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To determine infection prevention and control (IPAC) practices for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), an emerging threat, at acute-care hospitals in Ontario, Canada.
A descriptive cross-sectional survey.
We surveyed IPAC directors and managers at all acute-care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, to gather information on IPAC practices related to CPE, including admission screening, other patient screening, environmental testing, use of precautions to prevent transmission, and outbreak management.
Of 116 acute-care hospitals, 105 (91%) responded. Admission screening included patients previously colonized or infected with CPE (n = 64, 61%), patients recently hospitalized outside of Canada (Indian subcontinent, n = 62, 59%; other countries, n = 56, 53%), and patients recently hospitalized in Canada (n = 22, 21%). Fifty-one hospitals (49%) screened patients for colonization during an outbreak. Almost all hospitals (n = 101, 96%) used precautions to prevent transmission from patients with CPE colonization or infection; most hospitals (n = 54, 53%) continued precautions indefinitely. Few hospitals (n = 19, 18%) performed environmental cultures. Eight hospitals (8%) reported at least 1 outbreak, and 6 hospitals (6%) reported transmission from sink or shower drains to patients.
Variability in practices may result from lack of evidence and challenges in updating guidelines as evidence emerges. A coordinated approach to slow the emergence of CPE should be considered in our population.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of acquiring and transmitting respiratory viruses while working in healthcare settings.
To investigate the incidence of and factors associated with HCWs working during an acute respiratory illness (ARI).
HCWs from 9 Canadian hospitals were prospectively enrolled in active surveillance for ARI during the 2010–2011 to 2013–2014 influenza seasons. Daily illness diaries during ARI episodes collected information on symptoms and work attendance.
At least 1 ARI episode was reported by 50.4% of participants each study season. Overall, 94.6% of ill individuals reported working at least 1 day while symptomatic, resulting in an estimated 1.9 days of working while symptomatic and 0.5 days of absence during an ARI per participant season. In multivariable analysis, the adjusted relative risk of working while symptomatic was higher for physicians and lower for nurses relative to other HCWs. Participants were more likely to work if symptoms were less severe and on the illness onset date compared to subsequent days. The most cited reason for working while symptomatic was that symptoms were mild and the HCW felt well enough to work (67%). Participants were more likely to state that they could not afford to stay home if they did not have paid sick leave and were younger.
HCWs worked during most episodes of ARI, most often because their symptoms were mild. Further data are needed to understand how best to balance the costs and risks of absenteeism versus those associated with working while ill.
Mortality associated with infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is higher than mortality due to carbapenem-sensitive pathogens.
To examine the association between mortality from bacteremia caused by carbapenem-resistant (CRKP) and carbapenem-sensitive Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP) and to assess the impact of appropriate initial antibiotic therapy (IAT) on mortality.
Systematic review and meta-analysis
We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Wiley Cochrane databases through August 31, 2016, for observational studies reporting mortality among adult patients with CRKP and CSKP bacteremia. Search terms were related to Klebsiella, carbapenem-resistance, and infection. Studies including fewer than 10 patients per group were excluded. A random-effects model and meta-regression were used to assess the relationship between carbapenem-resistance, appropriateness of IAT, and mortality.
Mortality was higher in patients who had CRKP bacteremia than in patients with CSKP bacteremia (15 studies; 1,019 CRKP and 1,148 CSKP patients; unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–2.6; I2=0). Mortality was lower in patients with appropriate IAT than in those without appropriate IAT (7 studies; 658 patients; unadjusted OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.8; I2=36%). CRKP patients (11 studies; 1,326 patients; 8-year period) were consistently less likely to receive appropriate IAT (unadjusted OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.7; I2=43%). Our meta-regression analysis identified a significant association between the difference in appropriate IAT and mortality (OR per 10% difference in IAT, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0–1.6).
Appropriateness of IAT is an important contributor to the observed difference in mortality between patients with CRKP bacteremia and patients with CSKP bacteremia.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1319–1328
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