Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency have been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Controversy remains as findings have been inconsistent between disparate populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and pregnancy outcomes in a large, prospective pregnancy cohort. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was analysed in serum samples collected at 15 weeks of gestation from 1710 New Zealand women participating in a large, observational study. Associations between vitamin D status and pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and gestational diabetes were investigated. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 72·9 nmol/l. In all, 23 % had 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <50 nmol/l, and 5 % of participants had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <75 nmol/l at 15 weeks of gestation were more likely to develop gestational diabetes mellitus than those with concentrations >75 nmol/l (OR 2·3; 95 % CI 1·1, 5·1). However, this effect was not significant when adjustments were made for BMI and ethnicity (OR 1·8; 95 % CI 0·8, 4·2). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration at 15 weeks was not associated with development of pre-eclampsia, spontaneous preterm birth or SGA infants. Pregnancy complications were low in this largely vitamin D-replete population.