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As an extension of a central limit theorem established by Svante Janson, we prove a Berry–Esseen inequality for a sum of independent and identically distributed random variables conditioned by a sum of independent and identically distributed integer-valued random variables.
When a liquid drop is placed on a highly superheated surface, it can be levitated by its own vapour. This remarkable phenomenon is referred to as the Leidenfrost effect. The thermally insulating vapour film results in a severe reduction of the heat transfer rate compared to experiments at lower surface temperatures, where the drop is in direct contact with the solid surface. A commonly made assumption is that this solid surface is isothermal, which is at least questionable for materials of low thermal conductivity, resulting in an overestimation of the surface temperature and heat transfer for such systems. Here we aim to obtain more quantitative insight into how surface cooling affects the Leidenfrost effect. We develop a technique based on Mach–Zehnder interferometry to investigate the surface cooling of a quartz plate by a Leidenfrost drop. The three-dimensional plate temperature field is reconstructed from interferometric data by an Abel inversion method using a basis function expansion of the underlying temperature field. By this method we are able to quantitatively measure the local cooling inside the plate, which can be as strong as 80 K. We develop a numerical model which shows good agreement with experiments and enables extending the analysis beyond the experimental parameter space. Based on the numerical and experimental results we quantify the effect of surface cooling on the Leidenfrost phenomenon. By focusing on the role of the solid surface we provide new insights into the Leidenfrost effect and demonstrate how to adjust current models to account for non-isothermal solids and use previously obtained isothermal scaling laws for the neck thickness and evaporation rate.
To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the biodegradation
of hydrocarbon compounds from the “Erika” oil-spill, we have studied the
ability of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus strain sp 17 to cope with hexadecane
as sole carbon and energy source. Growth kinetics of cultures shifted from acetate to hexadecane
revealed the presence of a 20 hours adaptation phase. Changes in global
protein expression in response to hexadecane was analyzed by two-dimensional
gel electrophoresis. Of the 370 proteins detected 42 had their expression
level altered in presence of hexadecane indicating that alkane adaptation
may involve many cellular functions.
History shows that it is very generally much more efficient in the long run for States to “apply power within the framework of an institution or legal system,” rather than to resort to raw military force or economic coercion. The most obvious reason for this is that turning a relationship between two or more entities of unequal power which is – ex hypothesi – initially based upon sheer material power into a relationship which enjoys the recognition and protection of the law inevitably legitimizes the factual domination exerted by the more powerful State over the other(s). This transformation entitles the former to resort to the means put at its disposal by the international legal system in order to enforce the – now legal – obligations owed to it by the latter, within the “neutral” framework of international law. The very notions of “force” or “power” are thereby obliterated to a large extent. It thus seems particularly relevant, against this background and in the framework of the present project, to inquire into the possible impact of the supremacy enjoyed by the United States in international relations since the end of the Cold War on the formation of international law through one of its most classical means, the conclusion of treaties. Treaties indeed remain one of the most significant and privileged ways to “produce” international legal norms nowadays.
Gender specific discrepancies on psychometric examination are
often interpreted to reflect static differences in cerebral
hemisphere specialization, but dynamic alterations relating
to circulating gonadal hormones may also be relevant after puberty.
The often cited inference of a right hemisphere advantage in
males and left hemisphere advantage in females derived from
small but reliable differences on spatial tasks and verbal tasks,
for example, may to some extent relate to gender-specific
differences in circulating gonadal hormones. Performance
fluctuations on other higher order cognitive tasks through the
menstrual cycle tend to support a temporal association between
alterations in cerebral laterality and hormone fluctuations.
A potential left hemisphere advantage after menstruation when
estrogen and progesterone levels are high in contrast to a right
hemisphere advantage at menstruation when estrogen and progesterone
levels are low has also received support from shifts in visual
field perception. The present investigation continues this line
of work by measurement of prospective changes in unirhinal
olfactory acuity in the menstrual, ovulatory, and midluteal
phases of the menstrual cycle in 11 healthy women who agreed
to blood assays of estradiol and progesterone prior to completing
a modified version of the Connecticut Chemosensory Perception
Exam (CCPE). The CCPE detection of n-butanol showed a clear
pattern of changes over the menstrual cycle marked by an asymmetry
favoring the right nostril during menstruation when estradiol
and progesterone levels were low, an asymmetry favoring the
left nostril during ovulation when estradiol levels were high
and progresterone levels were low, and an absence of asymmetry
during the midluteal phase when estradiol levels decreased and
progesterone levels increased. Preliminary correlation analyses
revealed a potential competitive influence of estradiol and
progesterone on this apparent shift in cerebral laterality.
There is thus sufficient evidence to conclude that dynamic changes
in relative cerebral hemisphere advantages have a temporal relation
to fluctuations in circulating gonadal hormones and to suggest
the value of additional investigation of more specific causal
relations. (JINS, 2001, 7, 703–709.)