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To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures.
The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA.
Young adults (20–39 years of age).
Among these young adults (n 5316), 23·8 % were BS, 16·5 % were RTEC consumers and 59·7 % were OB consumers. Relative to the BS, the RTEC consumers were 31 %, 39 %, 37 %, 28 %, 23 %, 40 % and 42 % less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, reduced serum HDL-cholesterol or elevated serum insulin, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the BS were 1·24, 1·26 and 1·44 times more likely to have elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol or reduced serum HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the RTEC consumers were 22 %, 31 % and 24 % less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity or elevated blood pressure, respectively. No difference was seen in the prevalence of the MetS by breakfast skipping or type of breakfast consumed.
Results suggest that consumption of breakfast, especially that included an RTEC, was associated with an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in US young adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the nature of these relationships.
To examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors.
Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyle information (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated, using a cross-sectional design. Statistical methods included principal component factor analysis, analysis of covariance and linear regression. All analyses were covariate-adjusted.
The Bogalusa Heart Study (1995–1996), USA.
Young adults (19–39 years; n 995; 61 % females/39 % males; 80 % whites/20 % blacks) from a semi-rural southern US community were examined.
The ‘Western Dietary Pattern’ (WDP) consisted of refined grains, French fries, high-fat dairy foods, cheese dishes, red meats, processed meats, eggs, snacks, sweets/desserts, sweetened beverages and condiments. The ‘Prudent Dietary Pattern’ (PDP) consisted of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, 100 % fruit juices, low-fat dairy products, poultry, clear soups and low-fat salad dressings. The DP explained 31 % of the dietary intake variance. Waist circumference (P = 0·02), triceps skinfold (P = 0·01), plasma insulin (P = 0·03), serum TAG (P = 0·05), and the occurrence of MetS (P = 0·03) were all inversely associated with PDP. Insulin sensitivity (P < 0·0005) was positively associated with PDP. Serum HDL cholesterol (P = 0·05) was inversely associated with WDP. Blacks consumed more servings from WDP than whites (P = 0·02). Females consumed more servings from PDP than males (P = 0·002). Those with >12 years of education consumed more servings from PDP than their counterparts (P < 0·0001). Current smokers consumed more servings from WDP than current non-smokers (P < 0·0001). Physically very active young adults consumed fewer servings from WDP than their sedentary counterparts (P = 0·02).
More studies are warranted to confirm these findings in other populations.
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