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Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother–child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23.1 weeks) and offspring BMI and adiposity (abdominal circumference, subscapular skinfold thickness) in early childhood (mean age 23.4 months). Maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations were positively associated with infant birth weight (P=0.005) and GROW customized birth weight centiles (P=0.008). There was a significant association between maternal percentage body fat (P=0.02) and visceral fat area (P=0.00) with infant body weight in early childhood. Body mass index (BMI) in early childhood was significantly higher in offspring born preterm compared with those born at term (P=0.03). GROW customized birth weight centiles was significantly associated with body weight (P=0.01), BMI (P=0.007) and abdominal circumference (P=0.039) at early childhood. Our findings suggest that being born preterm, large for gestational age or exposed to an obesogenic intrauterine environment and higher maternal non-fasting plasma glucose concentrations are associated with increased obesity risk in early childhood. Future strategies should aim to reduce the prevalence of overweight/obesity in women of child-bearing age and emphasize the importance of optimal glycemia during pregnancy, particularly in Indigenous women.
In the past, two-dimensional images of internal snow structure have been obtained through plane surface sections or thin sections. These techniques are time-consuming and necessarily destroy the snow specimen. Computed tomography (CT) allows similar images to be obtained, but in a more efficient and non-destructive manner. To demonstrate the methodology, a CT scanner was used to obtain cross-sectional images over time of a snow sample undergoing kinetic-growth metamorphism. Densities calculated from the CT images correlated well to density measured using a traditional method. A procedure was developed that allows the CT image to be converted to binary in an objective manner. Employing innovative stereological software, the microstructural properties (grain diameter, bond diameter, neck length and intercept length) of the snow were then measured from the two-dimensional CT images. The presented methodology provides significant improvements over previous techniques, requiring less time and labor to obtain high-quality microstructural data.
755 CCD observations during the years 2014-2016 have been reduced to derive the precise positions of Triton, the first satellite of Neptune. The observations were made by the 1 m telescope at Yunnan Observatory over 15 nights during the years 2014-2016. The theoretical position of Triton was retrieved from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons system. Our results show that when the newest Gaia catalogue (Gaia DR1) is referred to the mean O-Cs (observed minus computed) residuals are about 0.042 and -0.006 arcsec, the dispersions are 0.012 and 0.012 arcsec in right ascension and declination, respectively. The dispersions are improved very significantly when the Gaia DR1 is referred to. However, the agreement in right ascension is not so good as that in declination, the reason might come from the uncertainty of planet ephemeris. More observations are needed to confirm this.
Using the data from the LAMOST Galactic spectroscopic surveys and some other surveys, we have started a series of work to measure the mass distribution of our Galaxy. As a result of the first-stage, we have constructed the Galactic rotation curve out to 100 kpc and the Galactic escape velocity curve between 5 and 14 kpc. From the two curves, we have built parametrized mass models for our Galaxy, respectively. Both models yield a similar result for the Milky Way's virial mass: ~ 0.9 × 1012 M⊙.
The Gaia DR1 catalogue stars are taken as reference ones to reduce the Cassini ISS images of Enceladus in 2015, and a total of 494 Cassini-centered astrometric observation are obtained in right ascension(α) and declination (δ) in the international Celestial Reference Frame(ICRF). Compared with JPL ephemerides SAT367, we derive that their mean residuals are a few tens meters in α*cos(δ) and a few kilometers in δ, and their standard deviation is not over 2 kilometers. Compared with the results from UCAC4 catalogue stars, The Gaia DR1 has the equivalent precision of reduction.
Using the spectroscopic distances of over 0.12 million A-type stars selected from the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anti-center (LSS-GAC), we map their three-dimensional number density distributions in the Galaxy. These stellar number density maps allow an investigation of the Galactic young age thin disk structure with no a priori assumptions about the functional form of its components. The data show strong evidence for a significant flaring young disk. A more detail analysis show that the stellar flaring have different behaviours between the Northern and the Southern Galactic disks. The maps also reveal spatially coherent, kpc-scale stellar substructure in the thin disk. Finally, we detect the Perseus arm stellar overdensity at R ~ 10 kpc.
Like a kaleidoscope, Philippe Ariès has brilliantly assembled a multitude of colorful illustrations and episodes to demonstrate the discovery of the modern idea of childhood in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He establishes a familiar rhythm as each chapter traces this discovery from another vantage point: the child as seen in works of art, the child playing games, praying at home, or attending school. Each time he uses the Middle Ages as a starting point where the child received no special attention apart from his elders. The total effect produced by Ariès' sensitive and probing treatment is one of great immediacy, of an actual, lively world in the past that has been very much neglected.
