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Shattercane is a problematic summer annual grass weed species in regions that produce grain sorghum. Three shattercane populations (DC8, GH4, and PL8) collected from sorghum fields from northwestern Kansas survived the field-use rate (52 g ha−1) of postemergence-applied imazamox. The main objectives of this research were to 1) confirm and characterize the level of resistance to imazamox in putative imazamox-resistant (IMI-R) shattercane populations, 2) investigate the underlying mechanism of resistance, and 3) determine the effectiveness of postemergence herbicides for controlling IMI-R populations. A previously known imazamox susceptible (SUS) shattercane population from Rooks County, KS, was used. All three putative populations exhibited a 4.1-fold to 6.0-fold resistance to imazamox compared with the SUS population. The ALS gene sequences from all IMI-R populations did not reveal any known target-site resistance mutations. A pretreatment with malathion, which inhibits cytochrome P450, followed by imazamox at various doses, reversed the resistance phenotype of the PL8 population. In a separate greenhouse study, postemergence treatments with nicosulfuron, quizalofop, clethodim, and glyphosate resulted in ≥96% injury to all IMI-R populations. The lack of known ALS target-site mutations and the reversal of resistance phenotype by malathion suggest the possibility of metabolism-based resistance to imazamox in PL8 shattercane population.
Waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus [Moq.] Sauer) escapes are common in midwestern U.S. soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields due to the continued rise in herbicide-resistant (HR) populations. In a conventional harvesting system, weed seeds are harvested with the crop grain and spread back on to the field. Harvest weed seed control methods such as chaff lining concentrate weed seed-bearing crop and weed chaff into a narrow row (chaff line). These chaff lines (30- to 50-cm wide) are undisturbed the following growing seasons, under the assumption that the chaff line creates an environment less favorable for weed seed germination and survival. Field experiments were conducted in a soybean–corn (Zea mays L.) rotation in 2020 and 2021 in Ames, IA, and Roland, IA, to quantify the effectiveness of chaff lining for managing A. tuberculatus seeds. About 70% of the A. tuberculatus seeds were retained on the mother plant at soybean harvest in 2020. The chaff lining system concentrated more than 99% of the A. tuberculatus seeds exiting the combine into the chaff line. Although A. tuberculatus population density in 2021 was 76% higher inside the chaff line than outside the chaff line, A. tuberculatus aboveground biomass was 63% lower inside the chaff line than outside the chaff line at 12 wk after corn planting. Similarly, A. tuberculatus inside the chaff line had delayed emergence compared with A. tuberculatus outside the chaff line. Application of preemergence herbicides in corn inside the chaff line delayed A. tuberculatus emergence by more than 2 wk compared with A. tuberculatus outside the chaff line. Additionally, a follow-up postemergence herbicide application in corn was needed only inside the chaff line to manage A. tuberculatus, suggesting the possibility of lower overall herbicide use. These results support implementing chaff lining in soybean-based crop systems of the U.S. Midwest to help manage HR A. tuberculatus seedbanks.
Development of integrated weed management strategies requires knowledge of weed emergence timing and patterns, which are regulated primarily by water and thermal requirements for seed germination. Laboratory experiments were conducted in fall 2017 to fall 2018 to quantify the effect of osmotic potential and temperature on germination of 44 kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] populations under controlled conditions. Bassia scoparia populations were collected in fall 2016 from northern (near Huntley, MT, and Powell, WY) and southern (near Lingle, WY, and Scottsbluff, NE) regions of the U.S. Great Plains. Ten osmotic potentials from 0 to −2.1 MPa and eight constant temperatures from 4 to 26 C were evaluated. Response of B. scoparia populations to osmotic potential did not differ between the northern and southern regions. At an osmotic potential of 0 MPa, all B. scoparia populations had greater than 98% germination, and the time to achieve 50% germination (t50) was less than 1 d. At −1.6 MPa, 25% of seeds of all B. scoparia populations germinated. Osmotic potentials of −0.85 and −1.9 MPa reduced B. scoparia germination by 10% and 90%, respectively. Regardless of temperature regime, all populations exhibited greater than 88% germination. The germination rate was highest at temperatures between 15 to 26 C and did not differ between populations from northern versus southern regions. At this temperature range, all populations had a t50 of less than 1 d. However, at 4 C, B. scoparia populations from the northern region had a higher germination rate (5 h) and cumulative germination (7%) than populations from the southern region. Overall, these results indicate a wide range of optimum temperatures and osmotic potential requirements for B. scoparia germination.
