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Nitrogen (N) application and irrigation to winter wheat may decrease leaf temperature and enhance photosynthesis: as a result, more photosynthates will be allocated to the grains, resulting in higher grain yields. To investigate this hypothesis, a 2-year field study was conducted with three levels of N fertilizer application (no fertilizer, N0; 240 kg N/ha, N1; 360 kg N/ha, N2) and two different water regimes (rainfed with no irrigation, R; irrigation at the over-wintering, stem elongation and grain filling stages, W). The results show that both N application and supplemental irrigation significantly increased grain yield with increases in both grain number/m2 and the 1000-grain weight, viz., WN2>WN1>WN0>RN2>RN1>RN0. In addition, application of N under both water regimes significantly increased flag leaf area, above-ground biomass and single stem productivity and decreased leaf temperature, which led to an increase in net photosynthesis rates and ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase activity. Moreover, analysis of the chlorophyll α fluorescence transient showed that N fertilizer application and supplemental irrigation significantly increased electron donor and acceptor performance of the photosystem II reaction centre.
In general, an airship is equipped with hybrid-heterogeneous actuators: the aerodynamic surfaces, the vectored propellers and the buoyant ballonets. The aerodynamic surfaces have high efficiency in attitude control at high speed. However, vectored propellers are also introduced here for attitude control under the special working condition of low airspeed. Due to the lower thrust-to-weight ratio, the composite control of hybrid-heterogeneous actuators is the primary object in controller design for an airship. In composite attitude control, first the attitude moment allocation between aerodynamic control surfaces and vectored propellers is designed according to different dynamic airspeed, to achieve the smooth motion transition from low to high airspeed, then the weighted generalised inverse (WGI) is used to design the reconfigurable actuator allocation among the homogeneous multi-actuators, where the authority of every actuator can be decided by setting the corresponding value of the weight matrix, thus the control law is unchanged under different actuator configurations. Taking the mid-altitude airship as an example, the simulations of position control, trace tracking and altitude control are provided. Simulation results demonstrate that the attitude moments allocation obtains moment distribution between the aerodynamic surfaces and the vectored propellers under different airspeeds; the reconfigurable actuator allocation achieves a good distribution and reconfiguration among homogeneous actuators, thereby enhancing the reliability of the control system.
The role of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in the pathogenesis of liver disease has recently gained much interest. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in patients with liver disease from three cities in Shandong and Henan provinces, China. A case–control study was conducted from December 2014 to November 2015 and included 1142 patients with liver disease and 1142 healthy controls. Serum samples were collected from all individuals and were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. Information on the demographics, clinical, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants was collected from the medical records and by the use of a questionnaire. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG was 19·7% in patients with liver disease compared with 12·17% in the controls. Only 13 patients had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies compared with 12 control individuals (1·14% vs. 1·05%, respectively). The highest seroprevalence was detected in patients with liver cancer (22·13%), followed by hepatitis patients (20·86%), liver cirrhosis patients (20·42%), and steatosis patients (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that consumption of raw meat (odds ratio (OR) = 1·32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·01–1·71; P = 0·03) and source of drinking water from wells (OR = 1·56; 95% CI 1·08–2·27; P = 0·01) were independent risk factors for T. gondii infection in liver disease patients. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection is more likely to be present in patients with liver disease. Therefore, efforts should be directed toward health education of populations at high risk of T. gondii infection and measures should be taken to protect vulnerable patients with liver disease.
Association mapping based on linkage disequilibrium is an effective approach for dissecting the inheritance of complex multi-gene traits. In the present study, association mapping was performed for yield traits based on 172 popular Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars in China and 331 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The gene diversity index of 331 markers ranged from 0·0387 to 0·7799 with an average of 0·4002, and the polymorphism information content ranged from 0·0379 to 0·7473 with an average of 0·3375. A total of 93 significantly associated markers for seven yield traits were identified across more than one environment, among which 11 were for seed cotton yield, 12 for lint yield, 11 for boll number per plant, 13 for boll weight, 21 for lint percentage, 14 for lint index and 11 for seed index. The corresponding ranges in phenotypic variation explained by markers across four environments for these seven traits were 1·75–10·49, 1·75–9·34, 2·84–11·80, 2·59–9·89, 2·38–13·97, 2·73–14·82 and 2·50–11·88%, respectively. Some of the yield-associated markers detected were found to be linked to or associated with the same traits identified in previous studies. Furthermore, elite alleles for yield traits were also mined. The present study can provide useful information for further understanding the genetic basis of yield traits, and facilitate high-yield breeding by molecular design in Upland cotton.