In an earlier study on the variations in micro-structure during large volumetric deformations of snow, the authors observed that, contrary to expectations, the length of necked regions connecting adjacent grains did not necessarily decrease during compression. Rather, there was no discernible or predictable change in neck length, in some cases increasing and in others decreasing. Further evaluations of the data and an analysis of the mechanics of neck deformation determined that the process is complicated by three different effects: (1) increase in coordination number (number of bonds per grain), (ii) plastic deformation of the neck, and (iii) a geometric effect determined by bond growth and grain geometry. It is found that the first two effects tend to decrease the neck length and that the third produces an increase in mean neck length. A set of coupled differential equations is developed describing the variation of neck length and bond radius, and solved numerically for conditions consistent with the experimental data. Calculated results agree well with the data for the bond radius but the results for the neck length are less satisfactory. Reasons for this lie with difficulty in making accurate measurements of mean neck length from two-dimensional surface-section data and in the criteria for the definition of necks.
A set of microstructural variables is selected to characterize the behavior of snow. Corresponding mathematical relations from quantitative stereology theory are presented along with relations and techniques required for numerical evaluation. An experimental investigation is carried out to determine changes in these variables for snow subjected to large compressive deformations. The micro-structural variables studied included coordination number, grain-size, bond radius, neck length, pore-size, free surface area and grains/unit volume. Measurements at several stages of deformation are used to evaluate the changes in the microstructure as functions of deformation. Microstructure measurements of six snow samples subjected to confined compression tests are presented for pre-compressed and compressed states, corresponding to final stresses of 0.387, 0.77 and 1.55 MPa. Grain-size and bond radius were found to go through finite changes during compression, although the variation of bond radius was more complicated in nature. The coordination number and number of bonds/unit volume were found to go through large changes during compression, while specific free surface area was found to increase by 100% due to grain- and bond-fracture processes. No discernible patterns of change in neck length could be found in the experiments. A close relationship between some of the microstructural variables and the stress response of the material was observed. These results serve to contribute to the presently available data and understanding of the microstructural behavior of snow.
Religiosity is a protective factor against many health problems, including alcohol use disorders (AUD). Studies suggest that religiosity has greater buffering effects on mental health problems among US Blacks and Hispanics than Whites. However, whether race/ethnic differences exist in the associations of religiosity, alcohol consumption and AUD is unclear.
Using 2004–2005 NESARC data (analytic n = 21 965), we examined the relationship of public religiosity (i.e. frequency of service attendance, religious social group size), and intrinsic religiosity (i.e. importance of religious/spiritual beliefs) to frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV AUD in non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks, Hispanics and NH Whites, and whether associations differed by self-identified race/ethnicity.
Only public religiosity was related to AUD. Frequency of religious service attendance was inversely associated with AUD (NH Whites β: −0.103, p < 0.001; NH Blacks β: −0.115, p < 0.001; Hispanics β: −0.096, p < 0.001). This association was more robust for NH Blacks as compared with NH Whites and Hispanics (interaction β: 0.025, p < 0.001). Among NH Whites, higher intrinsic religiosity was inversely associated with alcohol use frequency (β: −0.143, p < 0.001). These effects were more robust among NH Whites (interaction (β: 0.072, p < 0.033) than for NH Blacks (β: −0.080, p > 0.05) or Hispanics (β: −0.002, p > 0.05).
US adults reporting greater public religiosity were at lower risk for AUD. Public religiosity may be particularly important among NH Blacks, while intrinsic religiosity may be particularly important among NH Whites, and among Hispanics who frequently attend religious services. Findings may be explained by variation in drinking-related norms observed among these groups generally, and in the context of specific religious institutions.
Attention bias modification (ABM) training has been suggested to effectively reduce depressive symptoms, and may be useful in the prevention of the illness in individuals with subthreshold symptoms, yet little is known about the spontaneous brain activity changes associated with ABM training.
Resting-state functional MRI was used to explore the effects of ABM training on subthreshold depression (SubD) and corresponding spontaneous brain activity changes. Participants were 41 young women with SubD and 26 matched non-depressed controls. Participants with SubD were randomized to receive either ABM or placebo training during 28 sessions across 4 weeks. Non-depressed controls were assessed before training only. Attentional bias, depressive severity, and spontaneous brain activity before and after training were assessed in both training groups.
Findings revealed that compared to active control training, ABM training significantly decreased depression symptoms, and increased attention for positive stimuli. Resting-state data found that ABM training significantly reduced amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the right anterior insula (AI) and right middle frontal gyrus which showed greater ALFF than non-depressed controls before training; Functional connectivity strength between right AI and the right frontoinsular and right supramarginal gyrus were significantly decreased after training within the ABM group; moreover, the improvement of depression symptoms following ABM significantly correlated with the connectivity strength reductions between right AI and right frontoinsular and right supramarginal gyrus.