Field experiments were conducted over 2 yr (2019 to 2020) at two locations in Iowa to evaluate multi-tactic strategies for managing multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] in a corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation. The effect of three herbicide programs on A. tuberculatus control was tested in corn (2019). The effects of the prior year’s corn weed control, a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop, and soybean row spacing (38-cm vs. 76-cm wide) on A. tuberculatus density, biomass, and seed production were tested in soybean (2020). A herbicide program used in corn with two sites of action provided only 35% control of MHR A. tuberculatus compared with ≥97% control by a herbicide program with three sites of action. In soybean, adequate control of A. tuberculatus (≥90%) in the prior year’s corn crop and use of a cover crop or narrow rows reduced A. tuberculatus density by more than 60% at 3 and 9 wk after planting (WAP) compared with inadequate control (30%) in the prior year’s corn and no cover crop. Cover crop and narrow-row soybean reduced A. tuberculatus density by 44% at 3 WAP compared with no cover crop and wide-row soybean. Inclusion of a single control tactic, adequate control (≥90%) with multiple herbicides in the prior year’s corn, use of a cover crop, or narrow-row soybean reduced A. tuberculatus biomass and seed production at soybean harvest by at least 24% compared with inadequate control (30%) in the prior year’s corn, no cover crop, and wide-row soybean. The combination of all three control tactics reduced A. tuberculatus biomass and seed production at soybean harvest by at least 80%. In conclusion, diverse control tactics targeting A. tuberculatus at multiple life-cycle stages can make substantial contributions to the management of MHR populations.
The herbicides that inhibit 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) are primarily used for weed control in corn, barley, oat, rice, sorghum, sugarcane, and wheat production fields in the United States. The objectives of this review were to summarize 1) the history of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides and their use in the United States; 2) HPPD-inhibitor resistant weeds, their mechanism of resistance, and management; 3) interaction of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides with other herbicides; and 4) the future of HPPD-inhibitor-resistant crops. As of 2022, three broadleaf weeds (Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, and wild radish) have evolved resistance to the HPPD inhibitor. The predominance of metabolic resistance to HPPD inhibitor was found in aforementioned three weed species. Management of HPPD-inhibitor-resistant weeds can be accomplished using alternate herbicides such as glyphosate, glufosinate, 2,4-D, or dicamba; however, metabolic resistance poses a serious challenge, because the weeds may be cross-resistant to other herbicide sites of action, leading to limited herbicide options. An HPPD-inhibitor herbicide is commonly applied with a photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor to increase efficacy and weed control spectrum. The synergism with an HPPD inhibitor arises from depletion of plastoquinones, which allows increased binding of a PS II inhibitor to the D1 protein. New HPPD inhibitors from the azole carboxamides class are in development and expected to be available in the near future. HPPD-inhibitor-resistant crops have been developed through overexpression of a resistant bacterial HPPD enzyme in plants and the overexpression of transgenes for HPPD and a microbial gene that enhances the production of the HPPD substrate. Isoxaflutole-resistant soybean is commercially available, and it is expected that soybean resistant to other HPPD inhibitor herbicides such as mesotrione, stacked with resistance to other herbicides, will be available in the near future.
