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The Shen-Guang II Upgrade (SG-II-U) laser facility consists of eight high-power nanosecond laser beams and one short-pulse picosecond petawatt laser. It is designed for the study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for conducting fast ignition (FI) research in China and other basic science experiments. To perform FI successfully with hohlraum targets containing a golden cone, the long-pulse beam and cylindrical hohlraum as well as the short-pulse beam and cone target alignment must satisfy tight specifications (30 and
rms for each case). To explore new ICF ignition targets with six laser entrance holes (LEHs), a rotation sensor was adapted to meet the requirements of a three-dimensional target and correct beam alignment. In this paper, the strategy for aligning the nanosecond beam based on target alignment sensor (TAS) is introduced and improved to meet requirements of the picosecond lasers and the new six LEHs hohlraum targets in the SG-II-U facility. The expected performance of the alignment system is presented, and the alignment error is also discussed.
In high power laser facility for inertial confinement fusion research, final optics assembly (FOA) plays a critical role in the frequency conversion, beam focusing, color separation, beam sampling and debris shielding. The design and performance of FOA in SG-II Upgrade laser facility are mainly introduced here. Due to the limited space and short focal length, a coaxial aspheric wedged focus lens is designed and applied in the FOA configuration. Then the ghost image analysis, the focus characteristic analysis, the B integral control design and the optomechanical design are carried out in the FOA design phase. In order to ensure the FOA performance, two key technologies are developed including measurement and adjustment technique of the wedged focus lens and the stray light management technique based on ground glass. Experimental results show that the design specifications including laser fluence, frequency conversion efficiency and perforation efficiency of the focus spot have been achieved, which meet the requirements of physical experiments well.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
In this paper, a tri-band bandpass filter (BPF) using asymmetric stub-loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SL-SIR) is presented. The asymmetric characteristic of SL-SIR broadens degrees of freedom for three controllable modes design. Also, the coupling coefficients (Mij) and the external quality factors (Qei) at each passband of the filter can be independently adjusted by the proposed mixed-type feedline structure. Besides, multi-transmission zeros are produced to improve the isolation and selectivity of the passbands. Finally, a tri-band BPF is operated at 1.9 GHz (time division long term evolution – TD-LTE band), 3.2 GHz (worldwide interoperability for microwave access – WiMAX band), and 5.8 GHz (wireless local area networks – WLAN band) and their insertion loss are 1.03, 0.94, and 1.27 dB, respectively. The measured results of the fabricated tri-band BPF exhibit good agreement with simulated results.
The lattice Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the steady flow in a two-dimensional lid-driven semi-elliptical cavity. Reynolds number (Re) and vertical-to-horizontal semi-axis ratio (D) are in the range of 500-5000 and 0.1-4, respectively. The effects of Re and D on the vortex structure and pressure field are investigated, and the evolutionary features of the vortex structure with Re and D are analyzed in detail. Simulation results show that the vortex structure and its evolutionary features significantly depend on Re and D. The steady flow is characterized by one vortex in the semi-elliptical cavity when both Re and D are small. As Re increases, the appearance of the vortex structure becomes more complex. When D is less than 1, increasing D makes the large vortexes more round, and the evolution of the vortexes with D becomes more complex with increasing Re. When D is greater than 1, the steady flow consists of a series of large vortexes which superimpose on each other. As Re and D increase, the number of the large vortexes increases. Additionally, a small vortex in the upper-left corner of the semi-elliptical cavity appears at a large Re and its size increases slowly as Re increases. The highest pressures appear in the upper-right corner and the pressure changes drastically in the upper-right region of the cavity. The total pressure differences in the semi-elliptical cavity with a fixed D decrease with increasing Re. In the region of themain vortex, the pressure contours nearly coincide with the streamlines, especially for the cavity flow with a large Re.
The lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) is considered as a promising approach for simulating flows of liquid and gas. Most of LBE studies have been devoted to regular square LBE and few works have focused on the rectangular LBE in the simulation of gaseous microscale flows. In fact, the rectangular LBE, as an alternative and efficient method, has some advantages over the square LBE in simulating flows with certain computational domains of large aspect ratio (e.g., long micro channels). Therefore, in this paper we expand the application scopes of the rectangular LBE to gaseous microscale flow. The kinetic boundary conditions for the rectangular LBE with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator, i.e., the combined bounce-back/specular-reflection (CBBSR) boundary condition and the discrete Maxwell's diffuse-reflection (DMDR) boundary condition, are studied in detail. We observe some discrete effects in both the CBBSR and DMDR boundary conditions for the rectangular LBE and present a reasonable approach to overcome these discrete effects in the two boundary conditions. It is found that the DMDR boundary condition for the square MRT-LBE can not realize the real fully diffusive boundary condition, while the DMDR boundary condition for the rectangular MRT-LBE with the grid aspect ratio a≠1 can do it well. Some numerical tests are implemented to validate the presented theoretical analysis. In addition, the computational efficiency and relative difference between the rectangular LBE and the square LBE are analyzed in detail. The rectangular LBE is found to be an efficient method for simulating the gaseous microscale flows in domains with large aspect ratios.
This paper addresses the orientation-singularity analysis and the orientationability evaluation of a special class of the Stewart–Gough parallel manipulators in which the moving and base platforms are two similar semi-symmetrical hexagons. Based on the half-angle transformation, an analytical polynomial of degree 13 that represents the orientation-singularity locus of this special class of parallel manipulators at a given position is derived. Graphical representations of the orientation-singularity locus of this class of manipulators are illustrated with examples to demonstrate the results. Based on the description of the orientation-singularity and nonsingular orientation region of this class of parallel manipulators, a performance index, referred to as orientationability, which describes the orientation capability of this class of manipulators at a given position, is introduced. A discretization algorithm is proposed for computing the orientationability of the special class of parallel manipulators at a given position in the workspace. Moreover, the effects of the design parameters and position parameters on the orientationability are also investigated in detail. Based on the orientationability performance index, another performance index, referred to as practical orientationability, representing the practical orientation capability of the manipulators at a given position, is introduced. In this performance index, singularities, the limitations of active and passive joints and link interferences are all taken into consideration. Furthermore, the practical orientationability of the special class of parallel manipulators studied here is also analyzed over several plane sections of the position-workspace in detail.
High quality factor and near-zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) are the two key issues for a certain microwave dielectric material system used in microstrip patch antennas. ZnTiO3-based ceramics is a promising candidate for microstrip patch antennas. On inhibiting the decomposition of ZnTiO3 by adding sufficient amount of MgO, high quality factor microwave dielectric material (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3 was obtained. The deviations between theoretical and observed dielectric polarizabilites, the packing fraction, and bond valence were calculated to analyze correlation between structure and properties of (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3. TiO2 was added to adjust τf of (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3, and 0.82(Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3–0.18TiO2 with an εr of 28.5, a Qf of 125,050 GHz, and a near-zero τf which satisfied the requirement as a substrate material for microstrip patch antenna was obtained at 1100 °C. In addition, a dielectric microstrip antenna was designed and fabricated using the proposed dielectric materials. The microstrip patch antenna exhibited a −34.96 dB return loss and a 1.05 voltage standing wave ratio at 2.5 GHz.
Male and female Schistosoma japonicum worms have dissimilar appearances in their final host. In this study, a morphometric and morphological assessment of whole worms derived from unisexual and mixed infections in mice was conducted using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Worms from mixed infections showed significant morphological changes between 15 and 25 days post-infection (PI). On the fifteenth day PI, 33% of males had formed the conspicuous gynecophoric canal, but only 8% of them had testicular lobes containing a few germinative cells; 13% of females had incipient ovaries with a few immature ovarian cells inside. On the twentieth day PI, the testicular lobes contained more germinative cells in all male worms, while female worms presented vitelline glands. On the twenty-fifth day PI, more germinative cells were observed in the male testicular lobes, and differentiated cells were present in the female ovaries. All worms had fully developed reproductive organs from 30 days PI onwards. Morphometric analysis showed significant differences between mixed and unisexual infections at 35 days PI. Ovaries of worms from unisexual infections contained cells in one stage of maturation and vitelline glands had undifferentiated cells. Our study of S. japonicum provides a detailed comparison of different morphological traits from worms of mixed and unisexual infections throughout development.
