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Intake of the plant-derived n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) has been associated with anti-atherosclerotic properties. However, information on the association between ALA intake and development of peripheral artery disease (PAD) is lacking. In this follow-up study, we investigated the association between dietary intake of ALA and the rate of PAD among middle-aged Danish men and women enrolled into the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort between 1993 and 1997. Incident PAD cases were identified through the Danish National Patient Register. Intake of ALA was assessed using a validated FFQ. Statistical analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard regression allowing for separate baseline hazards among sexes and adjusted for established risk factors for PAD. During a median of 13·6 years of follow-up, we identified 950 valid cases of PAD with complete information on covariates. The median energy-adjusted ALA intake within the cohort was 1·76 g/d (95 % central range: 0·94–3·28). In multivariable analyses, we found no statistically significant association between intake of ALA and the rate of PAD (P = 0·339). Also, no statistically significant associations were observed in analyses including additional adjustment for co-morbidities and in sex-specific analyses. In supplemental analyses with additional adjustment for potential dietary risk factors, we found a weak inverse association of PAD with ALA intake above the median, but the association was not statistically significant (P = 0·314). In conclusion, dietary intake of ALA was not consistently associated with decreased risk of PAD.
Maltreated children in foster care are at high risk for dysregulated hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and educational difficulties. The present study examined the effects of a short-term school readiness intervention on HPA axis functioning in response to the start of kindergarten, a critical transition marking entry to formal schooling, and whether altered HPA axis functioning influenced children's school adjustment. Compared to a foster care comparison group, children in the intervention group showed a steeper diurnal cortisol slope on the first day of school, a pattern previously observed among nonmaltreated children. A steeper first day of school diurnal cortisol slope predicted teacher ratings of better school adjustment (i.e., academic performance, appropriate classroom behaviors, and engagement in learning) in the fall of kindergarten. Furthermore, the children's HPA axis response to the start of school mediated the effect of the intervention on school adjustment. These findings support the potential for ameliorative effects of interventions targeting critical transitional periods, such as the transition of formal schooling. This school readiness intervention appears to influence stress neurobiology, which in turn facilitates positive engagement with the school environment and better school adjustment in children who have experienced significant early adversity.
We present high resolution Chandra X-ray imaging of two starburst galaxies, M82 and NGC 3256. The central x-ray source observed by ROSAT and ASCA in M82 is resolved into 3 or 4 sources. Most of these sources are variable, suggesting that the point sources are powered by accretion. The brightest of these central sources is ∼ 1041ergs s−1 in the high state, and is responsible for the variability observed by ROSAT and ASCA. Assuming this source radiates at the Eddington limit, the mass is ∼ 500M⊙. The diffuse hard (2-10 keV) emission in M82 is spatially coincident with diffuse radio emission and Pα. This is consistent with diffuse hard X-ray emission arising from hot thermal gas in the starburst region. Approximately 14 sources with LX > 1039ergs s−1 were detected in NGC 3256, including both nuclei. Two of these sources have LX > 1040ergs s−1. This observation suggests that “super Edington” sources may be preferentially associated with starburst galaxies (see also paper by Fabbiano in this volume)
A cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) programme designed for
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental
illness, including breathing retraining, education and cognitive
restructuring, was shown to be more effective than usual services.
To evaluate the incremental benefit of adding cognitive restructuring to
the breathing retraining and education components of the CBT programme
(trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00494650).
In all, 201 people with severe mental illness and PTSD were randomised to
12- to 16-session CBT or a 3-session brief treatment programme (breathing
retraining and education). The primary outcome was PTSD symptom severity.
Secondary outcomes were PTSD diagnosis, other symptoms, functioning and
quality of life.
There was greater improvement in PTSD symptoms and functioning in the CBT
group than in the brief treatment group, with both groups improving on
other outcomes and effects maintained 1-year post-treatment.
Cognitive restructuring has a significant impact beyond breathing
retraining and education in the CBT programme, reducing PTSD symptoms and
improving functioning in people with severe mental illness.
Childhood maltreatment has lasting negative effects throughout the life span. Early intervention research has demonstrated that these effects can be remediated through skill-based, family-centered interventions. However, less is known about plasticity during adolescence, and whether interventions are effective many years after children experience maltreatment. This study investigated this question by examining adolescent girls' ability to make advantageous decisions in the face of risk using a validated decision-making task; performance on this task has been associated with key neural regions involved in affective processing and executive functioning. Maltreated foster girls (n = 92), randomly assigned at age 11 to either an intervention designed to prevent risk-taking behaviors or services as usual (SAU), and nonmaltreated age and socioeconomic status matched girls living with their biological parent(s) (n = 80) completed a decision-making task (at age 15–17) that assessed risk taking and sensitivity to expected value, an index of advantageous decision making. Girls in the SAU condition demonstrated the greatest decision-making difficulties, primarily for risks to avoid losses. In the SAU group, frequency of neglect was related to greater difficulties in this area. Girls in the intervention condition with less neglect performed similarly to nonmaltreated peers. This research suggests that early maltreatment may impact decision-making abilities into adolescence and that enriched environments during early adolescence provide a window of plasticity that may ameliorate these negative effects.
Risk factors for the childhood development of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptoms are not well understood, despite a high prevalence and poor clinical outcomes associated with this co-occurring phenotype. We examined inherited and environmental risk factors for co-occurring symptoms in a sample of children adopted at birth and their birth mothers and adoptive mothers (N = 293). Inherited risk factors (i.e., birth mothers' processing speed and internalizing symptoms) and environmental risk factors (i.e., adoptive mothers' processing speed, internalizing symptoms, and uninvolved parenting) were examined as predictors for the development of internalizing-only, externalizing-only, or co-occurring symptoms using structural equation modeling. Results suggested a unique pattern of predictive factors for the co-occurring phenotype, with risk conferred by adoptive mothers' uninvolved parenting, birth mothers' slower processing speed, and the birth mothers' slower processing speed in tandem with adoptive mothers' higher internalizing symptoms. Additional analyses indicated that when co-occurring-symptom children were incorporated into internalizing and externalizing symptom groups, differential risk factors for externalizing and internalizing symptoms emerged. The findings suggest that spurious results may be found when children with co-occurring symptoms are not examined as a unique phenotypic group.