Evolution of multiple herbicide–resistant Palmer amaranth warrants the development of integrated strategies for its control in the southcentral Great Plains (SGP). To develop effective control strategies, a better understanding of the emergence biology of Palmer amaranth populations from the SGP region is needed. A common garden study was conducted in a no-till (NT) fallow field at the Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center near Hays, KS, during the 2018 and 2019 growing seasons, to determine the emergence pattern and periodicity of Palmer amaranth populations collected from the SGP region. Nine Palmer amaranth populations collected from five states were included: Colorado (CO1, CO2), Oklahoma (OK), Kansas (KS1, KS2), Texas (TX), and Nebraska (NE1, NE2, NE3). During the 2018 growing season, the CO1 and KS1 populations displayed more rapid emergence rates, with greater parameter b values (−5.4, and −5.3, respectively), whereas the TX and NE3 populations had the highest emergence rates (b = −12.2) in the 2019 growing season. The cumulative growing degree days (cGDD) required to achieve 10%, 50%, and 90% cumulative emergence ranged from 125 to 144, 190 to 254, and 285 to 445 in 2018; and 54 to 74, 88 to 160, and 105 to 420 in the 2019 growing season across all tested populations, respectively. The OK population exhibited the longest emergence duration (301 and 359 cGDD) in both growing seasons. All tested Palmer amaranth populations had a peak emergence period between May 11 and June 8 in 2018, and April 30 and June 1 in the 2019 growing season. Altogether, these results indicate the existence of differential emergence pattern and peak emergence periods of geographically distant Palmer amaranth populations from the SGP region. This information will help in developing prediction models for decision-making tools to manage Palmer amaranth in the region.
Late-season control of Palmer amaranth in postharvest wheat stubble is important for reducing the seedbank. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of late-season postemergence herbicides for Palmer amaranth control, shoot dry biomass, and seed production in postharvest wheat stubble. Field experiments were conducted at Kansas State University Agricultural Research Center near Hays, KS, during 2019 and 2020 growing seasons. The study site had a natural seedbank of Palmer amaranth. Herbicide treatments were applied 3 wk after wheat harvest when Palmer amaranth plants had reached the inflorescence initiation stage. Palmer amaranth was controlled by 96% to 98% 8 wk after treatment and shoot biomass as well as seed production was prevented when paraquat was applied alone or when mixed with atrazine, metribuzin, flumioxazin, 2,4-D, sulfentrazone, pyroxasulfone + sulfentrazone, or flumioxazin + metribuzin, and with glyphosate + dicamba, glyphosate + 2,4-D, saflufenacil + 2,4-D, glufosinate + dicamba + glyphosate, and glufosinate + 2,4-D + glyphosate. Palmer amaranth was controlled by 89% to 93% with application of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba + 2,4-D, saflufenacil + atrazine, and saflufenacil + metribuzin resulting in Palmer amaranth shoot biomass of 15 to 56 g m−2 and production of 1,080 to 7,040 seeds m−2. Palmer amaranth control was less than 86% with application of dicamba, 2,4-D, dicamba + atrazine, and saflufenacil resulting in Palmer amaranth shoot biomass of 38 to 47 g m−2 and production of 3,110 to 6,190 seeds m−2. Palmer amaranth was controlled 63% and 72%, shoot biomass was 178 and 161 g m−2, and seed production was 35,180 and 39,510 seeds m−2, respectively, with application of 2,4-D + bromoxynil + fluroxypyr, and bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole + atrazine. Growers should use these effective postemergence herbicide mixes for Palmer amaranth control to prevent seed prevention postharvest in wheat stubble.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth is one of the most difficult to control weeds in soybean production fields in Nebraska and the United States. An integrated approach is required for effective management of GR Palmer amaranth. Cultural practices such as narrow row spacing might augment herbicide efficacy for management of GR Palmer amaranth. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of row spacing and herbicide programs for management of GR Palmer amaranth in dicamba/glyphosate-resistant (DGR) soybean. Field experiments were conducted in a grower’s field with a uniform population of GR Palmer amaranth near Carleton, Nebraska, in 2018 and 2019. Year-by-herbicide program-by-row spacing interactions were significant for all variables; therefore, data were analyzed by year. Herbicides applied PRE controlled GR Palmer amaranth ≥95% in both years 14 d after PRE (DAPRE). Across soybean row-spacing, most PRE followed by (fb) early-POST (EPOST) herbicide programs provided 84% to 97% control of Palmer amaranth compared with most EPOST fb late-post (LPOST) programs, excluding dicamba in single and sequential applications (82% to 95% control). Mixing microencapsulated acetochlor with a POST herbicide in PRE fb EPOST herbicide programs controlled Palmer amaranth ≥93% 14 d after EPOST and ≥96% 21 d after LPOST with no effect on Palmer amaranth density. Interaction of herbicide program-by-row spacing on Palmer amaranth control was not significant; however, biomass reduction was significant at soybean harvest in 2019. The herbicide programs evaluated in this study caused no soybean injury. Due to drought conditions during a majority of the 2018 growing season, soybean yield in 2018 was reduced compared with 2019.
Kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A and KS-4H) collected from a corn field near Garden City, KS, have previously shown multiple resistance to glyphosate, dicamba, and fluroxypyr. These accessions were also suspected as being resistant to photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors. The main objectives of this research were to 1) confirm the coexistence of cross-resistance to PS II inhibitors (atrazine and metribuzin) applied PRE and POST, 2) investigate the underlying mechanism of PS II-inhibitor resistance, and 3) determine the effectiveness of alternative POST herbicides for control of these multiple herbicide–resistant (MHR) kochia accessions. Results from dose-response experiments revealed that the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions were 23-fold to 48-fold resistant to PRE- and POST-applied atrazine and 13-fold to 18-fold resistant to POST-applied metribuzin compared to a known susceptible kochia accession (KS-SUS). Both accessions also showed putative resistance to PRE-applied metribuzin that needs to be confirmed. Sequence analyses of the psbA gene further revealed that all samples from the KS-4A and KS-4H kochia accessions had a Ser264Gly point mutation. A pretreatment with malathion followed by a POST application of atrazine at 1,120 g ha−1 or metribuzin at 630 g ha−1 did not reverse the resistance phenotypes of these MHR accessions. In a separate greenhouse study, alternative POST herbicides, including bicyclopyrone + bromoxynil; bromoxynil + pyrasulfotole; paraquat alone or in combination with atrazine, metribuzin, 2,4-D, or saflufenacil; and saflufenacil alone or in combination with 2,4-D effectively controlled the KS-4H accession (≥97% injury). To our knowledge, this research reports the first case of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to PRE-applied atrazine and POST-applied metribuzin. Growers should adopt diversified weed control strategies, including the use of competitive crops, cover crops, targeted tillage, and harvest weed seed control along with effective alternative PRE and POST herbicides with multiple sites of action to control MHR kochia seedbanks on their production fields.
The growth response of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) to anticipated future climate conditions is currently unknown, and thus two parallel studies were conducted dealing with glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotypes of S. oleraceus. The glyphosate efficacy study was conducted using different doses of glyphosate (0 [control], 180, 360, 720 [recommended dose], and 1,440 g ae ha−1) at two different moisture levels (well-watered and water-stressed conditions). In the second study, the growth and seed production of these biotypes were studied under different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (450 and 750 ppm) and under well-watered (100% field capacity) and water-stressed (50% field capacity) conditions. Results showed that the GR biotype survived (>68%) at 1,440 g ha−1, but for the GS biotype, no plant survived, and both biotypes were slightly (<10%) affected by moisture regimes. In the elevated CO2 condition, the GS biotype plants were >38% taller and produced >44%, >18%, and >21% more leaves, buds, and seeds, respectively, compared with the ambient CO2 concentration under both moisture regimes. The biomass also increased by 27% in comparison with the ambient CO2 concentration. For the GR biotype, plants at the elevated CO2 level, while they also grew 38% taller in comparison with the ambient CO2 concentration, the numbers of leaves, buds, and seeds and biomass were not affected by this increase in CO2. Results showed that there were minimal changes in response to glyphosate for GR and GS biotypes of S. oleraceus with or without moisture stress. Our study suggests that future climate change with elevated CO2 levels can affect the response of S. oleraceus to glyphosate, and such knowledge will be helpful for weed management in the future.
The widespread evolution of herbicide resistance in weed populations has become an increasing concern for no-tillage (NT) growers in semiarid regions of the U.S. Great Plains. Lack of cost-effective and alternative new herbicide sites of action further exacerbates the problem of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds and threatens the long-term sustainability of prevailing cropping systems in the region. A recent decline in commodity prices and increasing herbicide costs to manage HR weeds has spurred research efforts to build a strong rationale for developing ecologically based integrated weed management (IWM) strategies in the U.S. Great Plains. Integration of cover crops (CCs) in NT dryland production systems potentially offers several ecosystem services, including weed control, soil health improvement, decline in selective pest pressure, and overall reduction in pest management inputs. This review article aims to document the role of CCs for IWM, with emphasis on exploring emerging weed issues; ecological, economic, and agronomic benefits of growing CCs; and constraints preventing adoption of CCs in NT cropping systems in the semiarid Great Plains. We attempt to focus on changes in weed management practices, their long-term impacts on weed seedbanks, weed shifts, and herbicide-resistance evolution in the most common weed species in the region. We also highlight current knowledge gaps and propose new research priorities based on an improved understanding of CC management strategies that will ultimately aid in achieving sustainable weed management goals and preserving natural resources in water-limited environments.