Layers that enhance light scattering and Raman-scattering-based spectral modification for solar cell applications were investigated. Titanium-oxide based rear diffuse reflector were found to increase the long wavelength response of crystalline solar cells. Also particle within the Titanium-oxide produce a far greater Stokes and anti-Stokes shift when compared to bulk crystal counterparts. The anti-Stokes to Stokes shift ratio in these particle systems is also greater and increased with increasing probe or bias light intensity. When applied to solar cells these layers extend the red response and thereby increase the overall performance.
Primers bearing restriction enzyme sites for EcoR I and Hind III were designed according to the known partial cDNA sequence for gibberellin-induced cysteine-rich protein and were then used to amplify the full-length open reading frame (ORF) and signal peptide-truncated fragment of the gcgasa gene. Two fragments with lengths 319 and 238 bp were obtained and were further cloned into plasmid pET-32(a). Following transformation into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), the fusion proteins were observed to appear at ~26.0 and 25.2 kDa after induction from 1 mmol/l isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyronoside (IPTG). The results of sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of an ultra-thin section revealed that the presence of signal peptide gave rise to the formation of an inclusion body located in the periplasmic space; however, the absence of signal peptide greatly enhanced the solubility of the target protein. The expressed soluble protein was further purified by Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography and gel filtration methods.
Schistosoma japonicum remains highly endemic in many counties in China and has recently re-emerged, to a large extent, in previously controlled areas. To test the hypothesis that small rodents and less agriculturally important domestic animals such as dogs and cats may play an important role in the transmission and potential re-emergence of this disease, an annual investigation of S. japonicum among humans, domestic animals and rodents, combined with detailed surveys of the snail intermediate host, was performed across 3 marshland villages and 3 hilly villages in Anhui province of China over 2 consecutive years. The highest infection prevalence and intensity observed across all mammals was in rodents in the hilly region; while in the marshland, bovines were suspected as the main reservoirs. However, relatively high infection prevalence levels were also found in dogs and cats in both regions. Such results may have implications for the current human- and bovine-oriented control policy for this medically and veterinarily important disease, particularly within the hilly regions of mainland China.
We investigated the elastic properties of two tin-copper crystalline phases, the η′-Cu6Sn5 and ε-Cu3Sn, which are often encountered in microelectronic packaging applications. The full elastic stiffness of both phases is determined based on strain-energy relations using first-principles calculations. The computed results show the elastic anisotropy of both phases that cannot be resolved from experiments. Our results, suggesting both phases have the greatest stiffness along the c direction, particularly showed the unique in-plane elastic anisotropy associated with the lattice modulation of the Cu3Sn superstructure. The polycrystalline moduli obtained using the Voigt-Reuss scheme are 125.98 GPa for Cu6Sn5 and 134.16 GPa for Cu3Sn. Our data analysis indicates that the smaller elastic moduli of Cu6Sn5 are attributed to the direct Sn–Sn bond in Cu6Sn5. We reassert the elastic modulus and hardness of both phases using the nanoindentation experiment for our calculation benchmark. Interestingly, the computed polycrystalline elastic modulus of Cu6Sn5 seems to be overestimated, whereas that of Cu3Sn falls nicely in the range of reported data. Based on the observations, the elastic modulus of Cu6Sn5 obtained from nanoindentation tests admit the microstructure effect that is absent for Cu3Sn is concluded. Our analysis of electronic structure shows that the intrinsic hardness and elastic modulus of both phases are dominated by electronic structure and atomic lattice structure, respectively.
