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To describe a pseudo-outbreak associated with loose bronchoscope biopsy ports caused by inadequate bronchoscope repair practices by third-party vendors and to alert healthcare personnel to assess bronchoscope repair practices.
A 925-bed tertiary care hospital in Baltimore, Maryland.
Patients who underwent bronchoscopy with certain bronchoscopes after they had been repaired by a third-party vendor.
An epidemiologic investigation was conducted to determine the cause of Pseudomonas putida growth in 4 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens within a 3-day period in May 2008. All bronchoscopes were inspected, and cultures were obtained from bronchoscopes and the environment. Bronchoscope cleaning and maintenance practices were reviewed. Microbiologic results from BAL specimens and medical records were reviewed to find additional cases.
All 4 case patients had undergone bronchoscopy with one of 2 bronchoscopes, both of which had loose biopsy ports. Bronchoscope cultures grew P. putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas. The P. putida strains from the bronchoscopes matched those from the patients. Specimens from 12 additional patients who underwent bronchoscopy with these bronchoscopes grew P. putida, P. aeruginosa, or Stenotrophomonas. No patients developed clinical signs or symptoms of infection, but 7 were treated with antibiotics. Investigation revealed that the implicated bronchoscopes had been sent to an external vendor for repair; examination by the manufacturer revealed irregularities in repairs and nonstandard part replacements.
Third-party vendors without access to proprietary information may contribute to mechanical malfunction of medical devices, which can lead to contamination and incomplete disinfection.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality. Hand hygiene remains a cornerstone intervention for preventing HAIs. Unfortunately, adherence to hand hygiene guidelines among healthcare personnel is poor.
To assess short- and long-term effects of an infection prevention promotion program on healthcare personnel hand hygiene behaviors.
Time series design.
Our study was conducted at a tertiary care academic center.
Hospital healthcare personnel.
We developed a multimodal program that included a multimedia communications campaign, education, leadership engagement, environment modification, team performance measurement, and feedback. Healthcare personnel hand hygiene practices were measured via direct observations over a 3-year period by “undercover” observers.
Overall hand hygiene compliance increased by 2-fold after full program implementation (P<.001), and this increase was sustained over a 20-month follow-up period (P< .001). The odds for compliance with hand hygiene increased by 3.8-fold in the 6 months after full program implementation (95% confidence interval, 3.53–4.23; P< .001), and this increase was sustained. There was even a modest increase at 20 months of follow up. Hand hygiene compliance increased among all disciplines and hospital units. Hand hygiene compliance increased from 35% in the first 6 months after program initiation to 77% in the last 6 months of the study period among nursing providers (P<.001), from 38% to 62% among medical providers (P<.001), and from 27% to 75% among environmental services staff (P<.001).
Implementation of the infection prevention promotion program was associated with a significant and sustained increase in hand hygiene practices among healthcare personnel of various disciplines.
To review the effect of interventions, including a complete restriction in the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs), used to control an outbreak of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) caused primarily by the epidemic North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 strain.
Retrospective cohort and case-control study of all episodes of HO-CDI both before and after 2 interventions.
Community hospital; January 1, 2005, through March 31, 2007.
Complete, 5-month, facility-wide restriction of fluoroquinolone use, during which a change in the environmental-services contractor occurred.
During a 27-month period, 319 episodes of HO-CDI occurred. The hospital-wide mean defined daily doses of antimicrobials decreased 22% after restricting FQ use, primarily because of a 66% decrease in the use of FQs. The interventions were also associated with a significant change in the HO-CDI incidence trends and with an absolute decrease of 22% in HO-CDI cases caused by the epidemic strain (from 66% before the intervention period to 44% during and after the intervention period; P = .02). Univariate analysis revealed that case patients with HO-CDI due to the epidemic strain were more likely than control patients, who did not have diarrhea, to receive a FQ, whereas case patients with HO-CDI due to a nonepidemic strain were not. However, FQ use was not significantly associated with HO-CDI in multivariable analysis.
An outbreak of epidemic-strain HO-CDI was controlled at a community hospital after an overall decrease in antimicrobial use, primarily because of a restriction of FQ use and a change in environmental-services contractors. The restriction of FQ use may be useful as an adjunct control measure in a healthcare facilities during outbreaks of epidemic-strain HO-CDI.
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