Understanding the effects of crop management practices on weed survival and seed production is imperative in improving long-term weed management strategies, especially for herbicide-resistant weed populations. Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] is an economically important weed in western North American cropping systems for many reasons, including prolific seed production and evolved resistance to numerous herbicide sites of action. Field studies were conducted in 2014 in a total of four field sites in Wyoming, Montana, and Nebraska to quantify the impact of different crop canopies and herbicide applications on B. scoparia density and seed production. Crops used in this study were spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), and corn (Zea mays L.). Herbicide treatments included either acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors effective on non-resistant B. scoparia or a non–ALS inhibiting herbicide effective for both ALS-resistant and ALS-susceptible B. scoparia. Bassia scoparia density midseason was affected more by herbicide choice than by crop canopy, whereas B. scoparia seed production per plant was affected more by crop canopy compared with herbicide treatment. Our results suggest that crop canopy and herbicide treatments were both influential on B. scoparia seed production per unit area, which is likely a key indicator of long-term management success for this annual weed species. The lowest germinable seed production per unit area was observed in spring wheat treated with non–ALS inhibiting herbicides, and the greatest germinable seed production was observed in sugar beet treated with ALS-inhibiting herbicides. The combined effects of crop canopy and herbicide treatment can minimize B. scoparia establishment and seed production.
Evolution of kochia resistance to glyphosate and dicamba is a concern for growers in the US Great Plains. An increasing use of glyphosate and dicamba with the widespread adoption of glyphosate/dicamba-resistant (GDR) soybean in recent years may warrant greater attention. Long-term stewardship of this new stacked-trait technology will require the implementation of diverse weed control strategies, such as the use of soil-residual herbicides (PRE) aimed at effective control of GDR kochia. Field experiments were conducted in Huntley, MT, in 2017 and 2018, and Hays, KS, in 2018 to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicides applied alone or followed by (fb) a POST treatment of glyphosate plus dicamba for controlling GDR kochia in GDR soybean. Among PRE herbicides tested, sulfentrazone provided complete (100%), season-long control of GDR kochia at both sites. In addition, PRE fb POST programs tested in this study brought 71% to 100% control of GDR kochia throughout the season at both sites. Pyroxasulfone applied PRE resulted in 57% to 70% control across sites at 9 to 10 wk after PRE (WAPRE). However, mixing dicamba with pyroxasulfone improved control up to 25% at both sites. Kochia plants surviving pyroxasulfone applied PRE alone produced 2,530 seeds m−2 compared with pyroxasulfone + dicamba (230 seeds m−2) at the Montana site. No differences in soybean grain yields were observed with PRE alone or PRE fb POST treatments at the Montana site; however, dicamba, pyroxasulfone, and pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P applied PRE brought lower grain yield (1,150 kg ha−1) compared to all other tested programs at the Kansas site. In conclusion, effective PRE or PRE fb POST (two-pass) programs tested in this research should be proactively utilized by the growers to manage GDR kochia in GDR soybean.