Fe-doped In2O3 nanocubes were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The lattice constant a decreases linearly as Fe doping concentration increases, and Raman scattering measurement proves the incorporation of Fe ions into the In2O3 crystal lattice. Mössbauer spectra show the presence of mixed valence of Fe ions instead of Fe3O4, while the sample is superparamagnetic. The products with an average diameter of 80 nm have a single-crystalline phase and appear as a square shape. Magnetic measurements confirm the superparamagnetic properties of the nanocubes, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies indicate Fe ions occupy different sites in the In2O3 matrix.
Intergeneric transfer of plasmid vectors pSET152 and pHL212 from donor Escherichia coli ET12567/pUZ8002 and S17-1 to Streptomyces cinnamonensis was demonstrated and optimized. Assisted by this conjugation system, nsdA gene disruption was achieved through PCR-targeted gene replacement. One AprRKanS exconjugant BIB309 was then isolated and confirmed to be the nsdA null mutant. Compared with the starting strain, monensin production by the nsdA− mutant BIB309 increased 270% in vitro.
Three Luxi adult Yellow steers were used to isolate and culture intramuscular pre-adipocytes in vitro as well as to examine factors influencing their proliferation and differentiation. The intramuscular pre-adipocytes were taken from adipose tissues within muscles between the sixth and seventh rib and cultured after digestion with collagenase I. The results showed that the separated cell populations were highly homogeneous, proliferative and doubled within 62 h. When the confluent pre-adipocytes were treated with 10 μg/ml insulin and 0.25 μmol/l dexamethasone, small lipid droplets appeared on day 2 and the number of lipid droplets rapidly increased around the nuclei on day 6. Their dynamic morphological changes, growth curve, Oil Red O staining, and reaction to insulin and dexamethasone all verified their pre-adipocyte identity. Under controlled conditions, the intramuscular pre-adipocytes resumed proliferating and differentiating in vitro. Interestingly, the proportion of cultured diploid pre-adipocytes reached more than 90% after six repeated cultures. This study confirms the existence of functionally active pre-adipocytes within the muscles of Chinese adult local breed cattle. These cell strains are a potentially useful model for understanding further the mechanism of intramuscular adipose deposition in tissues, in order to improve beef quality based on Chinese local breed beef cattle.
Bovine mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae is mainly subclinical and therefore can be diagnosed only in the laboratory. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for specific, sensitive and rapid detection of S. agalactiae in raw milk was developed. The general streptococci primers, which anneal to conserved areas within the 16S rRNA subunit gene, were used as positive controls. The specificity of S. agalactiae primers is based on various areas within conserved areas of the 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae. Results have indicated that the method enables the detection of 1 CFU/ml of S. agalactiae in raw milk after enrichment, followed by DNA extraction using a rapid and simple procedure developed for this purpose, and specific PCR reaction. The method developed can be used efficiently in the early infectious status investigation of S. agalactiae in the dairy herd and in prevention and control of S. agalactiae spread in a herd.
In order to reveal the molecular basis of heterosis, Large White (LW), an introduced European pig breed, and Meishan (MS), a Chinese indigenous pig breed, were selected to hybridize directly and reciprocally in the present experiment. mRNA differential display (DD) technique was performed to identify genes that were differentially expressed in the backfat tissues of hybrids (LW×MS, MS×LW) and purebred (LW×LW, MS×MS) pigs. The ten anchor primers in combination with ten arbitrary primers (100 sets in total) were used and nearly 1500 reproducible bands were observed in polyacrylamide gels. The 40 differentially displayed bands were selected for cloning and sequencing. Thirty-six out of 40 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) proved to be novel and the sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession No. CV507051-CV507087); the other four showed similarity to known genes published in GenBank. Three among 36 novel ESTs were chosen for further identification with semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The result showed that two ESTs were differentially expressed, and the third showed no obvious difference between hybrids and purebreds. In order to reduce the percentage of false-positive DD, RNA pools of four types of pigs were constructed, by mixing samples from six pigs of the same genotype, and subjected to DD. Stringent annealing temperature was applied and only bands that could be repeated in duplicate PCR were used for further study. The results showed that the expression pattern of these 36 ESTs differed among the four genotypes of pigs, suggesting that the genes corresponding to these differentially expressed ESTs might be related to the heterosis occurring in fat tissue.