Feeding a high concentrate (HC) diet is a widely used strategy for supporting high milk yields, yet it may cause certain metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the changes in milk production and hepatic metabolism in goats fed different proportions of concentrate in the diet for 10 weeks. In total, 12 mid-lactating goats were randomly assigned to an HC diet (65% concentrate of dry matter, n=6) or a low concentrate (LC) diet (35% concentrate of dry matter, n=6). Compared with LC, HC goats produced greater amounts of volatile fatty acids and produced more milk and milk lactose, fat and protein (P<0.01). HC goats showed a greater concentration of ATP, NAD, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and hepatic triglycerides than LC goats (P<0.05). Real-time PCR results showed that messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of gluconeogenic genes, namely, glucose-6-phosphatase, pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were significantly up-regulated and accompanied greater gluconeogenic enzyme activities in the liver of HC goats. Moreover, the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase mRNA was also up-regulated by the HC diet (P<0.05). HC goats had greater hepatic phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase than LC (P<0.05). Furthermore, histone-3-lysine-27-acetylation contributed to this elevation of gluconeogenic gene expression. These results indicate that lactating goats fed an HC diet for 10 weeks produced more milk, which was associated with up-regulated gene expression and enzyme activities involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis.
In recent years, the effect of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the cerebrum and neuropsychiatric patients has been increasingly highlighted. However, there is limited information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in psychiatric patients in Shandong province, eastern China. Therefore, through a case-control study, 445 patients hospitalized for diacrisis or treatment in Weihai, eastern China, and 445 control subjects from the general population of the same region matched by gender, age, and residence were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies to T. gondii and associated sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics in a population of psychiatric patients. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii in psychiatric patients (77/445, 17·30%) was significantly higher than in control subjects (55/445, 12·36%) (P = 0·038). Fourteen (3·15%) psychiatric patients and 10 (2·25%) control subjects had IgM antibodies to T. gondii (P = 0·408). Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with cats at home and consumption of raw/undercooked meat in psychiatric patients. Considering that most psychiatric patients usually have lower cognitive functioning and additional transmission routes related to their inappropriate behaviours that could enhance the risk of infection, psychiatric patients should be considered as a specific group of T. gondii infection.
Eating raw pork and/or liver is a custom of the Bai ethnic group in China. Most people living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwestern China are of Bai ethnicity. Little is known of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Bai and Han ethnic populations in this region. In the present survey, a total of 555 and 595 blood samples were obtained from Bai and Han ethnic groups in Dali urban and rural areas, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine T. gondii IgG antibodies. Total positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgG in Bai and Han groups in this region was 21·6% (248/1150). The total seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher in the Bai ethnic group (32·3%, 179/555) than in the Han ethnic group (11·6%, 69/595) (P < 0·01). The results of statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between cat feeding/non-cat feeding groups in the Bai ethnic group, the most important risk factor was consumption of raw pork and/or liver for the Bai group, but feeding a cat may be the main route of T. gondii infection for the Han group. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies to prevent and control T. gondii infection in this unique region of the world.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Cotton plant architecture is an important agronomic trait affecting yield and quality. In the present study, two F2:3 upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) populations were developed from Baimian2/TM-1 and Baimian2/CIR12 to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for cotton plant architecture traits using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 73 QTL (37 significant and 36 suggestive) affecting plant architecture traits were detected in both populations. Four common QTL, qTFN-17 for total fruit nodes, qFBN-17 for fruit branch nodes, qFBL-17 for fruit branch length and qTFB-17a/qTFB-17b (qTFB-17) for total fruit branches, were found across the two populations. These common QTL should have high reliability and could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) to facilitate cotton plant architecture. The two common QTL, qTFN-17 and qFBL-17, were especially significant in both populations, and moreover, they explained >0·100 of the phenotypic variation in at least one population. These two QTL should be considered preferentially for MAS. The synergistic alleles and the negative alleles could be utilized in cotton plant architecture breeding programmes according to specific breeding objectives.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
With RXTE data ranging from 1997 August to 1998 May, we detected 8 type I X-ray bursts from the atoll source 4U 1735–44. The bursts are present at all the branches, and most occur at an inferred low mass accretion rate. We find no correlation between the peak flux of the bursts and the mass accretion rate. The results are different from that of 4U 1728-34, whose bursts' peak flux are anti-correlated with the mass accretion rate.
