 38.5% of all first-onset disorders.
Chinese children were exposed to a broad spectrum of inter-related FCAs, as found in Western countries. FCAs related to family dysfunction were especially associated with subsequent mental disorders. Biological and/or environmental factors that mediate these long-term effects should be studied in prospective research on broad groups of FCAs.
An experimental study on the angular distribution and conversion of multi-keV X-ray sources produced from 2 ns-duration 527nm laser irradiated thick-foil targets on Shenguang II laser facility (SG-II) is reported. The angular distributions measured in front of the targets can be fitted with the function of f(θ) = α+ (1−α)cosβθ (θ is the viewing angle relative to the target normal), where α = 0.41 ± 0.014, β = 0.77 ± 0.04 for Ti K-shell X-ray sources (~4.75 keV for Ti K-shell), and α = 0.085 ± 0.06, β = 0.59 ± 0.07 for Ag/Pd/Mo L-shell X-ray sources (2–2.8 keV for Mo L-shell, 2.8–3.5 keV for Pd L-shell, and 3–3.8 keV for Ag L-shell). The isotropy of the angular distribution of L-shell emission is worse than that of the K-shell emission at larger viewing angle (>70°), due to its larger optical depth (stronger self-absorption) in the cold plasma side lobe surrounding the central emission region, and in the central hot plasma region (emission region). There is no observable difference in the angular distributions of the L-shell X-ray emission among Ag, Pd, and Mo. The conversion efficiency of Ag/Pd/Mo L-shell X-ray sources is higher than that of the Ti K-shell X-ray sources, but the gain relative to the K-shell emission is not as high as that by using short pulse lasers. The conversion efficiency of the L-shell X-ray sources decreases with increasing atomic numbers (or X-ray photon energy), similar to the behavior of the K-shell X-ray source.
Previous surveys on depression in China focused on prevalence estimates without providing a detailed epidemiological profile.
Face-to-face household interviews were conducted with a multi-stage household probability sample of 2633 adults (age ⩾18 years) in Beijing and 2568 in Shanghai between November 2001 and February 2002. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess major depressive episode (MDE) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria.
The lifetime prevalence and 1-year prevalence estimates of DSM-IV/CIDI MDE were 3.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8–4.4%] and 1.8% (95% CI 1.2–2.4%) respectively. No significant gender difference was found in these estimates. Respondents born in 1967 or later were at elevated lifetime risk compared with respondents born in earlier cohorts. The mean age of onset was 30.3 years. Among those reporting 1-year MDE, 15.7, 51.8, 25.3 and 6.4% reported mild, moderate, severe and very severe symptoms respectively; 4.8, 2.6 and 3.2% reported suicidal ideation, plans, and recent attempts in the same year respectively. Respondents with 1-year MDE reported a mean of 27.5 days out of role owing to their depression in the year before interview. Significant co-morbidity was found between MDE and other mental disorders [odds ratio (OR) 22.0] and chronic physical disorders (OR 3.2). Only 22.7% of respondents with 1-year MDE sought treatment.
The low prevalence and insignificant gender difference, but not patterns of onset, course, co-morbidity, and impairment, distinguish the epidemiological profile of MDE in metropolitan China from those in other countries.
Observations of 43 GHz 28SiO (v = 1, J = 1-0) masers in the circumstellar envelope of the M-type semi-regular variable star VX Sgr were performed using the VLBA at 3 epochs during 1999 April-May. By tracing 42 matched maser features appearing in all the three epochs, we determined the contraction of an SiO maser shell toward VX Sgr at a velocity of about 4 km s−1 at a distance of 1.7 kpc to VX Sgr. We also report on some preliminary results from our first epoch of simultaneous VLBA observations of three 7 mm SiO masers toward VX Sgr.
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