The study of bovine mammary gland functional genomics requires appropriate cDNA library collections to access gene expression patterns from different developmental and physiological stages. The present study was undertaken with the objective to identify candidate genes involved in the process of increased milk synthesis following 0, 48 and 96 h of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) treatment to Surti buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) through differential display reverse transcriptase PCR (DDRT-PCR). Of a total 50 sequenced DD bands, 64% of ESTs were differentially expressed (appeared only in post-treatment samples, i.e. 48 h and 96 h) and 36% were up-regulated after rbST treatment. Of the ESTs 32%were found to be located on Bos taurus chromosome 24 (equivalent to buffalo chromosome 22), whereas 16% of ESTs could not be mapped, indicating that they are specific to buffalo. Quantitative real time PCR assay of 15 ESTs revealed transcript level surge in 13 ESTs, and decline in one EST, while one showed up-regulation in expression level at 48 h while down-regulation at 96 h. This study indicates more than 30 novel transcripts, with unknown function, involved in increased milk synthesis and also the involvement of many more genes in the physiology of milk production than once thought.