Glyphosate-resistant junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] crops in Australia. Due to limited herbicide options in mungbean, there is an increased interest in developing integrated management strategies for the sustainable control of E. colona. Pot experiments were conducted in a screenhouse in 2017 and 2018 by growing E. colona plants (glyphosate-resistant [GR] and glyphosate-susceptible [GS] biotypes) alone (1 plant pot−1) and in competition with 4 and 8 mungbean plants pot−1. Both biotypes were developed from a single population using the clone method. The growth and seed production of both GR and GS biotypes were similar in response to mungbean competition. Averaged over biotypes, there was a reduction in the growth and seed production of E. colona as crop plants increased. Compared with the weed plants grown alone, crop interference reduced E. colona height by 17% to 19%, tiller numbers by 69% to 82%, total shoot biomass by 85% to 91%, and inflorescence numbers by 74% to 91%. When E. colona was grown with 8 mungbean plants pot−1, leaf weight ratio increased by 42% compared with plants grown alone. Compared with weed plants grown alone, mungbean interference (4 and 8 plants pot−1) reduced weed seed production by 85% to 95%. These reductions were similar for both biotypes (GR and GS), suggesting that there was no fitness penalty associated with resistance. The results of this study suggest that mungbean interference can reduce E. colona growth and seed production, but it should not be considered as a stand-alone strategy to manage E. colona and similar species in mungbean. These results also highlight the need for integrating crop competition with other management strategies to achieve complete and sustainable management of this weed.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia is an increasing concern for growers in the US Great Plains, including Kansas. Greenhouse and field experiments (Garden City and Tribune, KS, in the 2014 to 2015 growing season) were conducted to characterize the dicamba resistance levels in two recently evolved DR kochia accessions collected from fallow fields (wheat–sorghum–fallow rotation) near Hays, KS, and to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicide tank mixtures applied in fall or spring prior to the fallow year. Dicamba dose–response studies indicated that the KS-110 and KS-113 accessions had 5- to 8-fold resistance to dicamba, respectively, relative to a dicamba-susceptible (DS) accession. In separate field studies, atrazine-based PRE herbicide tank mixtures, dicamba + pendimethalin + sulfentrazone, and metribuzin + sulfentrazone when applied in the spring had excellent kochia control (85% to 95%) for 3 to 4 mo at the Garden City and Tribune sites. In contrast, kochia control with those PRE herbicide tank mixtures when applied in the fall did not exceed 79% at the later evaluation dates. In conclusion, the tested kochia accessions from western Kansas had evolved moderate to high levels of resistance to dicamba. Growers should utilize these effective PRE herbicide tank mixtures (multiple sites of action) in early spring to manage kochia seed bank during the summer fallow phase of this 3-yr crop rotation (wheat–corn/sorghum–fallow) in the Central Great Plains.
Evolution and rapid spread of herbicide-resistant (HR) kochia has become a significant challenge for growers in the U.S. Great Plains. The main objectives of this research were to confirm and characterize the response of putative auxinic HR (Aux-HR) kochia accessions (designated as KS-4A, KS-4D, KS-4H, KS-10A, KS-10-G, and KS-10H) collected from two different corn fields near Garden City, KS, to dicamba and fluroxypyr and to determine the EPSPS gene copy number to detect whether those accessions were also resistant to glyphosate. Single-dose experiments indicated that putative Aux-HR kochia accessions had 78% to 100% and 85% to 100% survivors when treated with dicamba (560 g ae ha−1) and fluroxypyr (235 g ae ha−1), respectively. Whole-plant dicamba dose–response studies revealed that the selected Aux-HR accessions had 2.9- to 15.1- and 3.1- to 9.4-fold resistance to dicamba relative to two susceptible accessions (MT-SUS and KS-SUS). In a separate fluroxypyr dose–response experiment, the selected Aux-HR accessions also exhibited 3.8- to 7.3- and 3.0- to 8.6-fold resistance to fluroxypyr on the basis of shoot fresh and dry weight responses, respectively. The confirmed Aux-HR kochia accessions also had 3 to 13 EPSPS gene copies relative to MT-SUS and KS-SUS accessions (each with 1 EPSPS gene copy). These results suggest that the putative Aux-HR kochia accessions from Kansas had developed moderate to high levels of cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr and low to high levels of resistance to glyphosate. This is the first confirmation of kochia accessions with cross-resistance to dicamba and fluroxypyr in Kansas. Growers should use diverse kochia control programs, including the proper use of dicamba and fluroxypyr stewardship, use of cover crops, occasional tillage, diversified crop rotations, and alternative effective herbicides to prevent further evolution and spread of Aux-HR kochia on their fields.
