We report on identification of core collection from 192 accessions collected from 12 Indian states and five other countries based on 109 polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Pairwise Jaccard's similarity coefficient for accessions varied from 0.25 to 1 with a maximum genetic distance of 0.75 obtained between accessions Jc428 (from Mexico) and J204 (from Madurai, Tamil Nadu). Both UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Averages) clustering and principal coordinate analyses showed similar grouping of accessions in three major clusters in which Mexican accessions clustered separately from Indian, Chinese and African accessions. Results obtained from analysis of molecular variance indicated that 59% of the genetic variation was distributed among the populations, while 41% of variation was within the populations. A total of 16 (8.3% of the entire collection) core accessions were identified, which contained the entire allelic diversity of 192 accessions with respect to the sampled AFLP loci. The core accessions would be highly useful for future genetic improvement of Jatropha. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on identification of core accessions in Jatropha.