The growth response of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) to anticipated future climate conditions is currently unknown, and thus two parallel studies were conducted dealing with glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotypes of S. oleraceus. The glyphosate efficacy study was conducted using different doses of glyphosate (0 [control], 180, 360, 720 [recommended dose], and 1,440 g ae ha−1) at two different moisture levels (well-watered and water-stressed conditions). In the second study, the growth and seed production of these biotypes were studied under different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (450 and 750 ppm) and under well-watered (100% field capacity) and water-stressed (50% field capacity) conditions. Results showed that the GR biotype survived (>68%) at 1,440 g ha−1, but for the GS biotype, no plant survived, and both biotypes were slightly (<10%) affected by moisture regimes. In the elevated CO2 condition, the GS biotype plants were >38% taller and produced >44%, >18%, and >21% more leaves, buds, and seeds, respectively, compared with the ambient CO2 concentration under both moisture regimes. The biomass also increased by 27% in comparison with the ambient CO2 concentration. For the GR biotype, plants at the elevated CO2 level, while they also grew 38% taller in comparison with the ambient CO2 concentration, the numbers of leaves, buds, and seeds and biomass were not affected by this increase in CO2. Results showed that there were minimal changes in response to glyphosate for GR and GS biotypes of S. oleraceus with or without moisture stress. Our study suggests that future climate change with elevated CO2 levels can affect the response of S. oleraceus to glyphosate, and such knowledge will be helpful for weed management in the future.