Iron-oxide nanowires were synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of Fe(OH)3 dispersion in NaOH. The obtained materials were first structurally investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Their magnetic properties were then examined by superconducting quantum interference device and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. A typical nanowire measured 10–15 nm in diameter and 600 nm in length. All the structural and magnetic investigations were consistent with the nanowire goethite structure. The nanowire Neél transition temperature occurred at 375 K; i.e., it was lowered by 25 K with respect to the corresponding goethite bulk value. The shift in the ordering temperature was suggested to be a consequence of a growing importance of strains and surface effects at the nanoscale. We were also able to irreversibly convert goethite nanowires into hematite, by warming the sample to temperatures exceeding 530 K.