By using row convex tableaux, we study the section rings of Bott–Samelson varieties of type A. We obtain flat deformations and standard monomial type bases of the section rings. In a separate section, we investigate a three-dimensional Bott–Samelson variety in detail and compute its Hilbert polynomial and toric degenerations.
Introduction: Digoxin or propranolol are used as first-line enteral agents for treatment of infant supraventricular tachycardia. We used a large national database to determine whether enteral digoxin or propranolol was more effciacious as first-line infant supraventricular tachycardia therapy. Materials and Methods: The Pediatric Health Information System database was queried over 10 years for infants with supraventricular tachycardia initiated on enteral digoxin or propranolol monotherapy. Patients were excluded for Wolff–Parkinson–White, intravenous antiarrhythmics (other than adenosine), or death. Success was considered as discharge on the initiated monotherapy. Risk factors for successful monotherapy and risk factors for readmission for supraventricular tachycardia for patients discharged on monotherapy were determined. Results: A total of 374 patients (59.6% male) met the study criteria. Median length of stay was 7 days (interquartile range of 3–16 days). Patients had CHD (n=199, 53.2%) and underwent cardiac surgery (n=123, 32.9%), ICU admission (n=238, 63.6%), mechanical ventilation (n=146, 39.0%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=3, 0.8%). Pharmacotherapy initiation was at median 37 days of life (interquartile range of 12–127 days) and 47.3% were initiated on digoxin. Success was similar between digoxin (73.1%) and propranolol (73.5%). Initial therapy with digoxin was not associated with success (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.64–1.61, p=0.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated hospital length of stay (odds ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.98–1.00) and involvement of a paediatric cardiologist (odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.29–0.75) associated with monotherapy failure, and male gender (odds ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.67) associated with monotherapy success. No variables were significant for readmission on multivariable analysis. Discussion: Digoxin or propranolol may be equally efficacious for inpatient treatment of infant supraventricular tachycardia.
In this paper, a novel set of macros with line/space width from 128nm/128nm, 64nm/64nm to 32nm/32nm was designed and installed on 20nm technology-node hardware. The pitch-dependent pad erosion post Cu CMP was studied by atomic-force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) quantitatively on these macros. Two methods were investigated to reduce the difference between pitch- and density-induced CMP non-uniformity. The first is using new scheme of partial Cu plating process followed by SiCNH insulator deposition and then CMP. The second is through the selection of slurries and pads. Both results are discussed in this paper.
In the lead-up to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project, several next-generation radio telescopes and upgrades are already being built around the world. These include APERTIF (The Netherlands), ASKAP (Australia), e-MERLIN (UK), VLA (USA), e-EVN (based in Europe), LOFAR (The Netherlands), MeerKAT (South Africa), and the Murchison Widefield Array. Each of these new instruments has different strengths, and coordination of surveys between them can help maximise the science from each of them. A radio continuum survey is being planned on each of them with the primary science objective of understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies over cosmic time, and the cosmological parameters and large-scale structures which drive it. In pursuit of this objective, the different teams are developing a variety of new techniques, and refining existing ones. To achieve these exciting scientific goals, many technical challenges must be addressed by the survey instruments. Given the limited resources of the global radio-astronomical community, it is essential that we pool our skills and knowledge. We do not have sufficient resources to enjoy the luxury of re-inventing wheels. We face significant challenges in calibration, imaging, source extraction and measurement, classification and cross-identification, redshift determination, stacking, and data-intensive research. As these instruments extend the observational parameters, we will face further unexpected challenges in calibration, imaging, and interpretation. If we are to realise the full scientific potential of these expensive instruments, it is essential that we devote enough resources and careful study to understanding the instrumental effects and how they will affect the data. We have established an SKA Radio Continuum Survey working group, whose prime role is to maximise science from these instruments by ensuring we share resources and expertise across the projects. Here we describe these projects, their science goals, and the technical challenges which are being addressed to maximise the science return.
Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is an emerging system for quantum-logic device and sensor applications. The key feature of the NV center is the ability of spin manipulation at room temperature. We apply a wide range of electron irradiation to generate the NV centers in nitrogen-rich diamond for creating best sensitivity. The NV0 and NV─ concentrations in electron irradiated diamond are determined from optical spectra. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) has also proven to be an effective method for probing the electron spin transition between |ms=±1> and |ms=0> states of the NV centers. A study of ESR frequency shift and signal broadening and magnetometer sensitivity as a function of electron irradiation dose has been conducted. The research presented herein is a demonstration of minimum detectable magnetic field tailoring required for future-generation high-sensitivity diamond magnetometry.
Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) radical anions will react with tetrahydrofuran and generate ethylene, enolates, and a partially hydrogenated nanotube backbone. The experimental evidence suggests that there are sp3 C–H binding interactions. The total gravimetric content of hydrogen on a sample averages from 3.5% to 3.9% w/w, about four times the total amount observed for nanotubes hydrogenated via traditional Birch reduction reactions. Furthermore, the hydrogen desorbs at temperatures up to 400 °C less than those observed for the hydrogenated SWNTs formed after the Birch reduction. Finally, the first room temperature electron spin resonance spectrum of a nanotube radical ion is also reported.