To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter discusses the risk factors, clinical signs, evaluation, prevention and screening, and treatment of ovarian cancer and ovarian masses. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy and the fourth most common cause of cancer death in women. Advancing age is the greatest risk factor. Use of oral contraceptive pills reduces the risk of ovarian cancer by 30 to 60%. A review of women with ovarian cancer compared with women with breast cancer or no cancer found that most women with ovarian cancer complained of the four following groups of non-specific symptoms in the 1-3 months before diagnosis: abdominal pain (30%), abdominal swelling (16.5%), GI symptoms (8.4%), and pelvic pain (5.4%). Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is the examination of choice to establish the diagnosis. In menstruating women, pregnancy, pregnancy complications and functional cysts are the most common causes of ovarian masses.