This study explores the relationship between high-performance human resource practices and organizational outcomes, using organizational learning capability as a mediating variable. By analyzing a sample of 85 Spanish companies in the chemical industry, the results suggest that the application of high-performance human resource practices is positively related to the development of organizational learning capability. This, in turn, is positively related to the financial and non-financial firm’s performance. The mediating role of learning capability is useful and should be considered in studies that analyze the link between human resource practices and performance, a central topic in the literature on strategic human resource management. Additionally, this study provides indications which can help companies design suitable conditions for promoting organizational learning capability, which is directly related to the development of human resource systems.