The magnetic reconnection (MR) configuration was constructed by using two approaching laser-produced plasma bubbles. The characteristics of the MR current sheet were investigated. The driving energy of the laser pulse affects the type of the current sheet. The experiments present “Y-type” and “X-type” current sheets for larger and smaller driving energy, respectively. The energetic electrons were found to be well-collimated. The formation and ejection of plasmoid from the “Y-type” current sheet was expected to enhance the number of accelerated electrons.
The laser wakefield structure in a magnetized underdense plasma is studied analytically and numerically. Because of the DC magnetic field perpendicular to the laser propagation direction, an electromagnetic component appears in addition to the normal electrostatic component. This electromagnetic component can transmit partially into vacuum at the plasma–vacuum boundary as shown by particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that the emission has components both at the fundamental plasma frequency and its harmonics if the wakefield is driven at a high amplitude. Comparing with the emission at the plasma frequency, the harmonic emission depends weakly upon the density profile at plasma–vacuum boundary and it can pass through the boundary almost without energy loss, providing a new method for the diagnostic of wakefields.
The presence of a superstructure is identified to play a key role for the modifications in both superconductivity and structure transitions in the Mg1-xAlxB2 system. This superstructure occurs along the c-axis direction, and can be well interpreted by Al-layer ordering. The optimal composition of the superstructure phase is MgAlB4, a superconductor with Tc ∼12K. Raman spectrum of MgAlB4 gives rise to a sharp peak at around 941cm−1. Brief diagrams illustrating the superconductivity and structural features of Mg1-xAlxB2 (0≤x≤1) materials are presented.
Monochromatized synchrotron radiation has been employed as the excitation source for soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. In the present paper changes in the emission spectra that occur as the excitation energy is varied near the core-absorption threshold are discussed. In the case of crystalline silicon, strong variations are seen in the L2,3 emission for excitation energies up to 30 eV above threshold. These variations are shown to be dependent on the crystalline order of the material and can be interpreted in terms of restrictions on the crystal momentum that arise in an inelastic scattering description of the combined absorption and emission. On the other hand this description is less relevant to the excitation-energy dependence of ionic insulators, in which strong phonon coupling removes these restrictions on crystal momentum. In the insulators B2O3 and BN strong variations in the emission are observed at threshold, upon creation of a core exciton: the exciton affects the emission through its influence on the phonon coupling as well as on the initial and final-state screening.
In this paper, molecular beam epitaxial growth of Ni2MnGa single crystal layers on GaAs (001) using a NiGa interlayer is reported. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed an epitaxial relationship of Ni2MnGa “010] // GaAs   and a tetragonal structure of the film (a = b = 5.79 Å, c = 6.07 Å). Magnetic measurements using vibrating sample and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers revealed an in-plane magnetization of ∼200 emu/cm3at room temperature and a Curie temperature of ∼350 K. The martensitic phase transformation was observed to occur at ∼250 K
This paper reviews of some of the progress made in the development of ZnO-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). n-ZnO/p-AlGaN-based heterostructures have been successfully for the fabrication of UV emitting LEDs that have operated at temperatures up to 650K, suggesting an excitonic origin for the optical transitions. RF-plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been used to grow epitaxial CdxZn1-xO films on GaN/sapphire structure. These films have a single-crystal wurtzite structure as demonstrated by structural and compositional analysis. High quality CdxZn1-xO films were grown with up to x=0.78 mole fraction as determined by RBS and SIMS techniques. Optical emission ranging from purple (Cd0.05Zn0.95O) to yellow (Cd0.29Zn0.71O) was observed. Compositional fluctuations in a Cd0.16Zn0.84O films were not detected by spatially resolved CL measurements, although intensity fluctuation with features of ∼0.5 μm diameter were seen on the intensity maps. Time resolved photoluminescence shows multi-exponential decay with 21 psec. and 49±3 psec. lifetimes, suggesting that composition micro-fluctuations may be present in Cd0.16Zn0.84O film.
Bump process using gold bump led to many cleaning problems like polymer residues, metal and polyimide consumption after stripping process. First of all, stripping process of bump photoresist is one of the difficult technologies since thickness of PR pattern of bump is thicker than that of general metal line at least 100 times. We investigated the improvement of LDI BUMP stripping Process at 25 with new chemical. We found that the wettability may be improved when the additive was added to the chemical and it improves the stripping ability. It was found that new chemical was superior to commercial chemical in terms of chemical stability, removal efficiency of polymer residue and decrease in metal and polyimide consumption. Also, we could obtain removal mechanism of photoresist pattern by measured Raman equipment and enhancement of yield in mass production line of semiconductor.