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The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) measures three aspects of catastrophic cognitions about pain—rumination, magnification, and helplessness. To facilitate assessment and clinical application, we aimed to (a) develop a short version on the basis of its factorial structure and the items’ correlations with key pain-related outcomes, and (b) identify the threshold on the short form indicative of risk for depression.
Social centers for older people.
664 Chinese older adults with chronic pain.
Besides the PCS, pain intensity, pain disability, and depressive symptoms were assessed.
For the full scale, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the hypothesized 3-factor model fit the data moderately well. On the basis of the factor loadings, two items were selected from each of the three dimensions. An additional item significantly associated with pain disability and depressive symptoms, over and above these six items, was identified through regression analyses. A short-PCS composed of seven items was formed, which correlated at r=0.97 with the full scale. Subsequently, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted against clinically significant depressive symptoms, defined as a score of ≥12 on a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. This analysis showed a score of ≥7 to be the optimal cutoff for the short-PCS, with sensitivity = 81.6% and specificity = 78.3% when predicting clinically significant depressive symptoms.
The short-PCS may be used in lieu of the full scale and as a brief screen to identify individuals with serious catastrophizing.
We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue. Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research.
The objective of the present study is to explore the association between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and dietary isoflavone in elderly men. In a large prospective cohort of 2000 Chinese men, the association between dietary isoflavone and LUTS were studied using standardized structured questionnaires. Dietary intake was assessed by a modified version of the Block FFQ. LUTS were assessed by the Chinese version of the International Prostatic Symptoms Score. Demographic, lifestyle and other medical information were also collected and were adjusted for in the analysis. After excluding 299 men with history of bladder surgery, bladder or prostate cancer or who were current users of medication for urinary problems, the association between LUTS and dietary isoflavone was explored. A total of 96·2 % of subjects reported some consumption of genistein, glycitein or daidzein. In ordinal multinominal logistic regression, subjects with dietary total isoflavone of more than 5·1 mg were significantly less likely to suffer from more severe LUTS (dietary intake from 5·1 to 9·5 mg: OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·80; from 9·6 to 14·3 mg: OR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·61, 1·09; from 14·4 to 21·7 mg: OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·92; 21·8 mg and above: OR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·54, 0·98) after adjustment for covariates. In this cross-sectional study, we showed a strong inverse association between dietary intake of isoflavone and the risk of LUTS.
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