These results suggest that ABM has the potential to reshape the abnormal patterns of spontaneous brain activity in relevant neural circuits associated with depression.
To assess the time-dependent exposure of California healthcare facilities to patients harboring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) upon discharge from 1 hospital.
Retrospective multiple-cohort study of adults discharged from 1 hospital in 2005–2009, counting hospitals, nursing homes, cities, and counties in which carriers were readmitted, and comparing the number and length of stay of readmissions and the number of distinct readmission facilities among carriers versus noncarriers.
We evaluated 45,772 inpatients including those with MRSA (N=1,198), VRE (N=547), ESBL (N=121), and CDI (N=300). Within 1 year of discharge, MRSA, VRE, and ESBL carriers exposed 137, 117, and 45 hospitals and 103, 83, and 37 nursing homes, generating 58,804, 33,486, and 15,508 total exposure-days, respectively. Within 90 days of discharge, CDI patients exposed 36 hospitals and 35 nursing homes, generating 7,318 total exposure-days. Compared with noncarriers, carriers had more readmissions to hospitals (MRSA:1.8 vs 0.9/patient; VRE: 2.6 vs 0.9; ESBL: 2.3 vs 0.9; CDI: 0.8 vs 0.4; all P<.001) and nursing homes (MRSA: 0.4 vs 0.1/patient; VRE: 0.7 vs 0.1; ESBL: 0.7 vs 0.1; CDI: 0.3 vs 0.1; all P<.001) and longer hospital readmissions (MRSA: 8.9 vs 7.3 days; VRE: 8.9 vs 7.4; ESBL: 9.6 vs 7.5; CDI: 12.3 vs 8.2; all P<.01).
Patients harboring antibiotic-resistant pathogens rapidly expose numerous facilities during readmissions; regional containment strategies are needed.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1275–1282
The interaction between an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular jet and a flat plate, placed parallel to the jet, is addressed in this study. At high subsonic conditions and for certain relative locations of the plate, a resonance takes place with accompanying audible tones. Even when the tone is not audible the sound pressure level spectra are often marked by conspicuous peaks. The frequencies of these peaks, as functions of the plate’s length, its location relative to the jet as well as jet Mach number, are studied in an effort to understand the flow mechanism. It is demonstrated that the tones are not due to a simple feedback between the nozzle exit and the plate’s trailing edge; the leading edge also comes into play in determining the frequency. With parametric variation, it is found that there is an order in the most energetic spectral peaks; their frequencies cluster in distinct bands. The lowest frequency band is explained by an acoustic feedback involving diffraction at the plate’s leading edge. Under the resonant condition, a periodic flapping motion of the jet column is seen when viewed in a direction parallel to the plate. Phase-averaged Mach number data on a cross-stream plane near the plate’s trailing edge illustrate that the jet cross-section goes through large contortions within the period of the tone. Farther downstream a clear ‘axis switching’ takes place for the time-averaged cross-section of the jet that does not occur otherwise for a non-resonant condition.
In the past two decades, the growing global demand for solar energy has spurred scientific interest in alternative technologies to conventional silicon. In particular, CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) has emerged as a competitor. We have developed a scalable deposition technique using RF magnetron sputtering of quaternary CIGS. Notably, the resulting films do not require postselenization, reducing processing time and cost. We have fabricated devices above 10% efficiency using this approach, showing its promise as a production method for highperformance CIGS photovoltaics. However, the morphology of the sputtered CIGS layer is markedly different from conventional evaporated films; grain sizes vary through the thickness of the film, with numerous small grains dominating at the Mo/CIGS interface that then either terminate or grow in an inverted-pyramid fashion to form large, columnar grains at the CIGS/CdS interface.
To better understand the origin of this morphology, we have studied the growth behavior of the CIGS layer using a combination of atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy to observe initial nucleation and grain growth behavior of quaternary-sputtered CIGS. We also discuss the effects of interfacial layers at the Mo/CIGS interface, demonstrating a novel wetting layer that conformally coats the Mo surface.
Lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles (NPs) of different sizes (2.0 nm - 14.4 nm) have been synthesized in our laboratory. By using those NPs, we formed colloidal films on glass and GaAs substrates employing a specialized supercritical fluid CO2 (sc-CO2) deposition method. The deposited films contain only the PbS NPs and the protecting group of oleic acids and require no polymer matrix. The NP films are solvent free, environmentally stable, and show good adhesion to the substrates. The sc-CO2 deposition process can deposit films ranging in thickness from a few monolayers, in well ordered arrays, up to 0.5 μm or greater. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of these nano-structured films were studied with Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy from 5 K up to 300 K.