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A higher dietary intake or serum concentration of betaine has been associated with greater lean body mass in middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether betaine intake is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We assessed the association between dietary betaine intake and relative changes in SMM after 3 year in middle-aged adults. A total of 1242 participants aged 41-60 years from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study (GNHS) 2011-2013 and 2014-2017 with body composition measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were included. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple linear regression found that energy-adjusted dietary betaine intake was significantly and positively associated with relative changes (i.e., percentage loss or increase) in SMM of legs, limbs, and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) over 3-year follow-up [β(SE): 0.322 (0.157), 0.309 (0.142), and 0.303 (0.145), respectively; P < 0.05]. The ANCOVA models revealed that participants in the highest betaine tertile had significantly less loss in SMM of limbs and ASMI and more increase in SMM of legs over 3 years of follow-up, compared with those in the bottom betaine tertile (all P-trend < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated higher dietary betaine intake may be associated with less loss of SMM of legs, limbs and ASMI in middle-aged adults.
The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 were analysed to determine the factors influencing the prognosis and virus shedding time to facilitate early detection of disease progression. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationships among prognosis, clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes. The predictive value of this model was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration and internal validation. The viral shedding duration was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and the prognostic factors were analysed by univariate log-rank analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. A retrospective study was carried out with patients with COVID-19 in Tianjin, China. A total of 185 patients were included, 27 (14.59%) of whom were severely ill at the time of discharge and three (1.6%) of whom died. Our findings demonstrate that patients with an advanced age, diabetes, a low PaO2/FiO2 value and delayed treatment should be carefully monitored for disease progression to reduce the incidence of severe disease. Hypoproteinaemia and the fever duration warrant special attention. Timely interventions in symptomatic patients and a time from symptom onset to treatment <4 days can shorten the duration of viral shedding.
In this work ice breaking caused by a pair of interacting collapsing bubbles was studied by an experimental approach. The bubbles were generated by an underwater electric discharge simultaneously, positioned either horizontally or vertically below a floating ice plate and observed via high-speed photography. The bubble-induced shock waves, which turn out to be crucial to the fracturing of the ice, were visualized using a shadowgraph method and also measured using pressure transduces. Unique bubble behaviour was observed, including bubble coalescence, bubble splitting, inclined counter-jets and asymmetric toroidal bubble collapse. Bubble dynamic properties, such as jet speed, jet energy and bubble centre displacement, were measured. Shock wave emission and ice breaking capability of the two bubbles were investigated over a range of inter-bubble and bubble–boundary distances. Regions where the damaging potential of the bubble pair are strengthened or weakened were summarized and possible reasons for the variation in the ice breaking capability were analysed based on bubble morphology, jet characteristics and shock wave pressure. The findings may contribute to more efficient ice breaking and also inspire new ways to manipulate cavitation bubble damage.
The Wulian complex is located on the northern margin of the Sulu orogenic belt, and was formed by collision between the North China Craton (NCC) to the north and South China Craton (SCC) to the south. It consists of the metasedimentary Wulian Group, gneissic granite and meta-diorite. The U–Pb analyses for the detrital zircons from the Wulian Group exhibit one predominant age population of 2600–2400 Ma with a peak at c. 2.5 Ga and several secondary age populations of > 3000, 3000–2800, 2800–2600, 2200–2000, 1900–1800, 1500–1300 and 1250–950 Ma; some metamorphic zircons have metamorphic ages of c. 2.7, 2.55–2.45, 2.1–2.0 and 1.95–1.80 Ga, which are consistent with magmatic-metamorphic events in the SCC. Additionally, the Wulian Group was intruded by the gneissic granite and meta-diorite at c. 0.76 Ga, attributed to Neoproterozoic syn-rifting bimodal magmatic activity in the SCC and derived from partial melting of Archaean continental crust and depleted mantle, respectively. The Wulian Group therefore has tectonic affinity to the SCC and was mainly sourced from the SCC. The detrital zircons have positive and negative ϵHf(t) values, indicating that their source rocks were derived from reworking of both ancient and juvenile crustal rocks. The major early Precambrian crustal growth took place during c. 3.4–2.5 Ga with a dominant peak at 2.96 Ga and several secondary peaks at 3.27, 2.74 and 2.52 Ga. The two oldest zircons with ages of 3307 and 3347 Ma record the recycling of ancient continental crust (> 3.35 Ga) and crustal growth prior to c. 3.95 Ga in the SCC.
In this study, the Ni/rGO hollow microspheres were synthesized and combined with epoxy foam to prepare structural absorbing materials. The diameter of obtained rGO hollow microspheres loaded with Ni nanoparticles was around 10 μm and the thickness of the spherical wall was about 70 nm. The Ni/rGO/EP composite foam exhibited better microwave absorption properties than that of rGO/EP and Ni/EP composite foam. The minimum reflection loss value (RLmin) could reach −58.23 dB at 8.4 GHz with a thickness of 2.5 mm, and the effective bandwidth with RLmin lower than −10 dB is 2.21 GHz ranging from 7.46 to 9.67 GHz. The porous structure of Ni/rGO hollow microspheres and their filled epoxy foam can refract and absorb the electromagnetic waves repeatedly, which equals to extend the propagation path of microwave, thus, electromagnetic loss capacity was improved obviously.