The objective of this WSSA Weed Loss Committee report is to provide quantitative data on the potential yield loss in sugar beet due to weed interference from the major sugar beet growing areas of the United States and Canada. Researchers and extension specialists who conducted research on weed control in sugar beet in the United States and Canada provided quantitative data on sugar beet yield loss due to weed interference in their regions. Specifically, data were requested from weed control studies in sugar beet from up to 10 individual studies per calendar year over a 15-yr period between 2002 and 2017. Data collected indicated that if weeds are left uncontrolled under optimal agronomic practices, growers in Idaho, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ontario, Oregon, and Wyoming would potentially lose an average of 79%, 61%, 66%, 68%, 63%, 75%, 83%, 78%, and 77% of the sugar beet yield. The corresponding monetary loss would be approximately US$234, US$122, US$369, US$43, US$40, US$211, US$12, US$14, and US$32 million, respectively. The average yield loss due to weed interference for the primary sugar beet growing areas of North America was estimated to be 70%. Thus, if weeds are not controlled, growers in the United States would lose approximately 22.4 million tonnes of sugar beet yield valued at approximately US$1.25 billion, and growers in Canada would lose approximately 0.5 million tonnes of sugar beet yield valued at approximately US$25 million. The high return on investment in weed management highlights the importance of continued weed science research for sustaining high crop yield and profitability of sugar beet production in North America.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is a problematic annual broadleaf weed species in the North American Great Plains. Bassia scoparia inherits unique biological characteristics that contribute to its propensity to evolve herbicide resistance. Evolution of glyphosate resistance in B. scoparia has become a serious threat to the major cropping systems and soil conservation practices in the region. Bassia scoparia populations with resistance to four different herbicide sites of action are a concern for growers. The widespread occurrence of multiple herbicide–resistant (HR) B. scoparia across the North American Great Plains has renewed research efforts to devise integrated weed management strategies beyond herbicide use. In this review, we aim to compile and document the growing body of literature on HR B. scoparia with emphasis on herbicide-resistance evolutionary dynamics, distribution, mechanisms of evolved resistance, agronomic impacts, and current/future weed management technologies. We focused on ecologically based, non-herbicidal strategies such as diverse crop rotations comprising winter cereals and perennial forages, enhanced crop competition, cover crops, harvest weed seed control (HWSC), and tillage to manage HR B. scoparia seedbanks. Remote sensing using hyperspectral imaging and other sensor-based technologies would be valuable for early detection and rapid response and site-specific herbicide resistance management. We propose research priorities based on an improved understanding of the biology, genetic diversity, and plasticity of this weed that will aid in preserving existing herbicide resources and designing sustainable, integrated HR B. scoparia mitigation plans.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] has been reported in six U.S. states and one Canadian province. To develop effective B. scoparia control tactics, it is necessary to understand the seed germination pattern of DR B. scoparia. The objective of this study was to compare the germination characteristics of DR versus dicamba-susceptible (DS) B. scoparia populations from Montana and Kansas under constant (5 to 35 C) and/or alternating temperatures (5/10 to 30/35 C). DR B. scoparia lines from Montana were generated after three generations of recurrent selection of field-collected populations with dicamba. Seeds of DR or DS lines from Kansas were obtained after one generation of restricted self-pollination. DR B. scoparia lines from both Montana and Kansas had a lower maximum cumulative germination than the DS lines across all temperature treatments. A majority of DR B. scoparia lines from Montana showed a temperature-mediated seed germination response, with a higher thermal requirement (30 to 35 C or 25/30 to 30/35 C) to attain the maximum cumulative germination compared with DS lines. Germination rates at 5 to 30 C were lower for DR versus DS B. scoparia lines from Kansas. All DR lines from Montana took more time than DS lines to initiate germination at 5 and 10 C or 5/10 and 20/25 C. Similarly, there was a delayed onset of germination of the DR versus DS line from Kansas at 5, 10, 15, and 20 C. Furthermore, the DR B. scoparia from both Kansas and Montana had a slower germination pattern relative to the DS B. scoparia. Diversified crop rotations using winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), fall-sown cover crops, or early-spring planted crops (e.g., wheat or barley [Hordeum vulgare L.]) that are competitive against late-emerging B. scoparia in conjunction with strategic tillage and late-season weed control tactics should be used to facilitate depletion of DR B. scoparia seedbanks.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.